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Encyclopedia > Haplogroup R1a (YDNA)

Haplogroup R1a (M17) is a Y-Chromosome haplogroup that is spread across Eurasia. It is common in Europe, Northern Central Asia and India. In Europe the highest frequencies are in Eastern Europe. Today it is found at over 40% frequencies in many Slavic countries, with some notable exceptions. Relatively high frequencies are also found in Northern Europe and is believed to have been spread across Europe by the Vikings, which accounts for the existance of it in among other places the British Isles. It is however fairly common across all of Europe. In India, haplogroup R1a is more diverse among tribal and lower caste populations, thus invalidating previous associations of this haplogroup with invading Indo-European migrants. A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ... A haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on the chromosome. ... African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is the landmass composed of the continents of Europe and Asia. ... A satellite composite image of Europe // Etymology Picture of Europa, carried away by bull-shaped Zeus. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... Slav, Slavic or Slavonic can refer to: Slavic peoples Slavic languages Slavic mythology Church Slavonic language Old Church Slavonic language Slav, a former Jewish settlement in the Gaza Strip. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... The British Isles consist of Great Britain, Ireland and a number of much smaller surrounding islands. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


R1a is genetically closely related to Haplogroup R1b that is dominant in Western Europe. Haplogroup R1b (M343) is a Y-Chromosome haplogroup that is the most frequent one in Europe. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ...


Origins

The first carriers of the R1a are believed to have been nomadic farmers in the steppes of northern Central Asia about 10,000 years ago. Some current theories point to them being the first speakers of the proto-Indo-European languages (the Kurgan culture) and the first ones to domesticate the horse. Kurgan (кургáн) is the Russian word (of Turkic origin) for tumulus, a type of burial mound or barrow, heaped over a burial chamber, often of wood. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The Horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of the ten modern species of the genus Equus. ...


See also

A genealogical DNA test involves examining the nucleotides at specific locations on a persons DNA. The test results have no medical value and cannot determine genetic diseases or disorders; they are only used for genetic genealogy. ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-04-22, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Mitochondrial genetics. ... Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... Genetic drift is a contributing factor in biological evolution, in which traits which do not affect reproductive fitness change in a population over time. ... Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... A haplotype, a contraction of the phrase haploid genotype, is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... The short tandem repeats (STR) are tandemly repeated DNA sequences of a pattern of length from 2 to 10 bp (for example (CA)n(TG)n in a genomics region) and the total size is lower than 100 bp. ... A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y chromosome. ... A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism or SNP (pronounced snip) is a DNA sequence variation, occurring when a single nucleotide: adenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C) or guanine (G) - in the genome is altered. ... The XY sex-determination system is a well-known sex-determination system. ... The multiregional origin hypothesis of human species holds that some, or all, of the genetic variation between the contemporary human races is attributable to genetic inheritance from either Homo sapienssubspecies, or even other hominid species, that were geographically dispersed throughout Asia, and possibly Europe and Australasia, prior to the evolution... In paleoanthropology, the single-origin hypothesis (or Out-of-Africa model) is one of two accounts of the origin of anatomically modern humans, Homo sapiens. ... Last universal ancestor (LUA), the hypothetical latest living organism from which all currently living organisms descend. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual which is an ancestor of all of them. ... The Human Genome Project (HGP) endeavored to map the human genome down to the nucleotide (or base pair) level and to identify all the genes present in it. ... In the summer of 1999, Mr. ... The goal of the International HapMap Project is to develop a haplotype map of the human genome, also referred to as the HapMap, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. ... The Genographic Project aims to map historical human migration patterns by collecting and analyzing DNA samples from over 100,000 people across five continents. ... Diachronic map showing the Centum (blue) and Satem (red) areals. ...

References

1. "The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans", Semino et al, Science Vol290, 2000


2. Atlas of the Human Journey, The Genographic Project, National Geographic


3. "The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity", Wells et al, PNAS, 2001, Vol98


4. The History and Geography of Human Genes, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (Amazon.com)


 
 

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