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Encyclopedia > Hanseatic League
Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539).
Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539).

The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze, Estonian: hansa, Polish: Hanza, Swedish: Hansan) comprised an alliance of trading guilds that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, between the 13th and 17th centuries. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2508x1857, 3176 KB) w:Carta marina, a wallmap of Scandinavia, by w:Olaus Magnus. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2508x1857, 3176 KB) w:Carta marina, a wallmap of Scandinavia, by w:Olaus Magnus. ... The Carta Marina is the earliest and the most fairly correct (and most esthetic) map over the Nordic countries containing details and placenames. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Events May 30 - In Florida, Hernando de Soto lands at Tampa Bay with 600 soldiers with the goal to find gold. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... A fruit stand at a market. ... A guild is an association of people of the same trade or pursuits (with a similar skill or craft), formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of workmanship and ethical conduct. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Map of the Baltic Sea. ... Northern Europe is marked in dark blue Northern Europe is a name of the northern part of the European continent. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into modernity. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

Contents


History

Historians generally trace the origins of the League to the foundation of the Northern German town of Lübeck, established in 1158/1159 after the capture of the area from the Count of Schauenburg and Holstein by Henry the Lion, the Duke of Saxony. Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Events January 11 - Vladislav II becomes King of Bohemia End of the formal reign of Emperor Go-Shirakawa of Japan, also the beginning of his cloistered rule, which will last to his death in 1192. ... Events In the Roman Catholic Church, Cardinals are given the right of election of the Pope. ... Coronation of Henry the Lion and Matilda of England (1188) Henry the Lion (face of statue on his tomb in Brunswick Cathedral) Henry the Lion (1129 - August 6, 1195; in German, Heinrich der Löwe) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony as Henry III since... The Duchy of Saxony was a medieval Duchy covering the greater part of Northern Germany. ...


Exploratory trading adventures, raids and piracy had occurred earlier throughout the Baltic — the sailors of Gotland sailed up rivers as far away as Novgorod, for example — but the scale of international economy in the Baltic area remained insignificant before the growth of the Hanseatic League. A raid is a brief attack, normally performed by a small military force of commandos, or by irregulars. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack This article is about sea piracy; for other uses of Piracy or Pirate, see Pirate (disambiguation). ... A sailor is a member of the crew of a ship or boat. ... â–¶ (help· info) is the largest island in the Baltic Sea with a size of 2,994 km². It is also the largest island belonging to Sweden. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...


German cities achieved domination of trade in the Baltic with striking speed over the next century, and Lübeck became a central node in all the sea-borne trade that linked the areas around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The 15th century saw the climax of Lübeck's hegemony. (Visby, one of the midwives of the Hanseatic league in 1358, declined to become a member. Visby dominated trade in the Baltic before the Hanseatic league, and with its monopolistic ideology, suppressed the Gotlandic free-trade competition.) The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... â–¶ (help· info) is the largest island in the Baltic Sea with a size of 2,994 km². It is also the largest island belonging to Sweden. ...


Foundation

Lübeck became a base for northern German merchants from Saxony and Westphalia to spread east and north. Well before the term Hanse appeared in a document (1267), merchants in a given city began to form guilds or Hansa with the intention of trading with towns overseas, especially in the less-developed eastern Baltic area, a source of timber, wax,amber, resins, furs, even rye and wheat brought down on barges from the hinterland to port markets. Hanseatic Leagues formation in Hamburg, Germany (circa 1241). ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, Bielefeld, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by bees (beeswax) and used by them in constructing their honeycombs. ... Amber pendants. ... Resin of a pine Insect trapped in resin. ... A dogs fur usually consists of longer, stiffer, guard hairs—which can be straight, wiry, or wavy, and of various lengths, hiding a soft, short-haired undercoat. ... Binomial name Secale cereale M.Bieb. ... Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... Self propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of heavy goods. ... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ...


Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa. For a hundred years the Germans sailed under the Gotlandic flag to Novgorod. Sailing east, Visby merchants established a branch at Novgorod. To begin with the Germans used the Gotlandic Gutagard. With the influx of too many merchants the Gotlanders arranged their own trading stations for the German Petershof further up from the river — see a translation of the grant[1] of privileges to merchants in 1229. They helped establish key towns on the east Baltic coast: Danzig (Gdańsk) Reval (Tallinn), Riga and Dorpat (Tartu), all founded (like others on the Baltic coast) under Lübeck law, which provided that they had to appeal in all legal matters to Lübeck's city council. Before the foundation of the Hanseatic league in 1358 the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic. The Gotlanders used the word varjag. Events February 18 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor signs a ten-year truce with al-Kamil, regaining Jerusalem, Nazareth, and Bethlehem with neither military engagements nor support from the papacy. ... GdaÅ„sk (?· i; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodship. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... Map of Latvia Coordinates: Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Area    - City 307. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... Lübecks law was from the 13th century in the Middle Ages the foundation for municipal laws in many neighbouring cities on the Baltic Sea. ...


Hansa societies worked to acquire special trade privileges for their members. For example, the merchants of the Cologne (Köln) Hansa contrived to convince Henry II of England to grant them (in 1157) special trading privileges and market rights which freed them from all London tolls and allowed them to trade at fairs throughout England. The "Queen of the Hansa", Lübeck, where traders trans-shipped goods between the North Sea and the Baltic, gained the Imperial privilege of becoming an Imperial city in 1227, the only such city east of the River Elbe. Köln redirects here. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq... In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ... The River Elbe (Czech Labe , Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of Central Europe. ...


Lübeck, which had access to the Baltic and North Sea fishing grounds, formed an alliance in 1241 with Hamburg, another trading city, which controlled access to salt-trade routes from Lüneburg. The allied cities gained control over most of the salt-fish trade, especially the Scania Market; and Cologne joined them in the Diet of 1260. In 1266 Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, and the Cologne Hansa joined them in 1282 to form the most powerful Hanseatic colony in London. Much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial government, which failed to provide security for trade. Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes. The chief city and linchpin remained Lübeck; with the first general Diet of the Hansa held there in 1356, the Hanseatic League acquired an official structure and could date its official founding. Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Map of Germany showing Lüneburg Lüneburg is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... The annual Scania Market for herring was a major event in the Hanseatic world around the Baltic Sea, and the cornerstone of the Hanseatic Leagues wealth. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216 despite only being a child. ... Events January 20 - Edward Balliol surrenders title as King of Scotland to Edward III of England April 16 — the King of the Serbian Kingdom of RaÅ¡ka Stefan DuÅ¡an is proclaimed Tsar (Emperor) of all Serbs, Arbanasses and Greeks in Skopje by the Serbian Orthodox Christian Patriarch of a...


Expansion

Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League.
Main trading routes of the Hanseatic League.

Lübeck's location on the Baltic provided access for trade with Scandinavia and Russia, putting it in direct competition with the Scandinavians who had previously controlled most of the Baltic trade routes. A treaty with the Visby Hansa put an end to competition: through this treaty the Lübeck merchants also gained access to the inland Russian port of Novgorod, where they built a trading post or Kontor. Other such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire. The League never became a closely-managed formal organisation. Assemblies of the Hanseatic Towns met irregularly in Lübeck for Hansetag, from 1356 onwards, but many towns chose not to send representatives and decisions did not bind individual cities. Over time, the network of alliances grew to include a flexible roster of 70 to 170 cities [2]. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (795x609, 174 KB) Beschreibung Vereinfachte Darstellung der Haupthandelsroute der Hanse im Nordeuropäischen Raum, eigene verbesserte Darstellung mit GMT, erstellt von Flo Beck Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Hanseatic League ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (795x609, 174 KB) Beschreibung Vereinfachte Darstellung der Haupthandelsroute der Hanse im Nordeuropäischen Raum, eigene verbesserte Darstellung mit GMT, erstellt von Flo Beck Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Hanseatic League ... Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe named after the Scandinavian Peninsula. ... Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... A Kontor was a trading post of the Hanseatic League. ... The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ...


The league succeeded in establishing additional Kontors in Bruges (in present-day Belgium), Bergen (Norway), Copenhagen (Denmark) and London (England). These trading posts became significant enclaves. The London Kontor, established in 1320, stood west of London Bridge near Upper Thames Street. (Cannon Street station occupies the site now.) It grew significantly over time into a walled community with its own warehouses, weighhouse, church, offices and houses, reflecting the importance and scale of the activity carried on. The first reference to it as the Steelyard (der Stahlhof) occurs in 1422. In addition to the major Kontors, individual ports had a representative merchant and warehouse. In England this happened in Boston, Bristol, Bishop's Lynn (now King's Lynn, which features the sole remaining Hanseatic warehouse in England), Hull, Ipswich, Norwich, Yarmouth and York. Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Copenhagen (IPA: , rhyming with pagan (the way the Danes themselves pronounce the name of the capital when saying it in English), or , with a as in spa; Danish IPA: ) is the capital of Denmark and the countrys largest city (metropolitan population 1,211,542 (2006)), at present made up... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The current London Bridge, viewed from the south-west The southern end of the bridge, looking towards the City London Bridge is a bridge in London, England over the River Thames, between the City of London and Southwark. ... Cannon Street is a National Rail and London Underground station in the City of London financial district of London, England. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Steelyard, from the German Stalhof, was in the Middle Ages the main trading base of the Hanseatic League in London. ... Events January 10 - Battle of Nemecky Brod during the Hussite Wars. ... For other uses, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Bristol (IPA: ) is a city, unitary authority and ceremonial county in South West England, 115 miles (185 km) west of London and located at With a population of 400,000, and metropolitan area of 550,000, it is Englands sixth, and the United Kingdoms ninth, most populous city... Kings Lynn is a town and port in the English county of Norfolk. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk and the main settlement in the local government district of the borough of Ipswich in East Anglia, England on the estuary of the River Orwell. ... Shown within Norfolk Geography Status: City (1195) Government Region: East of England Administrative County: Norfolk Area: - Total Ranked 322nd 39. ... Map sources for Great Yarmouth at grid reference TG5207 Great Yarmouth is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ...


The League primarily traded timber, furs, resin (or tar), flax, honey, wheat and rye from the east to Belgium and England with cloth (and, increasingly, manufactured goods) going in the other direction. Metal ore (principally copper and iron) and herring came southwards from Sweden.

Enlarge
Town Hall of Reval (now Tallinn, Estonia).

German colonists under strict Hansa supervision built numerous Hansa cities in the Baltic: towns like Reval (Tallinn), Riga, and Dorpat (Tartu), some of which still retain many Hansa buildings and bear the style of their Hanseatic days. Livonia (presently Estonia and Latvia) had its own Hanseatic parliament (diet), and all of its major towns became members of the Hanseatic League. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 633 KB)Town Hall of Tallinn, Estonia. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 633 KB)Town Hall of Tallinn, Estonia. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... Map of Latvia Coordinates: Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Area    - City 307. ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day...


Zenith

Eventually, the Hansa capital moved to Danzig (Gdańsk) [citation needed], the main port for merchandise traded along the Vistula river. Other important cities which became members of the Hansa included Thorn (Toruń), Elbing (Elbląg), Königsberg (Kaliningrad), and Krakau (Kraków). GdaÅ„sk (?· i; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodship. ... The Vistula (Polish: WisÅ‚a) is the longest river in Poland. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... ElblÄ…g (Polish pronunciation: (?); local dialect: ElbiÄ…g ([:εlbiɔ̃g]); German: ( ); Old Prussian: Truso, Ilfing) is a city in northern Poland with 128,700 inhabitants, the capital of the Powiat of ElblÄ…g, situated in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship since 1999, previously capital of ElblÄ…g Voivodship (1975–1998), and... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Northwestern Federal District Kaliningrad Oblast Mayor Yuri Savenko (2005) Geographical characteristics Area  - City 215. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ...

The old and rich port city of Danzig (Gdańsk).
Enlarge
The old and rich port city of Danzig (Gdańsk).

The League had a fluid structure, but its members shared some traits. First, most of the Hanseatic League (or Hansa) cities either started as independent cities or gained independence through the collective bargaining power of the League. Such independence remained, however, limited; it meant that the Hansa cities in Germany owed allegiance directly to the Emperor of the day, without any intermediate tie to the local nobility. Another similarity involved the cities' strategic locatations along trade routes. In fact, at the height of its power in the late 1300s, the merchants of the Hanseatic League succeeded in using their economic clout (and sometimes their military might - trade routes needed protecting, and the League's ships sailed well-armed) to influence Imperial policy. Image File history File links Europe_gdansk_poland-pot. ... Image File history File links Europe_gdansk_poland-pot. ... Gdańsk (?· i; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodship. ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s - 1300s - 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s Years: 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 Events and Trends MARF Categories: 1300s ...


The League also wielded power abroad: between 1368 and 1370, Hansa ships fought against the Danes, and forced King Valdemar IV of Denmark to grant the League 15 percent of the profits from Danish trade (Treaty of Stralsund, 1370) and an effective trade monopoly in Scandinavia. The Hansa also waged a vigorous campaign against pirates. Between 1392 and 1440 maritime trade of the League faced danger from raids of the Victual Brothers and their descendants, a mighty brotherhood of privateers hired in 1392 by Albrecht of Mecklenburg against the Danish queen Margaret I. In the Dutch-Hanseatic War (14381441) the merchants of Amsterdam sought and eventually won free access to the Baltic and broke the Hansa monopoly. As an essential part of protecting their investment in trade and ships, the League trained pilots and erected lighthouses. Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ... Valdemar IV of Denmark (Valdemar Atterdag) shown on a fresco in Næstveds Saint Peters Church (Sankt Peders Kirke). ... The Treaty of Stralsund (May 24, 1370) ended the war between the Hanseatic League and the kingdom of Denmark. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... The Victual Brothers resp. ... Brotherhood has multiple meanings: Siblings: The relationship between male offspring, Fraternity: Sodality, or people engaged in a particular occupation; the medical fraternity Brotherhood: The feeling that men should treat one another as brothers Labor union: Union, trade union, brotherhood, an organization of employees formed to bargain with an employer Brotherhood... A privateer was a private ship (or its captain) authorized by a countrys government to attack and seize cargo from another countrys ships. ... Events December 16 - Emperor Go-Kameyama of Japan abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu, ending the nanboku-cho period of competing imperial courts James of Jülich is boiled alive for pretending to be a bishop and ordaining his own priests Korean founder of the Joseon Dynasty General... Albert of Sweden (or Albrecht von Mecklenburg in German or Albrekt av Mecklenburg in Swedish) was born in 1338 and became king of Sweden in 1363. ... Queen Margaret I for Queens Margaret of Denmark, see Queen Margaret of Denmark, and for a namesake queen consort of Scotland, see Margaret of Denmark Margaret Valdemarsdotter (1353 – October 28, 1412) was Queen of Norway, Regent of Denmark and of Sweden, and founder of the so-called Kalmar Union which... Category: ... Events Pachacuti who would later create Tahuantinsuyu, or Inca Empire became the ruler of Cuzco In Italy, the siege of Brescia by the condottieri troops of Niccolò Piccinino was raised after the arrival of Scaramuccia da Forlì. January 1 - Albert II of Habsburg becomes King of Hungary March 18 - Albert... This page is about the year 1441. ... Signal flag H(otel) - Pilot on Board A harbour pilot guides ships through the narrow, shallow and dangerous coastal waters between a harbour and the open sea. ...


Exclusive trade routes often came at a high price. Most foreign cities confined the Hansa traders to certain trading areas and to their own trading posts. They could seldom, if ever, interact with the local inhabitants, except in the matter of actual negotiation. Moreover, many people, merchant and noble alike, envied the power of the League. For example, in London the local merchants exerted continuing pressure for the revocation of the privileges of the Hanseatic League. The refusal of the League to offer reciprocal arrangements to their English counterparts exacerbated this tension. King Edward IV of England reconfirmed the league's privileges in 1474 despite this hostility — in part at least thanks to the significant financial contribution the League made to the Yorkist side during The Wars of the Roses. A century later, in 1597, Queen Elizabeth I expelled the League from London and the Steelyard closed in 1598. The very existence of the League and its privileges and monopolies created economic and social tensions that often crept over into rivalry between League members. Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Events December 12 - Upon the death of Henry IV of Castile a civil war ensues between his designated successor Isabella I of Castile and her sister Juana who was supported by her husband, Alfonso V of Portugal. ... The Wars of the Roses (1455–1487) is the name generally given to the intermittent civil war fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. ... Events 17 January - A court case in Guildford recorded evidence that a certain plot of land was used for playing “kreckett” (i. ... Elizabeth I Queen of England and Ireland Queen of France, nominal title Elizabeth I (September 7, 1533–March 24, 1603) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from November 17, 1558 until her death. ... The Steelyard, from the German Stalhof, was in the Middle Ages the main trading base of the Hanseatic League in London. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ...


Downfall

The economic crises of the late 14th century did not spare the Hansa. Nevertheless, its eventual rivals emerged in the form of the territorial states, whether new or revived, and not just in the west: Poland triumphed over the Teutonic Knights in 1466; Ivan III of Russia ended the entrepreneurial independence of Novgorod in 1478. New vehicles of credit imported from Italy outpaced the Hansa economy, in which silver coin changed hands rather than bills of exchange. This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... A nation-state is a specific form of state (a political entity), which exists to provide a sovereign territory for a particular nation (a cultural entity), and which derives its legitimacy from that function. ... The Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order is a German Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre in Palestine. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Albus rex Ivan III Ivan III Vasilevich (Иван III Васильевич) (January 22, 1440 – October 27, 1505), also known as Ivan the Great, was a grand duke of Muscovy who first adopted a more pretentious title of the grand duke of all the Russias. Sometimes referred to as the gatherer of the Russian... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ...


The Dutch merchants of the county of Holland aggressively challenged the Hansa and met with success. The Hansa cities of Prussia, Livonia and Poland supported Holland against the main cities of the Hansa in northern Germany. After several naval wars between the Burgundian and the Hanseatic fleets, Amsterdam became the leading port for Polish and Baltic grain from the late 15th century onwards. The Dutch regarded grain trade of Amsterdam as the mother of all trades (Moedernegotie). Denmark and England tried to destroy the Netherlands in the early 16th century, but failed. A map of the Imperial Circles as at the beginning of the 16th century. ... Amsterdam Location Flag Country Netherlands Province North Holland Population 742,951(1 January 2005) Demonym Amsterdammer Coordinates Website www. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq...


At the start of the 16th century the League found itself in a weaker position than it had known for many years. The rising Swedish Empire had taken control of much of the Baltic. Denmark had regained control over its own trade, the Kontor in Novgorod had closed and the Kontor in Bruges had become effectively defunct. The individual cities which made up the League had also started to put self-interest before the common good. Finally the political authority of the German princes had started to grow — and so to constrain the independence of action which the merchants and Hanseatic Towns had enjoyed. Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ...


The League attempted to deal with some of these issues. It created the post of Syndic in 1556 and elected a permanent official with legal training who worked to protect and extend the diplomatic agreements of the member towns. In 1557 and 1579 revised agreements spelled out the duties of towns and progress occurred. The Bruges Kontor moved to Antwerp and the Hansa attempted to pioneer new routes. However, the League proved unable to halt the progress around it and so its long decline commenced. The Antwerp Kontor closed in 1593, the London Kontor in 1598. The Bergen Kontor continued until 1754: its buildings alone of all the Kontoren survive (see Bryggen). Syndic (Late Lat. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... Events Spain is effectively bankrupt. ... Events January 6 - The Union of Atrecht united the southern Netherlands under the Duke of Parma, governor in the name of king Philip II of Spain. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... Events May 18 - Playwright Thomas Kyds accusations of heresy lead to an arrest warrant for Christopher Marlowe. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Bryggen in Bergen Built after 1702 Bryggen (Norwegian, The Wharf), also known as Tyskerbryggen (the German Wharf) is a series of Hanseatic commercial buildings lining the eastern side of the fjord coming into Bergen, Norway. ...


The end

By the late 16th century, the League imploded and could no longer deal with its own internal struggles, the social and political changes that accompanied the Reformation, the rise of Dutch and English merchants, and the incursion of the Ottoman Turks upon its trade routes and upon the Holy Roman Empire itself. Only nine members attended the last formal meeting in 1669 and only three (Lübeck, Hamburg and Bremen) remained as members until its final demise in 1862[citation needed]. (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Ottoman Turks were the ethnic subdivision of the Turkish people who dominated the ruling class of the Ottoman Empire. ... // Events Samuel Pepys stopped writing his diary. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Despite its collapse, several cities still maintain the link to the Hanseatic League today. Even in the 21st century, the cities of Deventer, Kampen, Zutphen, Lübeck, Hamburg, Bremen, Rostock, Wismar, Stralsund, Greifswald and Anklam call themselves Hanse cities. For Lübeck in particular, this anachronistic tie to a glorious past remained especially important in the second half of the 20th century. Lübeck, Hamburg and Bremen continue to style themseves officially as "Free and Hanse cities". The Nazis removed this privilege through the Greater Hamburg Act, 1937 after the Senat of Lübeck did not permit Adolf Hitler to speak in Lübeck during his election campaign [citation needed]. He held the speech in Bad Schwartau, a small village on the outskirts of Lübeck. Subsequently he always referred to Lübeck as "the small city close to Bad Schwartau". 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 21st century is the present century of the Gregorian calendar. ... Deventer is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel on the east bank of the IJssel river. ... Kampen is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... The river Weser flows through Bremen to the estuary at Bremerhaven. ... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... Wismar Coat of Arms Wismar is a smaller port and Hanseatic League city in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Greifswald (German Greif=griffin, Wald=forest) is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Anklam Anklam or Anclam is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, situated on the banks of the Peene river, 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, and 85 km northwest of Stettin, on the railway to Stralsund. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... The river Weser flows through Bremen to the estuary at Bremerhaven. ... The Nazi swastika symbol The National Socialist German Workers Party ( German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei), better known as the NSDAP or the Nazi Party was a political party that was led to power in Germany by Adolf Hitler in 1933. ... The Gesetz über Groß-Hamburg und andere Gebietsbereinigungen or Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz (Law regarding Larger Hamburg and other territorial readjustments) was passed by the government of the German Reich on January 26, 1937 and mandated the exchange of territories between Hamburg and Prussia. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Bad Schwartau is a town in the district of Ostholstein, in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. ...


Historic maps

Lists of former Hansa cities

In the list that follows, the role of these foreign merchant companies in the functioning of the city that was their host, in more than one sense is, as Fernand Braudel [1] pointed out, a telling criterion of the status of that city: "If he rules the roost in a given city or region, the foreign merchant is a sign of the [economic] inferiority of that city or region, compared with the economy of which he is the emissary or representative".


Members of the Hanseatic League

Wendish and Pomeranian Circle

Cities of the Wendish and Pommeranian Circle.
Cities of the Wendish and Pommeranian Circle.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1195 KB) Danavirki, the Danish defence wall, on an old map Photo: Arne List, 2004, taken in the Viking Museum of Haithabu File links The following pages link to this file: Hanseatic League Danevirke ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 1195 KB) Danavirki, the Danish defence wall, on an old map Photo: Arne List, 2004, taken in the Viking Museum of Haithabu File links The following pages link to this file: Hanseatic League Danevirke ... Lübeck ( pronunc. ... Hamburgs motto: May the posterity endeavour with dignity to conserve the freedom, which the forefathers acquired. ... Map of Germany showing Lüneburg Coat of arms Old crane and old store at the medieval Lüneburg harbour Lüneburg is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... Rostock is a city in northern Germany. ... View of the old hanse-harbor of Stade in 1987. ... Szczecin (pronounce: ; German: ; Kashubian/Pomeranian: Sztetëno; Latin: Stetinum or Scecinum, also Sedinum) is the capital city of West Pomeranian Voivodship in Poland. ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Wismar Coat of Arms Wismar is a smaller port and Hanseatic League city in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. ... Kiel ( ) is a city in northern Germany and the capital of the Bundesland Schleswig-Holstein. ...

Saxony, Thuringia, Brandenburg Circle

Braunschweig (historic English name Brunswick, Low Saxon Brunswiek) is a city of 245,500 people (as of December 31, 2004), located in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Berlin is the capital city and a state of Germany. ... Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. ... The river Weser flows through Bremen to the estuary at Bremerhaven. ... Mariendom and the Severikirche Erfurt is a city in central Germany. ... Frankfurt (Oder) ( Sorbian/Lusatian: Frankobord ) is a city in Brandenburg, Germany located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the city of SÅ‚ubice. ... Goslar is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Poland, Prussia, Livonia, Sweden Circle

GdaÅ„sk (?· i; German: , Kashubian: , Latin: ; older English Dantzig also other languages) is the sixth-largest city in Poland, and also its principal seaport and the capital of the Pomeranian Voivodship. ... WrocÅ‚aw, (Polish pronunciation: (?), Czech: , German: ( (help· info)), Latin: Wratislavia or Vratislavia) is the capital of Lower Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River (Odra). ... County Tartu County Mayor Laine Jänes Area 38. ... County Viljandi County Mayor Peep Aru Area 14. ... ElblÄ…g (Polish pronunciation: (?); local dialect: ElbiÄ…g ([:εlbiɔ̃g]); German: ( ); Old Prussian: Truso, Ilfing) is a city in northern Poland with 128,700 inhabitants, the capital of the Powiat of ElblÄ…g, situated in the Warmian-Masurian Voivodship since 1999, previously capital of ElblÄ…g Voivodship (1975–1998), and... Government Russia District Subdivision Russia Northwestern Federal District Kaliningrad Oblast Mayor Yuri Savenko (2005) Geographical characteristics Area  - City 215. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ... Map of Latvia Coordinates: Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Area    - City 307. ... Stockholm panorama from the City Hall (IPA: ; UN/LOCODE: SE STO) is the capital of Sweden, and consequently the site of its Government and Parliament as well as the residence of the Swedish head of state, King Carl XVI Gustaf. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Visby is the largest city on the Swedish island of Gotland;it is arguably the best-preserved medieval town in Scandinavia, and has become a UNESCO World Heritage Site. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ...

Rhine, Westphalia, the Netherlands Circle

Doesburg is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Country: Netherlands Province: Overijssel Coordinates: 52°30′ N 6°5′ E Area - Land - Water 119. ... Hattem is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Hasselt is a city and municipality in Belgium, capital of the province of Belgian Limburg. ... Köln redirects here. ... Dortmund is a city in Germany, located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. ... Soest This article is about the German town. ... Osnabrück is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. ... Town Hall in the Prinzipalmarkt Münster: the Prinzipalmarkt St Pauls Cathedral, Münster Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Roermond is a municipality and a city in the southeastern Netherlands. ... Deventer is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands in the province of Overijssel on the east bank of the IJssel river. ... Groningen (or Grunn in the local dialect) is a municipality and a middle-size city in the north of the Netherlands, and capital of Groningen province. ... Kampen may refer: Kampen, Germany on the island Sylt Kampen, Netherlands a town a city district in Oslo, Norway a city district (in Finnish: Kamppi) in Helsingfors (Helsinki), Finland This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Bochum is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Recklinghausen is a city in the Ruhr Area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Hamm Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Unna is a town which is the seat of the Unna district. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Oldenzaal is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, near the border with Germany. ... Breckerfeld is a North Rhine-Westphalian (Germany) municipality in the district of Ennepe_Ruhr. ...

Counting houses

Principal Kontore

Bryggen in Bergen/Norway
Enlarge
Bryggen in Bergen/Norway

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (10606x1598, 4522 KB) Beschreibung Description: The old Brygge buildings in Bergen, Norway Source: picture taken by author Date: created 2005-08-18. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (10606x1598, 4522 KB) Beschreibung Description: The old Brygge buildings in Bergen, Norway Source: picture taken by author Date: created 2005-08-18. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Bryggen in Bergen Built after 1702 Bryggen (Norwegian, The Wharf), also known as Tyskerbryggen (the German Wharf) is a series of Hanseatic commercial buildings lining the eastern side of the fjord coming into Bergen, Norway. ... Sometimes referred to as the Venice of the North, Bruges has many waterways that run through the city. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and of the United Kingdom. ... The Steelyard, from the German Stalhof, was in the Middle Ages the main trading base of the Hanseatic League in London. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ...

Subsidiary Kontore

The Cathedral of our Lady (Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp) in the Handschoenmarkt, in the old quarter of Antwerp is the largest cathedral in the Low Countries and home to several triptychs by Baroque painter Rubens. ... For other uses, see Boston (disambiguation). ... Damme church Damme is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hull or Kingston upon Hull is a British city situated on the north bank of the Humber estuary. ... Ipswich is the county town of Suffolk and the main settlement in the local government district of the borough of Ipswich in East Anglia, England on the estuary of the River Orwell. ... Kings Lynn is a town and port in the English county of Norfolk. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Kaunas city municipality Elderate Number of elderates 11 Coordinates General information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population (rank) 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription... This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ... Polatsk (Belarusian: По́лацак, По́лацк; Polish: Połock, also spelt as Polacak; Russian: По́лоцк, also transliterated as Polotsk, Polotzk, Polock) is the most historic city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Map sources for Great Yarmouth at grid reference TG5207 Great Yarmouth is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... York is a city in northern England, at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss. ...

Other cities with a Hansa community

    Map of Germany showing Anklam Anklam or Anclam is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany, situated on the banks of the Peene river, 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, and 85 km northwest of Stettin, on the railway to Stralsund. ... Arnhem is a municipality and a city in the east of the Netherlands, located on the Lower Rhine, and the capital of the Gelderland province. ... Bolsward (Frisian: Boalsert) is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands. ... Brandenburg (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) and lies in the east of the country. ... The town of Cēsis, in Latvia, is located in the northern part of Vidzeme Central upland, on the river Gauja, on high hillocks with terraces, overlooking the blue woods of the Gauja ancient river valley. ... CheÅ‚mno (-Polish, German: Kulm) is a town in northern Poland with 22,000 inhabitants (1995) and the historical capital of CheÅ‚mno Land. ... Doesburg is a municipality and a city in the eastern Netherlands. ... Duisburg is a German city and port in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. ... Einbeck Einbeck is a city in southern Lower Saxony, Germany, located in the district Northeim. ... Göttingen ( ) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Greifswald (German Greif=griffin, Wald=forest) is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... KuldÄ«ga (German: Goldingen) is a town in western Latvia. ... Location in Iceland Coordinates: Constituency Southwest Area    - City 147 km²  (56. ... Halle (also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish from Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia) is the largest town in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Harlingen is a municipality and a city in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland at the Wadden Sea. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Herford Herford is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... â–¶ (help· info) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Nijefurd is a municipality in the northern Netherlands, in the province of Friesland. ... Kalmar is a city in SmÃ¥land in south east Sweden, situated by the Baltic Sea. ... Koknese (-Latvian, German: Kokenh(a)usen, Polish: Kokenhuza) is a town in Aizkraukle County, Latvia on the right bank of the Daugava river. ... Lemgo is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany with a population of 42. ... Merseburg is a city in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. ... Minden is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... Town Hall in the Prinzipalmarkt Münster: the Prinzipalmarkt St Pauls Cathedral, Münster Münster is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Country Netherlands Province Gelderland Area - Land - Water 57. ... Oldenzaal is a municipality and a town in the eastern Netherlands, near the border with Germany. ... Paderborn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ... Perleberg is the capital of the district Prignitz, which is located in the north-west of the German state Brandenburg. ... Roland The city of Quedlinburg in the German Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt has existed since at least the early ninth century, when a settlement known as Gross Orden existed at the site of the modern Quedlinburg. ... Salzwedel is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... Stargard SzczeciÅ„ski (Kashubian/Pomeranian: Stôrgard, German: Stargard in Pommern) is a town in Pomerania, northwestern Poland, with 73,000 inhabitants (1995). ... Stendal is a city in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... Province Western Finland Region Finland Proper Sub-region Turku City manager Mikko Pukkinen Official languages Finnish, Swedish Area  - total  - land ranked 311th 245. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Valmiera (German: Wolmar) is the largest city of Vidzeme region, Latvia with a total area of 18. ... Wesel is a city (population about 61,689 in 2004) in Germany, located at the point where the Lippe River empties into the Rhine. ... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Swedish: ; German: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of St. ... Ventspils (Russian: , formerly Виндава; German: Windau, Polish: Windawa, Livonian: VÇŸnta) is a city in northwestern Latvia on the coast of the Baltic Sea. ... Zutphen (old alternate spelling: Zutfen) is a municipality and a town in the province of Gelderland in the Netherlands on the right bank of the IJssel at the influx of the Berkel, and a junction station 29 km by rail N.N.E. of Arnhem. ... Country: Netherlands Province: Overijssel Coordinates: 52°30′ N 6°5′ E Area - Land - Water 119. ...

    See also

    The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ...

    Fictional references

    • A Terran Hanseatic League exists in Kevin J. Anderson's science fiction series, Saga of Seven Suns. The political structure of this fictional interstellar version closely resembles that of the historical Hanseatic League.
    • In the Perry Rhodan SF series, the trade organisation the Cosmic Hansa (Kosmische Hanse) covers the Galaxy.
    • Midgard open source content management system has often been referred to as the Hanseatic League of Open Source.
    • Hanseatic League merchant caravans are used as the backdrop for,"Living History" groups in Florida and North Carolina
    • Hanseatic League Historical Re-enactors has two chapters

    "Bergens Kontor" in Fort Lauderdale Fl and "Voss Kontor" in Fayetteville NC. The Saga of Seven Suns is a series of science fiction novels written by Kevin J. Anderson. ... Kevin J. Anderson (born March 27, 1962) is a prolific American science fiction author. ... The Saga of Seven Suns is a series of science fiction novels written by Kevin J. Anderson. ... Perry Rhodan is the worlds most prolific literary science fiction (SF) series, published since 1961 in Germany. ... The Midgard Project Midgard CMS is an Open Source Content management system built on the Midgard Framework. ...


    Both groups Portray merchants from a Hanseatic League Merchant Caravan originating from kontor's and towns in Norway. They offer "in character" lectures,skits and "Theatre in the round" based on the history of Hanseatic League. For the education and entertainment of Renaissance festival patrons and local schools.


    References

    1. ^ Braudel
    • P. Dollinger The German Hansa (1970; repr.1999).
    • E. Gee Nash. The Hansa. 1929 (Reprint. 1995 Edition, Barnes and Noble)

    External links

    • Hanseatic Cities in The Netherlands / Holland
    • Hanseatic League Historical Re-enactors
    • Hanseatic Towns Network
    • Hanseatic League related sources in the German Wikisource
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
    Category:Hanseatic League

      Results from FactBites:
     
    Hanseatic League - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2078 words)
    The Hanseatic League (German: die Hanse, Dutch: de Hanze, Polish: Hanza) consisted of an alliance of trading cities that established and maintained a trade monopoly over the Baltic Sea and most of Northern Europe for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, between the 13th and 17th centuries.
    Historians generally trace the origins of the League to the foundation of the town of Lübeck, established in 1158/1159 after the capture of the area by Henry the Lion of Saxony.
    By the late 16th century, the League imploded and was unable to deal with its own internal struggles, the social and political changes that accompanied the Reformation, the rise of Dutch and English merchants, and the incursion of the Ottoman Turks upon its trade routes and the Empire itself.
    The Hanseatic League (718 words)
    Hanseatic League (from Old High German hansa, "league"), designation applied to a federation of cities in northern Germany, and of communities of German merchants in the Low Countries, England, and the Baltic region, organized during the 13th century for the protection and enhancement of mutual commercial interests.
    At the peak of its ascendancy, the league was a potent force in the politics of Europe.
    Among these leagues was one comprising certain towns of Westphalia, the Rhineland, and the Low Countries; another one consisted of the trading centers in the duchy of Saxony and the mark of Brandenburg; a third was made up of Prussian and Livonian (Latvian and Estonian) towns.
      More results at FactBites »

     
     

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