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Encyclopedia > Haplogroup

In the study of molecular evolution, a haplogroup is a large group of haplotypes, which are series of alleles at specific locations on a chromosome. Molecular evolution is the process of the genetic material in populations of organisms changing over time. ... A haplotype is the genetic constitution of an individual chromosome. ... For the hard rock band, see Allele (band). ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ...


In human genetics, the haplogroups most commonly studied are Y-chromosome (Y-DNA) haplogroups and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups, both of which can be used to define genetic populations. Y-DNA has the advantage of being passed solely along the patrilineal line, while mtDNA is passed solely on the matrilineal line. A karyotype of a human male, showing 46 chromosomes including XY sex chromosomes. ... In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ... Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ... Patrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones fathers lineage; it generally involves the inheritance of property, names or titles through the male line as well. ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ...


Classifications of human haplogroups of either sort based on genetic markers, specifically by means of UEPs, have been rapidly evolving over the past several years as new markers are found. A genetic marker is a known DNA sequences (e. ... In genetic genealogy a Unique Event Polymorphism (UEP) is a genetic marker that corresponds to a mutation which is likely to occur so infrequently that it is believed overwhelmingly probable that all the individuals who share the marker, worldwide, will have inherited it from the same common ancestor, and the...

Contents

Haplogroup population genetics

It is usually assumed that there is little natural selection for or against a particular haplotype mutation which has survived to the present day, so apart from mutation rates (which may vary from one marker to another) the main driver of population genetics affecting the proportions of haplotypes in a population is genetic drift - random fluctuation caused by the sampling randomness of which members of the population happen to pass their DNA on to members of the next generation of the appropriate sex. This causes the prevalence of a particular marker in a population to continue to fluctuate, until it either hits 100%, or falls out of the population entirely. In a large population with efficient mixing the rate of genetic drift for common alleles is very slow; however, in a very small interbreeding population the proportions can change much more quickly. The marked geographical variations and concentrations of particular haplotypes and groups of haplotypes therefore witness the distinctive effects of repeated population bottlenecks or founder events followed by population separations and increases. The lineages which can be traced back from the present will not reflect the full genetic variation of the older population: genetic drift means that some of the variants will have died out. The price of full mtDNA sequence tests has limited the availability of data. Haplotype coalescence times and current geographical prevalences both carry considerable error uncertainties. Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... It has been suggested that mutant be merged into this article or section. ... In genetics, the mutation rate is the chance of a mutation occurring in an organism or gene in each generation. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ... A population bottleneck (or genetic bottleneck) is an evolutionary event in which a significant percentage of a population or species is killed or otherwise prevented from reproducing, and the population is reduced by 50% or more, often by several orders of magnitude. ... Simple illustration of founder effect. ...


Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups

Main article: Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

Human Y chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups are lettered A through R, and are further subdivided using numbers and lower case letters. Y chromosome haplogroup designations are established by the Y Chromosome Consortium. In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the DNA of the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ...

Human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups In human genetics, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA). ...

Y-most recent common ancestor
|
A BR
B CR
C DE F
D E G H IJ K
I J L M NO P
N O Q R

Y-chromosomal Adam is the name given by researchers to the male who is the most recent common patrilineal (male-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup A (M91) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup BR, also known as Haplogroup YxA (SRY10831. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup B (M60) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup CR (M168, M294) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup C (RPS4Y=M130, M216) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup DE (M1, M145, M203) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup F (defining mutations M89, P14, and M213) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup D (M174) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E (M96) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup H (M52) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup K (M9) is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L (M20) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup M (M4) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup NO (M214) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup P (M45) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup N (LLY22G) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O (M175) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup Q (M242) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup P, associated with the M207 mutation. ... In human genetics, Y-chromosomal Adam (Y-mrca) is the male counterpart to mitochondrial Eve: the most recent common ancestor from whom all male human Y chromosomes are descended. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ...


Major Y-chromosome haplogroups, and their geographical regions of occurrence (prior to the recent European colonization), include:

Groups without mutation M168

  • Haplogroup B (M60) (Africa, especially the Pygmies and Hadzabe)

Groups with mutation M168

(mutation M168 occurred ~50,000 bp) In human genetics, Haplogroup A (M91) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... Khoisan (increasingly commonly spelled Khoesan or Khoe-San) is the name for two major ethnic groups of southern Africa. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup B (M60) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... The Hadzabe are an ethnic and linguistic group based in central Tanzania. ...

  • Haplogroup C (M130) (Australia and surrounding areas, Siberia, Japan, North America)
  • YAP+ haplogroups
    • Haplogroup DE (M1, M145, M203)
      • Haplogroup D (M174) (Tibet, Japan, the Andaman Islands)
      • Haplogroup E (M96) (Africa, the Middle East, the Mediterranean)
        • Haplogroup E3a (M2) (Africa)
        • Haplogroup E3b (M35) (East Africa (Ethiopians and Somalians), North Africa (especially Berbers and Egyptians), the Middle East, the Mediterranean)

Groups with mutation M89

(mutation M89 occurred ~45,000 bp) In human genetics, Haplogroup C (RPS4Y=M130, M216) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... YAP is a mutation on the Y chromosome, which defines specific haplogroups. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup DE (M1, M145, M203) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup D (M174) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E (M96) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E3a (M2) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup E3b (M35) (previously called Hg21) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup with a circum-Mediterranean distribution. ...

  • Haplogroup F (P14, M213) (southern India, Sri Lanka, Korea)
  • Haplogroup G (M201) (in many ethnic groups in Eurasia and Oceana; most common in the Caucasus and Anatolia; in Europe mainly in Sardinia, northern Italy, northern Spain, the Tyrol, as well as Bohemia, Moravia; Britain and Norway at only 2%)
  • Haplogroup H (M52) (India, Sri Lanka)
  • Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22)
    • Haplogroup I (M170, P19, M258) (widespread in Europe, virtually absent elsewhere [1])
      • Haplogroup I1a (M253, M307, P30, P40) (northern Europe)
      • Haplogroup I1b (S31) (southeast Europe, Sardinia)
    • Haplogroup J (M304) (the Middle East, Turkey, Georgia (Caucasus), Italy, Greece, the Balkans, North and East Africa)
      • Haplogroup J* (minimal distribution)
      • Haplogroup J1 (M267) (associated with Semitic peoples: mainly in the Middle East, Ethiopia, and North Africa; J1 with DYS388=13 is associated with eastern Anatolia)
      • Haplogroup J2 (M172) (mainly in Southern Europe, Turkey, Georgia, Kurds, the Middle East, Central Asia, South Asia)

Groups with mutation M9

(mutation M9 occurred ~40,000 bp) In human genetics, Haplogroup F (defining mutations M89, P14, and M213) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup G (M201) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup H (M52) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ (S2, S22) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I1a (M253, M307, P30, P40) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup occurring at greatest frequency in Scandinavia. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I1b (S31) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup J (previously known as HG9 or Eu9/Eu10) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup J2 (M172) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup which is a subdivision of haplogroup J. Haplogroup J2 is widely believed to be associated with the spread of agriculture from Anatolia ,. This connection is supported by its age (18,500 +/- 3,500 thousand years ago) , which is very...

  • Haplogroup K (no additional major mutations) (New Guinea, Australia)
    • Haplogroup K2 (M70) (Africa (Somalians), the Middle East, the Mediterranean)
    • Haplogroup K5 (M230) (New Guinea)
  • Haplogroup L (M20) (South Asia, Central Asia, Southwest Asia, the Mediterranean)
  • Haplogroup M (M4) (New Guinea)
  • Haplogroup NO (M214)
    • Haplogroup NO* (minimal distribution)
    • Haplogroup N (LLY22g) (northernmost Eurasia, especially among the Uralic people)
    • Haplogroup O (M175) (East Asia, the South Pacific)
      • Haplogroup O1 (MSY2.2)
      • Haplogroup O2 (P31, M268)
      • Haplogroup O3 (M122)

Groups with mutation M45

(M45 occurred ~35,000 bp) In human genetics, Haplogroup K (M9) is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup K (M9) is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup K (M9) is a Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L (M20) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup M (M4) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup NO (M214) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup NO (M214) is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup N (LLY22G) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O (M175) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O2 (P31, M268) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O3 (M122) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ...

  • Haplogroup P (M45)
  • Haplogroup Q (MEH2, M242, P36) (Occurred ~15,000-20,000 years ago. Found in Asia and the Americas)
    • Haplogroup Q3 (M3) (North America, Central America, and South America)
  • Haplogroup R (M207)
    • Haplogroup R1 (M173) (Europe, West Asia)
      • Haplogroup R1a (M17) (Central Asia, India, Sri Lanka, central and Eastern Europe)
      • Haplogroup R1b (M343) (Western Europe, Asia Minor)
    • Haplogroup R2 (M124) (India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Caucasus, Central Asia, Turkey and Eastern Europe)

Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups

Human mtDNA haplogroups are lettered: A, B, C, CZ, D, E, F, G, H, pre-HV, HV, I, J, pre-JT, JT, K, L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, UK, V, W, X, Y, and Z. In human genetics, Haplogroup P (M45) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup Q (M242) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup Q3 (M3) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup P, associated with the M207 mutation. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, a subgroup of haplogroup P, associated with the M207 mutation. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R1a1 (M17) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup, that is spread across Eurasia. ... Distribution of R1a (purple) and R1b (red) In human genetics, Haplogroup R1b (M343) (previously called Hg1 and Eu18) is the most frequent Y-chromosome haplogroup in Western Europe. ... Haplogroup R2 (M124) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. ... Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup CZ is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup E is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup G is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup H is a mitochondrial DNA (or mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup pre-HV is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup HV is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup pre-JT is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup JT is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L5 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L6 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L7 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup P is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Q is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup S is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup W is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... // In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Y is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup Z is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ...

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA. In human genetics, Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are haplogroups defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe. ...

  most recent common mt-ancestor    
L0   L1  
L2 L3   L4 L5 L6 L7
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A I O   R   S W X Y
C Z B F pre-HV   pre-JT P  UK
HV JT U K
H V J T

Mitochondrial Eve is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the most recent common matrilineal (female-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all living humans. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L5 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L6 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L7 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup CZ is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup E is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup G is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Q is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup R is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup S is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup W is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... // In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Y is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup Z is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup pre-HV is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup pre-JT is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup P is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup HV is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup JT is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup H is a mitochondrial DNA (or mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Mitochondrial Eve (mt-mrca) is the name given by researchers to the woman who is the matrilineal most recent common ancestor (MRCA) for all living humans. ... The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in the group are directly descended. ...

Defining populations

Map of human race migration, according to mitochondrial DNA.
Map of human race migration, according to mitochondrial DNA.

Haplogroups can be used to define genetic populations and are often geographically oriented. For example, the following are common divisions for mtDNA haplogroups: Image File history File links Map of human races migration, according to the mithocondrial dna. ... Image File history File links Map of human races migration, according to the mithocondrial dna. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ...

The mitochondrial haplogroups are divided into 3 main groups, which are designated by the 3 sequential letters L, M, N. Humanity first split between the L group and the rest, and then the M and N groups split. The L type consists of Africans, and especially Sub-Saharan Africans. The M type (excluding M1 which is East African) consists of most South Asians, East Asians, North Asians, Amerindians (containing a minority of north and central Amerindians and a majority of south Amerindians), and many Central Asians and Melanesians. The N type consists of everyone else, including nearly all Europeans, West Asians, North Africans, and Australian aborigines as well as many East Asians, South Asians, Amerindians (containing a majority of north and central Amerindians and a minority of south Amerindians), and Polynesians. In human genetics, Haplogroup L0 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L4 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L5 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L6 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup L7 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup H is a mitochondrial DNA (or mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup T is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup U is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup V is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... // In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ... Haplogroup K is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup I is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... Haplogroup J is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup W is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup N is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup E is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup F is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup G is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup M is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup A is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup B is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup C is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup D is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... // In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup X is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup which can be used to define genetic populations. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup O is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup P is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human mitochondrial genetics, Haplogroup Q is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ... In human genetics, Haplogroup S is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup. ...


Within the N group is the large R group, which contains many haplogroups within it. The R type contains the vast majority of Europeans and Middle Easterners, Polynesians, many Melanesians, some Australian aborigines, some East Asians, and some Amerindians. In contrast, the varieties of the N group that do not belong to the R group contain the majority of Australian aborigines, the majority of north and central Amerindians, and some East Siberians.


The haplogroups within the R group consist of 2 sets of haplogroups, one which occurs in and around Europe, and consists of haplogroups HV / H / V, J / T, and U / K, and another which occurs in and around Southeast Asia, and consists of haplogroups R*, B, F, and P. In human genetics, an asterisk (*) after the name of a haplogroup indicates that one belongs to the haplogroup, but not to a known subclade. ...

Overlap between y-haplogroups and mt-haplogroups

The ranges of specific y-haplogroups and specific mt-haplogroups overlap, indicating populations that have a specific combination of a y-haplogroup and an mt-haplogroup. Y mutations and mt mutations do not necessarily occur at a similar time, and differential rates of sexual selection between the two genders combined with founder effect and genetic drift can alter the haplogroup composition of a population, so the overlaps are only rough. Simple illustration of founder effect. ... In population genetics, genetic drift is the statistical effect that results from the influence that chance has on the success of alleles (variants of a gene). ...


The very rough overlaps between Y-DNA haplogroups and mtDNA haplogroups are as follows:

Y-DNA haplogroup(s) mtDNA haplogroup(s) Geographical area and/or peoples
A L0, L1 South Africa, Khoisan
B L2 Pygmies and related people
E1, E2, E3a L3 Sub-Saharan Africa, especially the Bantus
NO/N/O CZ/C/Z, D, G (M types) East Asia, Siberia
K, M (M9-positive, M45-negative) R, P (N types), Q (M type) as well as various Oceanian-specific M subclades Oceania
R, I, J HV/H/V, JT/J/T, U/K (N types) Europe, West Asia
Q A, X, Y (N types), C, D (M types) Easternmost Siberia, the Americas

References

  1. ^ http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/DNA.RootsiHaplogroupISpread.pdf
  2. ^ Loogvali et al, 2004

See also

External links

General

  • World Families Network

News

all DNA haplogroups

Y chromosome DNA haplogroups

Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups


  Results from FactBites:
 
HAPLOGROUP ASSIGNMENTS (721 words)
Haplogroup B is one of the oldest Y-chromosome lineages in humans.
Haplogroup C is found throughout mainland Asia, the south Pacific, and at low frequency in Native American populations.
Haplogroup J is found at highest frequencies in Middle Eastern and north African populations where it most likely evolved.
Haplogroups (972 words)
One way to think about haplogroups is that a haplogroup is a branch on the tree of Homo Sapiens and a haplotype (the result of your test) represents the leaves of the tree.
Haplogroup O1 is found at very high frequency in the aboriginal Taiwanese (possibly due to genetic drift).
Haplogroup R1a is believed to have originated in the Eurasian Steppes north of the Black and Caspian Seas.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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