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Encyclopedia > Hapkido
Hapkido

Hapkido tournament in Korea.
Also known as Hap Ki Do or Hapki-Do
Focus Hybrid
Country of origin Korea
Creator Choi Yong Sul
Parenthood primarily Daito-ryu Aikijujutsu
Olympic Sport no
Hapkido
Hangul 합기도
Hanja 合氣道
Revised Romanization Hapgido
McCune-Reischauer Hapkido

Hapkido (also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do) is a dynamic and eclectic Korean martial art. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Hapkido tournament in Korea. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Choi Yong Sul (1904 - 1986), alternative spelling Choi Yong Sool) is known as the founder of martial art Hapkido. ... Daitō-ryū (大東流), aiki-jūjutsu, originally called Daito ryu jujutsu, is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Sokaku Takeda (武田惣角). Takeda had extensive training in several martial arts (including Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage ryu and sumo) and referred to the... Aikijutsu, also known as aikijujutsu, is a form of Japanese martial arts. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... People from a Korean martial arts school in Calgary do a demonstration Korean martial arts (Korean: 무술 Hanja: 武術) or Hangul: 무예 Hanja:武藝)) are the martial arts that are native to, or were adapted and modified by, Korea. ...


A historical link to Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu is generally acknowledged, though its exact nature is clouded by the historical animosity between the Korean and Japanese peoples and the confusion following the end of the Second World War. Daitō-ryÅ« Aiki-jÅ«jutsu ), originally called Daitō-ryÅ« Jujutsu ), is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Takeda Sokaku. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


Hapkido is a form of self-defense that employs joint locks, pressure points, throws, kicks, and other strikes. Hapkido practitioners train to counter the techniques of other martial arts as well as common "unskilled" attacks. There is also a range of traditional weapons including short stick, cane, rope, sword and staff which vary in emphasis depending on the particular tradition examined. Self defense refers to actions taken by a person to defend onself, ones property or ones home. ... A joint lock (in Japanese, 関節技 kansetsu-waza) is the general term for martial arts techniques involving painful manipulation of the joints. ... Pressure points are points on the body that produce a known reaction (reflex) by either hitting, touching, or rubbing them. ... Sacrifice throws are considered risky since they put the thrower in a disadvantagous position. ... Kicker redirects here. ...


Although hapkido contains both long and close range fighting techniques, the purpose of most engagements is to get near for a close strike, lock, or throw. Hapkido emphasizes circular motion, non-resisting movements, and control of the opponent. Practitioners seek to gain advantage through footwork and body positioning to employ leverage, avoiding the use of strength against strength.

Contents

Name

The spelling of hapkido (합기도) in Chinese characters is exactly the same as the pre-1946 rendering of aikido, 合氣道, the Korean pronunciation of 合 being hap (while in Japanese kun'yomi it is au). hap means "harmony", "coordinated", or "joining"; ki describes internal energy, spirit, strength, or power; and do means "way" or "art", yielding a literal translation of "joining-energy-way", but it is most often rendered as "the way of coordinating energy", "the way of coordinated power" or "the way of harmony". Aikido ), is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... The characters for Kanji, lit. ... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ... Look up do in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


History and Major Figures from Korea

The birth of modern hapkido can be traced to the efforts of a group of Korean nationals in the post Japanese colonial period of Korea, Choi Yong Sul (b. 1904, d. 1986) and his most prominent students; Suh Bok Sub, the first student of the art; Ji Han Jae (b. 1936 ), arguably the greatest promoter of the art; Kim Moo Hong, a major innovator in the art; Myung Jae Nam, who forged a greater connection between the art of hapkido and Japanese aikido and then founded Hankido, and others, all of whom were direct students of Choi or of his immediate students. Choi Yong Sul (1904 - 1986), alternative spelling Choi Yong Sool) is known as the founder of martial art Hapkido. ... Hapkido (also spelled hap ki do or hapki-do) is a dynamic and eclectic Korean martial art. ... Ji Han Jae was born in Andong, South Korea in 1936. ... Kim Moo Hong (also known as Kim Moo Woong or Kim Mu Hyun) was one of the earliest students of Korean hapkido under the founder of the art Choi Yong Sul. ... Grandmaster Myung Jae Nam started his martial arts training in 1948, and his hapkido training with Grandmaster Ji Han Jae at the Joong Bu Si Jang location in 1958 or 1959, which was the third location GM JI Han Jae had in Seoul. ... Aikido ), is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Hankido is a relatively new Hapkido style, developped by the late Myung Jae Nam. ...


Choi Yong Sul

Main article: Choi Yong Sul
Choi Yong Sul.

Choi Yong Sul's training in martial arts is a subject of contention. It is known that Choi was sent to Japan as a young boy and returned to Korea with techniques characteristic of Daitō-ryū Aiki-jūjutsu, a forerunner of aikido. The next portion of the story is quite controversial in Daitō-ryū circles but is claimed by many contemporary hapkido-ists and is attributed to Choi in an interview (released posthumously) reputed to have taken place during a visit Choi made to the United States in 1980.[1] Choi Yong Sul (1904 - 1986), alternative spelling Choi Yong Sool) is known as the founder of martial art Hapkido. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


In the interview, Choi claims to have been adopted by Takeda Sokaku when he was 11 years old and was given the Japanese name, Yoshida Asao. He claims to have been taken to Takeda's home and dojo in Akita on Shin Shu mountain where he lived and trained with the master for 30 years. The interview also asserts that he travelled with him as a teaching assistant, that he was employed to catch war deserters and that he was the only student to have a complete understanding of the system taught by Takeda.[2] Sokaku Takeda (武田惣角 Takeda Sokaku, October 10, 1859 - April 25, 1943) was known as the founder of a school of jujutsu known as Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu. ... A dojo ) is a Japanese term which literally means place of the Way. Initially, Dojo were adjunct to temples. ... Akita (秋田, autumn ricefield) is a Japanese surname and the name of serveral places. ...


This is contradicted by other claims asserting that Choi was simply a worker in the home of Takeda. [3] In fact, the meticulous enrollment and fee records of Tokimune Takeda, Takeda Sokaku's eldest son and Daitō-ryū's successor, do not seem to include Choi's name among them. Therefore, except for claims made by Choi himself, there is little evidence that Choi was the adopted son of Takeda Sokaku, or that he ever formally studied Daitō-ryū under the founder of the art. [4]


Stanley Pranin, then of Aiki News and now editor of the Aikidojournal.com, asked Kisshomaru Ueshiba about Choi Yong Sool and hapkido: Kisshomaru Ueshiba (植芝 吉祥丸 Ueshiba Kisshomaru) (June 27, 1921-January 4, 1999) was the third son of Morihei Ueshiba, the founder of Aikido. ...

On another subject, it is true that a Korean named "Choi" who founded hapkido studied aikido or Daito-ryu?

I don't know what art it was but I understand that there was a young Korean of about 17 or 18 who participated in a seminar of Sokaku Takeda Sensei held in Asahikawa City in Hokkaidō. It seems that he studied the art together with my father and would refer to him as his "senior". Asahikawa, or Asahigawa (旭川市; -shi) is a city located in Kamikawa, Hokkaido, Japan. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ...


If that's the case the art must have been Daito-ryu.


I've heard that this man who studied Daito-ryu had some contact with my father after that. Then he returned to Korea and began teaching Daito-ryu on a modest scale. The art gradually became popular and many Koreans trained with him. Since aikido became popular in Japan he called his art hapkido [written in Korean with the same characters as aikido], Then the art split into many schools before anyone realized it. This is what my father told me. I once received a letter from this teacher after my father's death.[5]

Retouched photograph of Sokaku Takeda circa 1888

Some argue that Choi Yong Sul's potential omission from the records, and the ensuing debate over hapkido's origins, may be due to tensions between Koreans and Japanese, partly as a result of Japanese involvement in the occupation of Korea. At the height of dispute, it is claimed by hapkido practitioners that Koreans were excluded from listing, though this is contradicted by Takeda's records which contain other Korean names. While some commentators claim hapkido has a Japanese lineage, others state that its origins lay with indigenous Korean martial arts. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1919–1931 Makoto...


Choi Yong Sul's first student, and the man whom some claim helped him develop the art of hapkido was Suh Bok Sup (also spelled Bok-Sub), a Korean judo black belt when they met. Some of Choi's other respected senior students are: Ji Han Jae, Kim Moo-Hong, Won Kwang-Hwa, Kim Jung-Yoon, and arguably Suh In-Hyuk and Lee Joo Bang who went on to form the arts of Kuk Sool Won and modern Hwarang-do respectively (though some argue that their training stems from time spent training under Kim Moo-Hong). This article is about the martial art and sport. ... Kuk Sool Won is a Korean martial arts system founded by In Hyuk Suh in 1958. ... Hwa Rang Do is a Korean martial art that was created by Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee. ...


Suh Bok Sub

Choi's first student and the first person known to have opened up a dojang under Choi was Master Suh Bok-Sub.


In 1948, when Suh Bok-sub was still in his early 20s, he had already earned his black belt in judo and was a graduate of the prestigious Korea University. After watching Choi Yong Sul successfully defend himself against a group of men when an argument erupted in the yard of the Suh Brewery Company, Suh, who was the chairman of the company, invited Choi to begin teaching martial arts to Suh and some of the workers at the distillery where Suh had prepared a dojang.[6]


In 1951, Suh opened up the first proper dojang called the Korean Yu Kwan Sool Hapki Dojang. The first symbol, designed by Suh, which was used to denote the art was the inverted arrowhead design featured in both the modern incarnation of the KiDo Association and by Master Myung Kwang-Sik's World Hapkido Federation. Choi Yong Sul was also employed during this time as a bodyguard to Suh's father who was a congressman. Suh claims that he and Choi agreed to shorten the name of the art from 'hapki yu kwon sool' to 'hapkido' in 1959.[7]


Kim Moo Hong

Main article: Kim Moo Hong

(alternately rendered as Kim Moo Woong or Kim Mu Hyun) Kim Moo Hong (also known as Kim Moo Woong or Kim Mu Hyun) was one of the earliest students of Korean hapkido under the founder of the art Choi Yong Sul. ...


A notable student from the Choi and Suh's Yu Sool Kwan dojang was Kim Moo Hong who later taught at Suh's Joong Ang dojang in Daegu. Suh, who promoted Kim to 4th degree, credits Kim with the development of many kicks which are still used in hapkido today. Master Kim apparentally took the concepts from very basic kicks he had learned from Choi and went to a temple to work on developing them to a much greater degree. Later, in 1961, Kim travelled to Seoul and while staying at Master Ji Han Jae's Sung Moo Kwan dojang they finalized the kicking curriculum.[6]


Kim went on to found his Shin Moo Kwan dojang in the Jong Myo section of Seoul, also in 1961. Won Kwang-Wha also served as an instructor at this dojang. Kim's notable students were Lee Han-Chul, Kim Woo-Tak (who founded the Kuk Sool Kwan Hapkido dojang), Huh Il-Wooong, Lee Joo Bang (who founded modern Hwarang-do), Na Han-Dong, Shin Dong-Ki and Suh In-Hyuk (who founded Kuk Sool Won.[6]


Originally a member of the Korea Kido Association, the organization sent Master Kim to teach hapkido in the United States in 1969. Upon returning to Korea in 1970, Kim looked to Ji Han Jae's move to set up his own organization and with the encouragement of his students followed suit and founded the Korean Hapkido Association (Hangook Hapkido Association) in 1971. Later he combined this organization with the groups led by Ji Han Jae and Myung Jae Nam to form the Republic of Korea Hapkido Association.[6]


Ji Han Jae

Main article: Ji Han Jae

Ji Han Jae was undoubtedly the prime mover in the art of Korean hapkido. It is due to his physical skills, technical contributions, promotional efforts and political connections as head hapkido instructor to the presidential body guard under Korean President Park Jung Hee that hapkido became popularized, first within Korea and then internationally. Ji Han Jae was born in Andong, South Korea in 1936. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Park Park Chung-hee (November 14, 1917 – October 26, 1979) was a former South Korean Army general and the president of the Republic of Korea from 1961 to 1979. ...


Whereas the martial art education of Choi Yong Sul is unconfirmed, the martial art history of Ji Han Jae's core training is somewhat easier to trace. Ji was an early student (Dan #14) of Choi. He details that prior to opening his martial art school in Seoul, the Sung Moo Kwan, he also studied from a man known as Taoist Lee and an old woman he knew as 'Grandma'. Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ...


As a teacher of hapkido, Ji incorporated traditional Korean kicking techniques (from Taoist Lee and the art Sam Rang Do Tek Gi) and punching techniques into the system and gave the resulting synthesis the name hapkido in 1957. Hapkido is the Korean pronunciation of (Japanese) aikido and is sometimes erroneously referred to as its Korean cousin. In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ...


Although a founding member of the Dae Han Ki Do Hwe (Korea Kido Association) in 1963 with Choi Yong Sool as titular Chairman and Kim Jung-Yoon as Secretary General and Head Instructor for the association Ji found himself not able to exert as much control over the organization as he might have wished. To this end and with the support of the Head of the Security Forces, Park Jong-Kyu, Ji founded the very successful Korea Hapkido Association (Dae Han Hapkido Hyub Hwe) in 1965.[6] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Later when this organization combined with the organizations founded by Myung Jae-Nam (Korea Hapki Association/Hangook Hapki Hwe) and Kim Moo-Hong (Korean Hapkido Association/Hangook Hapkido Hyub Hwe) in 1973 they became the very extensive and influential organization known as the Republic of Korea Hapkido Association (Dae Han Min Gook Hapkido Hyub Hwe).


In 1984, Ji moved first to Germany and then to the United States and founded sin moo hapkido, which incorporates philosophical tenets, a specific series of techniques (including kicks) and healing techniques into the art. Three of Ji Han Jae's notable students in Korea were Tae Man Kwon, Myung Jae Nam, and Han Bong Soo. Ji can be seen in the films Lady Kung-fu and Game of Death in which he takes part in a long fight scene against Bruce Lee. Sin Moo Hapkido is a martial art that combines hard and soft techniques. ... Kwon Tae-Man, born in 1941, in Andong in what is now South Korea. ... Game of Death (Chinese: 死亡遊戲) was the film Bruce Lee had planned to be the demonstration piece of his martial art Jeet Kune Do. ... Bruce Lee (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese-American martial artist, philosopher, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as the most influential martial artist of the 20th century and a...


Prior to the death of Choi Yong Sul in 1986, Ji came forward with the assertion that it was he who founded the Korean art of hapkido, asserting that Choi Yong Sul taught only yawara based skills and that it was he who added much of the kicking, and weapon techniques we now associate with modern hapkido.[8] He also asserts that it was he that first used the term 'hapkido' to refer to the art. While both claims are contested by some of the other senior teachers of the art,[9] what is not contested is the undeniably huge contributions made by Ji to the art, its systematization and its promotion world wide.

Myung Jae-Nam; Founder of the International Hapkido Association and Hankido

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Myung Jae Nam

Main article: Myung Jae Nam

In 1972 Myung Jae Nam was one of the original members of the Korea Hapkido Association (Dae Han Hapkido Hyub Hwe), which was formed in 1965 at the request of the South Korean President Park Chung Hee. The Korea Hapkido Association was formed with the assistance of Mr. Park Jong Kyu, who was the head of the Presidential Protective Forces and one of the most powerful men in Korea at the time.[6] Grandmaster Myung Jae Nam started his martial arts training in 1948, and his hapkido training with Grandmaster Ji Han Jae at the Joong Bu Si Jang location in 1958 or 1959, which was the third location GM JI Han Jae had in Seoul. ...


Later Myung Jae Nam broke away from all the other organizations and started to focus on promoting a new style, hankido. Until his death in 1999 he was the leader of the International HKD Federation (Kuk Jae Yeon Maeng Hapki Hwe), at that time one of Korea's three main hapkido organizations. Hankido is a relatively new Hapkido style, developped by the late Myung Jae Nam. ... Jae Nam Moo Sool Won or Jaenam Musul Won is the headquarters for the International HKD Federation, a global hapkido organization. ...


Lim, Hyun Soo

Main article: Lim, Hyun Soo

In 1965, Lim, Hyun Soo visited Founder, Choi Yong Sul's dojang and had his first meeting with hapkido. He felt a mysterious charm that made him walk the way of a martial artist. At first he was taught by Master Kim Yeung Jae, Founder Choi's pupil. Then he was then taught by Founder, Choi , Yong-Sul and became his pupil until 1981. During this time with the founder, he endured strict and intense training. Knowing hapkido's true values and meanings during the special training period with the founder, he opened the Jung Ki Kwan on October 24, 1974. In 1976, Founder, Choi ,Young-Sul closed his place, joined the Jung Ki Kwan, and devoted his energy to it for the rest of his life. Grandmaster Lim studied with Founder Choi for 19 years (9 of those years were special private sessions.),making him the disciple with the longest training time. Lim, Hyun Soo is one of only three ninth dans given by Choi.visit www.jungkikwan.com for more info Born as the second child in Gue -Chang, Kyungnam province on September 7, 1945 , Grandmaster Lim had a special interest in martial arts at an early age. ...


Principles

On the "hard-soft" scale of martial arts, hapkido stands somewhere in the middle, employing "soft" techniques similar to jujitsu and aikido as well as "hard" techniques reminiscent of taekwondo and tangsoodo. Even the "hard" techniques, though, emphasize circular rather than linear movements. Hapkido is an eclectic martial art, and different hapkido schools emphasize different techniques. However, some core techniques are found in each school (kwan), and all techniques should follow the three principles of hapkido: Taijitu, the traditional symbol representing the forces of Yin and Yang. ... Taekwondo (also Tae Kwon Do, Taekwon-Do, or Tae Kwon-Do) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ...

One of the principles of hapkido, Won (원 or 圓), is designed to use the opponent's power and energy to one's advantage and redirect the opponent in a circular motion, as shown.
  • Nonresistance ("Hwa", 화 or 和)
  • Circle principle ("Won", 원 or 圓)
  • The Water/harmony Principle ("Yu", 유 or 柳)

Hwa, or non-resistance, is simply the act of remaining relaxed and not directly opposing an opponent's strength. For example, if an opponent were to push against a hapkido student's chest, rather than resist and push back, the hapkido student would avoid a direct confrontation by moving in the same direction as the push and utilizing the opponent's forward momentum to throw him. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Two hapkido practicioners demonstrating the principle of Won or Circular Motion (원 or 圓). Photo by Nathan Hall. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 139 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Two hapkido practicioners demonstrating the principle of Won or Circular Motion (원 or 圓). Photo by Nathan Hall. ...


Won, the circular principle, is a way to gain momentum for executing the techniques in a natural and free-flowing manner. If an opponent attacks in linear motion, as in a punch or knife thrust, the hapkido student would redirect the opponent's force by leading the attack in a circular pattern, thereby adding the attacker's power to his own. Once he has redirected the power, the hapkido student can execute any of a variety of techniques to incapacitate his attacker. The hapkido practitioner learns to view an attacker as an "energy entity" rather than as a physical entity. The bigger the person is, the more energy a person has, the better it is for the hapkido student. In the context of unarmed combat or melee, a punch is a thrusting blow, esp. ... This article is about the tool. ...


Yu, the water principle, can be thought of as the soft, adaptable strength of water. Hapkido is "soft" in that it does not rely on physical force alone, much like water is soft to touch. It is adaptable in that a hapkido master will attempt to deflect an opponent's strike, in a way that is similar to free-flowing water being divided around a stone only to return and envelop it.


"As the flowing stream penetrates and surrounds its obstructions and as dripping water eventually penetrates the stone, so does the hapkido strength flow in and through its opponents."


Techniques

Hapkido seeks to be a fully comprehensive fighting style and as such tries to avoid narrow specialization in any particular type of technique or range of fighting. It maintains a wide range of tactics for striking, standing jointlocks, throwing techniques (both pure and joint manipulating throws) and pinning techniques. Some styles also incorporate tactics for ground fighting although these tactics generally tend to be focused upon escaping, controlling, striking and gouging tactics over submissions and emphasizing the ability to gain one's feet and situational awareness over pins. The juji-gatame armbar is one of the most versatile and effective joint locks. ... Look up throw, throwing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Ground fighting taking place in a mixed martial arts bout. ...


The Korean term for 'technique' is 'sool' or 'sul.' As terminology varies between schools, some refer to defensive maneuvers as 'soolgi' or 'sulgi' (loosely translated as "technique-ing"), while 'hoshinsool' or 'hosinsul' (meaning 'self-defense') is preferred by others.


Proper hapkido tactics include using footwork and a series of kicks and hand strikes to bridge the distance with an opponent. Then to immediately control the balance of the opponent (typically by manipulating the head and neck), for a take down or to isolate a wrist or arm and apply a joint twisting throw, depending upon the situation; Hapkido is a comprehensive system and once the opponent's balance has been taken, there are a myriad of techniques to disable and subdue the opponent.


Hapkido makes use of pressure points known in Korean as 'hyul' which are also used in traditional Asian medical practices such as acupuncture. These pressure points are either struck to produce unconsciousness or manipulated to create pain allowing one to more easily upset the balance of one's opponent prior to a throw or joint manipulation. Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Pressure points are points on the body that produce a known reaction (reflex) by either hitting, touching, or rubbing them. ...


Hapkido emphasizes self defense over sport fighting and as such employs the use of weapons, including environmental weapons of opportunity, in addition to empty hand techniques. Some schools also teach 'hyung', the Korean equivalent of what is commonly known as 'kata' (as in Karate).

A flying side kick.

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Kicking

The wide variety of kicks in hapkido make it distinctly Korean. Taekwondo kicks appear to be similar to many of the kicks found in hapkido, though again circular motion is emphasized. Hapkido's method of delivery tends toward greater weight commitment to the strikes and less concern for quick retraction of the kicking leg. As in other arts, such as Muay Thai, hapkido's emphasis is more towards power and commitment than to speed and the preference is toward hip rather than knee generated power. Taekwondo (also Tae Kwon Do, Taekwon-Do, or Tae Kwon-Do) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ...


Traditionally, Choi Yong Sul's yu kwon sul (유권술, 柔拳術) kicking techniques were only to the lower body, but most derived varieties of hapkido also include high kicks and jumping kicks.


Two of the earliest innovators in this regard were Ji Han Jae and Kim Moo Hong, both of whom were exposed to what were thought to be indigenous Korean kicking arts. They combined these forms together with the yu sool concepts for striking taught to them by Master Choi and during a period of 8 months training together in 1961 finalized the kicking curriculum which would be used by the Korea Hapkido Association (Daehan Hapkido Hyub Hwe) for many years to come.[6]


Other influences also were exerted on the kicking techniques of important hapkido teachers. Bong Soo Han studied under kwon bup and Shudokan karate from Yoon Byung-In, whose students were influential in the later forming of kong soo do and taekwondo styles, specifically the chang moo kwan and jido kwan. He, like Kim Moo Hong, also trained briefly in the Korean art of taek kyun under Lee Bok-Yong.[10] Toyama Kanken Shudokan ), literally the hall for the study of the [karate] way, is a school of karate developed by Kanken Toyama (1888 – 1966). ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... At the end of World War II, several Kwans arose. ... Jidokwan is one of the original nine schools of the modern Korean martial arts that became Taekwondo and was founded in what is now South Korea at the end of World War II. Its name translates as School of Wisdom. Jidokwan logo The foundations of what was to eventually become... Dictionary spelling Taekyon, or Taekkyon, is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak and Ssirum. ...


Many other teachers like Myung Kwang-sik, Chung Kee-Tae, Lim Hyun-Soo, and many others trained in tang soo do and kong soo do, Shotokan and Shudokan karate based systems which predated and influenced the forming of first tae soo do and later modern taekwondo styles. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... -1... Tae Soo Do was a name under which the major Martial Arts Kwans (or schools) of post-Korean war South Korea unified in 1962, after briefly dropping the name Taekwondo, and prior to the switch back to that name in 1965 at the behest of General Choi Hong Hi Tae...


Kim Sang Cook states that while many of the original yu kwon sool students were exposed to many different contemporary Korean arts the chung do kwan was of particular importance in the transition from the original jujutsu based form to what we know today as modern hapkido.[11] Chung Do Kwan, founded in 1944, is the first of nine schools or Kwans teaching what came to be known as Taekwondo. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Most forms of hapkido include a series of double kicks used to promote balance, coordination and muscular control.


An example of a double kick set

  • Front Kick — Side Kick
  • Front Kick - Back Kick ("Turning-Side Kick")
  • Front Kick - Roundhouse Kick
    An example of a back kick
  • Front Heel/Hook Kick — Roundhouse Kick
  • Low Side Kick - High Side Kick
  • Inside Crescent Kick — Outside Crescent Kick (or Heeldown/Axe Kick for both)
  • Inside Crescent Kick - Side Kick (or Inside Heeldown Kick and Side Kick)
  • Outside Heel-down Kick — Roundhouse Kick
  • Ankle Scoop Kick — Side Kick
  • Cover Kick - Front Kick
  • Inside Heel Hooking-the-Thigh Kick -- Front Kick
  • High Spinning Heel Kick — Low Spinning Heel Kick
  • Inside Footblade Kick – Outside Footblade Kick
  • Outside Heeldown Kick - Roundhouse

After these kicks are mastered using one foot kick the student moves on to jumping versions using alternate kicking legs. Image File history File links Brennan22. ... Image File history File links Brennan22. ...


Kim Chong Sung, one of the oldest living active hapkido instructors, maintains that the source of these kicking methods is from the indigenous Korean kicking art of taek kyon. Others feel that these kicks are more representative of the kong soo do and tang soo do styles which emerged from an adaptation of Japanese karate forms. Dictionary spelling Taekyon, or Taekkyon, is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak and Ssirum. ... Kong Soo Do (공수도) is a Korean martial art. ...


Hand strikes

Like most martial arts, hapkido employs a great number of punches and hand strikes, as well as elbow strikes. A distinctive example of hapkido hand techniques is "live hand" strike that focuses energy to the baek hwa hyul in the hand, producing energy strikes and internal strikes. The hand strikes are often used to weaken the opponent before joint locking and throwing, and also as finishing techniques. Hand striking in hapkido (unless in competition) is not restricted to punches and open hand striking; some significance is given to striking with fingernails at the throat and eyes; pulling at the opponent's genitals is also covered in conventional training. In order to recall hand strikes more easily in an emotionally charged situation, beginning students are taught conventional, effective patterns of blocks and counterattacks called Makko Chigi, which progress to more complex techniques as the student becomes familiar with them.


Joint manipulation techniques

Much of hapkido's joint control techniques are said to be derived largely from aikijujutsu. They are taught similarly to aikido techniques, but in general the circles are smaller and the techniques are applied in a more linear fashion. Hapkido's joint manipulation techniques attack both large joints (such as the elbow, shoulder, neck, back, knee, and hip) and small joints (such as wrists, fingers, ankles, toes, jaw).

Hapkido practitioners perform grappling techniques.

Most techniques involve applying force in the direction that a joint moves naturally and then forcing it to overextend or by forcing a joint to move in a direction that goes against its natural range of motion. These techniques can be used to cause pain and force a submission, to gain control of an opponent for a 'come along' techniques (as is often employed in law enforcement), to assist in a hard or gentle throw or to cause the dislocation or breaking of the joint. Hapkido differs from some post war styles of aikido in its preservation of a great many techniques which are applied against the joint that were deemed by some to be inconsistent with aikido's more pacificistic philosophy. Image File history File links Boys perform Yudo techniques in Hapkido class. ... Image File history File links Boys perform Yudo techniques in Hapkido class. ...

A hyperflexing wristlock used as a pain compliance technique.

Wristlocks Hapkido is well known for its use of a wide variety of wristlocks. These techniques are believed to have been derived from Daito-ryu aikijujutsu although their manner of performance is not always identical to that of the parent art. Still many of the tactics found in hapkido are quite similar to those of Daito-ryu and of aikido which was derived from that art. These involve such tactics as the supinating wristlock, pronating wristlock, internal rotational wristlock and the utilizing of pressure points on the wrist and are common to many forms of Japanese jujutsu, Chinese qin na and even 'catch as catch can' wrestling. Image File history File links Hyperflexingwristlocksmall. ... Image File history File links Hyperflexingwristlocksmall. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... A pronating wristlock used to hold a person down. ... Daitō-ryū aiki-jūjutsu (大東流合気柔術), originally called Daito-ryū jujutsu (大東流柔術), is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Sokaku Takeda (武田 惣角 Takeda Sōkaku). ... Chin Na or Qinna (擒拿, pinyin: qín ná, Wade-Giles: chin2 na2) is a Mandarin Chinese term describing joint-manipulation techniques for self defense used in the Chinese martial arts. ...

The straight armbar is an example of a very effective elbowlock.

Elbowlocks Although well known for its wristlocking techniques hapkido has an equally wide array of tactics which centre upon the manipulation of the elbow joint (see armlocks). The first self defense technique typically taught in many hapkido schools is the knifehand elbow press. This technique is thought to be derived from Daito-ryu's ippondori, a method of disarming and destroying the elbow joint of a sword wielding opponent. Hapkido typically introduces this technique off a wrist grabbing attack where the defender makes a circular movement with his hands to free themselves from their opponent's grasp and applies a pronating wristlock while cutting down upon the elbow joint with their forearm, taking their opponent down to the ground where an elbow lock is applied with one's hand or knee to immobolize the attacker in a pin. Interestingly both Daito-ryu and aikido prefer to use handpressure on the elbow throughout the technique rather than using the forearm as a 'hand blade', cutting into the elbow joint, in the hapkido manner. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x1369, 949 KB) Summary A juji-gatame armbar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x1369, 949 KB) Summary A juji-gatame armbar. ... The juji-gatame armbar is one of the most effective and versatile joint locks. ... Daitō-ryū (大東流), aiki-jūjutsu, originally called Daito ryu jujutsu, is a Japanese martial art that first became widely known in the early 20th century under the headmastership of Sokaku Takeda (武田惣角). Takeda had extensive training in several martial arts (including Kashima Shinden Jikishinkage ryu and sumo) and referred to the...


Throwing techniques

In addition to throws which are achieved by unbalancing one's opponent through the twisting of their joints, hapkido also contains techniques of pure throwing which do not require the assistance of jointlocks. Some of these techniques are found within Daito-ryu but a great many of them are held in common with judo (the same Chinese characters are pronounced "yudo" in Korean). Many of early practitioners of hapkido had extensive judo backgrounds including Choi Yong Sul's first student Suh Bup Sok. This article is about the martial art and sport. ...

Hapkido holds many throwing techniques in common with judo.

judo techniques were introduced in the early years of 20th century in Korea during the Japanese colonial period. Judo/Yudo tactics employ extensive use of throws, various chokes, hold downs, joint locks, and other grappling techniques used to control the opponent on the ground. It is believed that these techniques were absorbed into the hapkido curriculum from judo as there were a great many judo practitioners in Korea at that time and its tactics were commonly employed in the fighting of the period. Indeed, there also exists a portion of the hapkido curriculum which consists of techniques specifically designed to thwart judo style attacks. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1989x2634, 493 KB) Summary Going down. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1989x2634, 493 KB) Summary Going down. ... The lateral vascular neck restraint is a very potent chokehold. ... Two wrestlers clinching. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ...


The judo/yudo techniques were however adopted with adjustments made to make them blend more completely with the self defense orientation which hapkido stresses. For example many of the judo style throwing techniques employed in hapkido do not rely upon the use of traditional judo grips on the uniform, which can play a large role in the Japanese sport. Instead in many cases they rely upon gripping the limbs, head or neck in order to be successful.


Even today Korea remains one of the strongest countries in the world for the sport of judo and this cross influence on the art of Korean hapkido continues to be felt in Korean schools such as the Gong Kwan.


Weapons

As a hapkido student advances through the various belt levels (basically the same as other Korean arts, e.g. taekwondo), he or she learns how to employ and defend against various weapons. The first weapon encountered is most often the knife (kal, 칼). Then, techniques and defenses against the [short stick] (dan bong, 단봉), the walking stick or cane (jipangee, 지팡이), and the rope are introduced in hapkido training. Some styles also incorporate the long staff (jang bong, 장봉), middle length staff (jung bong, 중봉), nunchaku (Ssang Jeol Gon, 쌍절곤) and the sword (Gum, 검). For the US TV series, see Cane (TV series). ... Coils of rope used for long-line fishing A rope (IPA: ) is a length of fibers, twisted or braided together to improve strength for pulling and connecting. ... You may be looking for information on: Look up staff on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For Nintendos Wii Remote Nunchuk attachment, see Nunchuk. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Training

Hapkido training takes place in a dojang. While training methods vary, a typical training session will contain technique practice (striking techniques as well as defensive throws and grapples), break falling (nakbop, 낙법), sparring, meditation and exercises to develop internal energy (ki, 기).


Although hapkido is in some respects a "soft" art, training is very vigorous and demanding. The practitioner could benefit in training by being lean and muscular. However, strength is not a prerequisite of hapkido; what strength and fitness is necessary to perform the techniques develops naturally as a result of training.


Example Curriculum

The following is an example of the Korea Hapkido Association technical requirements from white belt to 5th degree Black Belt as recorded by He-Young Kimm, created in association with Ji Han Jae. As one of the largest and most influential organizations[12] the content is fairly consistent with what is taught in a great many of today's hapkido dojangs and the current Korea Hapkido Federation. The order in which the techniques are introduced may vary with individual schools. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In many martial arts, each practitioners level is marked by the colour of the belt. ... The Korea Hapkido Federation is the largest, wholly hapkido, governing body for the Korean martial art of hapkido in the world. ...

Hapkido students practice throws and joint manipulation in a dojang.

1st Degree Black Belt Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1489x1164, 261 KB)Hapkido students practice throwing and locks in a dojang. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1489x1164, 261 KB)Hapkido students practice throwing and locks in a dojang. ... Dojang is a term used in Korean martial arts, like taekwondo and hapkido, that refers to a formal training hall. ...

  • Single Kicks
  • Wrist Seize Defense
  • Clothing Seize Defense
  • Punch Defense
  • Kick Defense
  • Combination Kicks
  • Jumping Kicks
  • Throw Defense
  • Knife Defense
  • Attacking Techniques / Taking the Initiative

2nd Degree Black Belt

  • Advanced Wrist Grab Defense
  • Advanced Clothing Grab Defense
  • Advanced Punch Defense
  • Advanced Kick Defense
  • Choke Defense
  • Advanced Attacking Techniques / Taking the Initiative
  • Special Kicks
  • Defense From A Sitting Or Lying Posture
A hapkido kick is countered by another practitioner.

3rd Degree Black Belt Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 171 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Two hapkido practicioners performing techniques in a black belt examination. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 171 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Two hapkido practicioners performing techniques in a black belt examination. ...

  • Joint locking Counters
  • Short Stick Techniques
  • Staff Techniques

4th Degree Black Belt

  • Cane Techniques
  • Sword Techniques
  • Defense Against Multiple Attackers

5th Degree Black Belt

  • Techniques Using Opponent's Force
  • Rope Techniques
  • Knife Throwing Techniques
  • Revival Techniques[13]

Biographies of Masters

  • Chang Gedo - early master and student of Ji
  • Bong Soo Han - early student of Ji and Choi and foremost promoter of the art abroad
  • Kwon Tae-Man - one of Ji's first students and promoter of hapkido in the U.S.A.
  • Oh Se-Lim - one of Ji's first students and president of the Korea Hapkido Federation
  • Kim Yun Sang - student of Chang Gedo and Choi Yong-Sool - advocate of small movement hapki
  • Myung Kwang-Sik - early student of Ji and Choi and founder of the World Hapkido Federation
  • Hwang In-Shik - student of Kim Yong-Jin, headteacher for the World Hapkido Association
  • Lim Hyun Soo - long time student of Choi and preserver of Choi's yawara
  • Won Kwang-Wha - early student of Suh and Choi and founder of the Moo Sool Kwan

Grand Master Bong Soo Han Bong Soo Han, born in Seoul, Korea on August 25, 1931 is a world renowned Hapkido Instructor and Author. ... Kwon Tae-Man, born in 1941, was an early Korean hapkido practitioner and a pioneer of the art, first in Korea and then in the United States. ... Oh Se-Lim was an early Korean hapkido practitioner and a pioneer of the art. ... Kim Yun Sang, born in 1934 [1], was one of the senior most students of founder of hapkido, Choi Yong Sul, from the hapkido founders latter years. ... Myung Kwang-Sik, born in 1940, was an early Korean hapkido practitioner and a pioneer of the art, first in Korea and then in the United States. ... Hwang In Shik (also Whang Ing-Sik, born 1940 in Sunchŏn, north of Pyongyang in present day North Korea) is one of the foremost Korean hapkido teachers today. ... Lim, Hyun Soo (Sept. ... Won Kwang-Wha, was one of the earliest students of Korean hapkido under the founder of the art Choi Yong Sul and Suh Bok Sub. ...

See also

People from a Korean martial arts school in Calgary do a demonstration Korean martial arts (Hangul: 무술 or 무예, Hanja: 武術 or 武藝) are the martial arts that are native to, or were adapted and modified by, Korea. ... Hapkiyusul is a Korean martial art derived from Japanese Daito-ryu aiki-jujutsu as it was brought to Korea by Choi Yong Sul. ... Aiki is a martial arts principle or tactic. ... Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... Bājíquán (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; literally eight extremes fist; Japanese: , Hakkyokuken) is a Chinese martial art that features explosive, short range power and is famous for its elbow strikes. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... Angkorian warriors as depicted on bas reliefs at Angkor Wat Bokator/Boxkator, or more formally, Labok Katao(which means wielding a wooden stick to fight lions) (ល្បុក្កតោ), is an ancient Khmer martial art said to be the predecessor of all Southeast Asian kickboxing styles. ... Capoeira (IPA: ) is an Afro-Brazilian martial art, game, and culture created by enslaved Africans in Brazil during the 17th Century. ... This article is about the Fujian style of White Crane. ... For other uses, see Karate (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see kempo (disambiguation). ... Kicking to left side Kickboxing refers to sport-fighting using kicks and punches and sometimes throws and bows representing a certain martial art or can be practiced for general fitness, or as a full-contact sport. ... BAMA LETHWEI Lethwei or Lethawae (Read as Let-whae, but quickly) ; also known as Burmese Boxing and Myanmar Traditional Boxing, is a form of kickboxing which originated in Myanmar (Burma). ... For the drink with a similar-sounding name, see Mai Tai. ... Pradal Serey (; English: Khmer Boxing) is the name of the centuries old kickboxing martial arts of Cambodia. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Savate (pronounced ), also known as boxe française, French boxing, French Kickboxing or French Footfighting, is a French martial art which uses both the hands and feet as weapons and combines elements of western boxing with graceful kicking techniques. ... SIKARAN is a form of Philippine Martial Arts whose history dates back to the early 1500s before the Spaniards came, It is the art of foot-fighting where the farmers use their strong legs to drive the partners outside the designated line (pitak). ... Silat or Pencak Silat is an umbrella term for a martial art form originating from the regions of the Malay Archipelago. ... Subak, (or Subakhi, Subak-chigi) is a Korean traditional martial art. ... Ever since 1669, when Huang Zongxi first described Chinese martial arts in terms of a Shaolin or external school versus a Wudang or internal school,[1] Shaolin has been used as a synonym for external Chinese martial arts regardless of whether or not the particular style in question has any... Taekyon, or Taekkyon is a traditional Korean martial art, probably stemming from Subak. ... Taekwondo (also Tae Kwon Do, Taekwon-Do, or Tae Kwon-Do) is a Korean martial art and combat sport. ... Taido ( 躰道 / taidō ) is a Japanese martial arts or budo created in 1965 by Seiken Shukumine (1925 - 2001). ... Wing Chun, occasionally romanized as Ving Tsun or Wing Tsun (literally spring chant and alternatively as forever spring, or substituted with the character for eternal springtime[1]) is a Chinese martial art that specializes in aggressive close-range combat. ... WingTsunâ„¢, often shortened to WT, is a particular school of the Wing Chun style of Kung Fu developed by a student of Grandmaster Yip Man named Leung Ting. ... Zui Quan (Traditional and Simplified Chinese: 醉拳; pinyin: Zuì Quán, literally Drunken Fist, also known as Drunken Boxing or Drunkards Boxing) is a traditional Chinese martial art. ... For other uses, see Grapple. ... Aikido ), is a Japanese martial art developed by Morihei Ueshiba as a synthesis of his martial studies, philosophy, and religious beliefs. ... Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) is a martial art and combat sport that focuses on grappling and especially ground fighting with the goal of gaining a dominant position and using joint-locks and chokeholds to force an opponent to submit. ... Catch wrestling is a popular style of wrestling. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... This article is about the martial art and sport. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kinomichi, calligraphy by Masamichi Noro Kinomichi 氣之道 is a Martial art (budo 武道 in Japanese ), founded by Masamichi Noro 野呂昌道 in Paris, France, in 1979. ... Kurash is the native ancient type of upright jacket wrestling practiced in Uzbekistan. ... Mallayuddha (literally wrestling combat)[1] is the martial art of classical Indian wrestling. ... Mongolian wrestling is a traditional Mongolian sport that has existed in Mongolia for centuries. ... Varzesh-e Pahlavani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e pahlavānÄ« ورزش پهلوانی) meaning the Sport of the Heroes, also known as Varzesh-e Bastani (Persian varzeÅ¡-e bāstnÄ« ورزش باستانی), meaning the Sport of the Ancients, is a traditional discipline of gymnastics and wrestling of Iran, which was originally an academy of physical training for... Pehlwani Modern wrestling, or Pehlwani , is a synthesis of an indigenous Aryan form of wrestling that dates back at least to the 5th century BC [1] and a Persian form of wrestling brought into South Asia by the Mughals. ... Sambo (Russian: ) -- (also called Sombo in the US and sometimes written in all-caps) is a modern martial art, combat sport and self-defense system developed in the former Soviet Union, and recognized as an official sport by the USSR All-Union Sports Committee in 1938, presented by Anatoly Kharlampiev. ... Shuai jiao (Chinese: 摔跤 or 摔角; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shuai-chiao) is the modern Chinese term for Chinese and Mongolian wrestling. ... Image:Ssireum-1. ... For other uses, see Sumo (disambiguation). ... Ancient Greek wrestlers (Pankratiasts) Wrestling is the act of physical engagement between two unarmed persons, in which each wrestler strives to get an advantage over or control of their opponent. ... YaÄŸlı GüreÅŸ (IPA:) is the Turkish national sport. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... Battōjutsu ) is a Japanese term meaning techniques for drawing a sword. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Gatka (Punjabi: , ) is a traditional Sikh martial art. ... Haidong Gumdo, also spelled Haedong Kumdo, is a name coined around 1982 and used for several Korean martial art organizations that use swords. ... Hojōjutsu (捕縄術) or Nawajutsu, (縄術) is the traditional Japanese martial skill of restraining a person using cord or rope. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iaido (居合道 iaidō), also sometimes called iaijutsu (居合術 iaijutsu) or battojutsu (抜刀術 battōjutsu) is the art of drawing the katana, cutting down the opponent, flipping blood from the blade, and then re-sheathing the katana in one fluid movement. ... Jōdō ), meaning the way of the jō, or jōjutsu ) is a Japanese martial art using short staves called jō. The art is similar to bōjutsu, and is strongly focused upon defense against the Japanese sword. ... Jogo do Pau. ... JÅ«kendō ) is the Japanese martial art of bayonet fighting. ... Juttejutsu is the Japanese martial art of using a jitte or jutte. ... Kendo ), or way of the sword, is the martial art of Japanese fencing. ... Kenjutsu ) is the Japanese martial art specializing in the use of the Japanese sword (katana). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... KyÅ«jutsu ) is the traditional Japanese martial art of wielding a bow. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Naginatajutsu (なぎなた術, 長刀術 or 薙刀術) is the Japanese Martial art of wielding the naginata, a weapon resembling the medieval European glaive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shurikenjutsu ) is a general term describing the traditional Japanese martial arts of throwing shuriken, which are small, hand-held weapons such as metal spikes (bo shuriken), circular plates of metal known as hira shuriken, and knives (tantō). Shuriken-jutsu was usually taught among the sogo-bugei, or comprehensive martial arts... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sōjutsu (槍術, sometimes incorrectly read as yarijutsu) is the art of fighting with the Japanese spear, yari (槍). Sōjutsu is typically only a single component of curriculum in comprehensive Japanese koryu schools; for example Tenshin Shoden Katori Shinto-ryu includes spear fighting techniques. ... For the fighting styles that combine different arts, see hybrid martial arts. ... Hybrid martial arts (also known as hybrid fighting systems) refer to martial arts or fighting systems that incorporate techniques and theories from several particular martial arts. ... BāguàzhÇŽng is one of the major internal (a. ... the Tiger Defense Bando or animal system is the ancient art of self-defense from Burma. ... Bartitsu is an eclectic martial art and self defence method originally developed in England during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... The Bujinkan (武神館) is a martial arts organization practicing the art commonly referred to as Bujinkan Budō Taijutsu (武神館武道体術). The art is widely considered to be the last legitimate ninpo, or ninja, martial art, particularly because of the influence of Togakure ryu. ... Hwa Rang Do is a Korean martial art that was created in its modern form by Joo Bang Lee and his brother, Joo Sang Lee. ... Jeet Kune Do (Chinese: 截拳道 Cantonese: Jitkyùndou Pinyin: Jiéquándào, lit. ... Kajukenbo is a hybrid martial art that combines karate, judo, jujutsu, kenpo, and kung fu. ... Kalarippayattu (IPA: [kaÉ­aɾipːajatɨ̆], Malayalam: കളരിപയറ്റ്) is a Dravidian martial art practised in Kerala and contiguous parts of neighboring Tamil Nadu of Southern India. ... Krav Maga (Hebrew קרב מגע: contact combat) is a martial art, at first developed in Czechoslovakia in the 1930s. ... Kuk Sool Won is a Korean martial arts system founded by In Hyuk Suh in 1958. ... MCMAP logo The Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP) is a combat system developed by the United States Marine Corps to combine existing and new hand-to-hand and close combat techniques with morale and team-building functions and instruction in what the Marine Corps calls the Warrior Ethos.[1... Northern Praying Mantis (Chinese: ; pinyin: tánglángquán; literally praying mantis fist) is a style of Chinese martial arts, sometimes called Shandong Praying Mantis after its province of origin. ... This article is about a Japanese martial art. ... Pankration was an ancient sport introduced in the Greek Olympic games in 648 BC. Many historians believe that, although Pankration was not one of the first Olympic sports, it was likely the most popular. ... This article is about martial art forms practiced in Indonesia. ... The leitai of the 2004 China National Sanda Championships Sanshou (Chinese: 散手, lit. ... Shidokan karate is sometimes described as the triathlon of Martial Arts, as it encompasses knockdown (otherwise known as bare knuckle) karate, Thai kick-boxing, and grappling. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... ISFA logo Shootfighting is a combat sport and martial art, with competitions governed by the International Shootfighting Association (ISFA). ... Shorinji Kempo (少林寺拳法 Shōrinji Kenpō -- note that the World Shorinji Kempo Organization prefers the Romanization kempo to kenpo) is a martial art form of Kempo that was invented by Doshin So (å®— 道臣, 1911-1980) in 1947, who incorporated Japanese Zen Buddhism into the fighting style. ... For other uses, see Systema (disambiguation). ... Tai chi chuan (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: tàijíquán; Wade-Giles: tai4 chi2 chüan2) is an internal Chinese martial art often practiced with the aim of promoting health and longevity. ... Vajra Mushti (or Vajra Mukti)/Diamond Fist is one of the oldest martial arts of India . ... Vovinam is a type of Vietnamese martial arts. ... Xingyiquan is one of the three major internal Chinese martial arts—the other two being Tai Chi Chüan and Baguazhang—and is characterised by aggressive, seemingly linear movements and explosive power. ...

References

  1. ^ Sheya, Joseph K. (1982). Historical Interview: Hapkido Grandmaster Choi, Yong Sul (1904-1986). Rim's Hapkido. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  2. ^ Sheya, Joseph K. (1982). Historical Interview: Hapkido Grandmaster Choi, Yong Sul (1904-1986). Rim's Hapkido. Retrieved on 2007-03-17.
  3. ^ Shaw, Scott (1996). Hapkido: Korean Art of Self-Defense. Boston, Massachusetts: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-2074-0. 
  4. ^ Pranin, Stanley (2007). "Choi, Yong Sul". Encyclopedia of Aikido. Retrieved on 2007-08-04. 
  5. ^ Pranin, Stanley (April 1988). "Interview with Kisshomaru Ueshiba: The Early Days of Aikido". Aiki News 77. Retrieved on 2006-12-03.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g Kimm, He-Young (1991). The Hapkido Bible. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Andrew Jackson Press. 
  7. ^ Wollmershauser, Mike; Eric Hentz (ed.) (1996). "The Beginning of Hapkido; An Interview with Hapkido Master Suh, Bok Sub". Taekwondo Times 16 (8).
  8. ^ Corcoran, John. Inside Taekwondo. Vol.1, No.1. Feb. 1992. Article by James Dolmage Hapkido Grandmaster Han Jae Ji Reveals the Truth; The Beauty and the Benefits of Hapkido CFW Enterprises. Burbank, USA. 1991
  9. ^ According to published works by Suh Bok-Sub, Han Bong Soo, Myung Kwang-Sik, Kim Chong Sung, Chung Kee Tae, Spear, Robert K., etc.
  10. ^ Walker, Byron, Reflections of a Master: Philosophies of Hapkido Stylist Bong Soo Han. Martial Arts and Combat Sports Magazine. September 2001
  11. ^ Hentz, Eric (editor), Taekwondo Times November 2005. Article by Dick Morgan Interview With Granmaster Sang Cook Kim. Tri-Mount Publications, Iowa 2005.
  12. ^ Kimm, He-Young. Hapkido (alternately The Hapkido Bible). Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 1991
  13. ^ Kimm, He-Young. Hapkido (alternately The Hapkido Bible). Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 1991

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Kimm, He-Young. Hapkido II. Andrew Jackson Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 1994.
  • Myung, Kwang-Sik. Korean Hapkido; Ancient Art of Masters. World Hapkido Federation, Los Angeles, California 1976.

External links

International Hapkido Organizations

  • International H.K.D Federation (IHF)
  • JungKiKwan Hapkido Association (JHA)
  • Korea Hapkido Federation (KHF)
  • World Hapkido Association (WHA)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hapkido - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1637 words)
Hapkido is the Korean pronunciation of (Japanese) aikido and is sometimes referred to as its Korean cousin.
Hapkido is an eclectic martial art, and different hapkido schools emphasize different techniques.
For example, if an opponent were to push against a hapkido student's chest, rather than resist and push back, the hapkido student would avoid a direct confrontation by moving in the same direction as the push and utilizing the opponent's forward momentum to throw him.
About Hapkido (372 words)
Hapkido specializes in hand techniques, pressure points, joint manipulation, grappling, weapons, and gaining control of an opponent with minimum effort, therefore Hapkido is a complete martial art.
Hapkido is also a stress reducing and is considered as a healing art.
Hapkido is not merely a martial art, but a way of living and a philosophy of life.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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