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Encyclopedia > Hansard

Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. In addition to the Parliament of the United Kingdom and the UK's devolved institutions, a Hansard is maintained for the Parliament of Canada and the Canadian provincial legislatures, the Parliament of Australia and the Australian state parliaments, the national Parliament of South Africa and South Africa's provincial legislatures, the Parliament of New Zealand, the Legislative Council of Hong Kong, the Parliament of Malaysia, the Parliament of Singapore, the Legislative Council of Brunei, the Parliament of Sri Lanka, the Parliament of Trinidad and the Parliament of Jamaica States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... The Westminster system is a democratic system of government modelled after that of the United Kingdom system, as used in the Palace of Westminster, the location of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... The Parliament of Canada (French: Parlement du Canada) is Canadas legislative branch, seated at Parliament Hill in Ottawa, Ontario. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of Australia. ... The Parliament of South Africa, has undergone many transformations, as a result of the countrys tumultuous history. ... The New Zealand Parliament is the legislative body of the New Zealand government. ... The Legislative Council (abbreviated as LegCo; Chinese: 立法會, Pinyin: Lìfǎ Huì; formerly 立法局, Lìfǎ Jú) is the unicameral legislature of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Houses of Parliament in Kuala Lumpur. ... The unicameral Parliament of Singapore is the legislature of Singapore with the President as its head [1]. It currently consists of 94 Members of Parliament. ... Legislative Council of Brunei is the parliament in Brunei. ... The Parliament of Sri Lanka is a Unicameral 225-member legislature elected by universal suffrage and proportional representation for a six-year term. ... Trinidad (Spanish, Trinity) is the largest and most populous of the 23 islands which make up the country of Trinidad and Tobago. ... Parliament is the legislative branch of the government of Jamaica. ...

Contents


Origins

Before 1771, the British Parliament had long been a highly secretive body. The official record of the actions of the House were publicly available, but there was no such record of debates. The publication of remarks made in the House became a breach of Parliamentary privilege, punishable by the two Houses. As more people became interested in parliamentary debates, more individuals published unofficial accounts of parliamentary debates. Editors were at worst subjected to fines. Several editors used the device of veiling parliamentary debates as debates of fictitious societies or bodies. The names under which parliamentary debates were published include Proceedings of the Lower Room of the Robin Hood Society and Debates of the Senate of Magna Lilliputia.


In 1771, Parliament ceased to punish the publishing of its debates, partly due to the campaigns of John Wilkes on the behalf of free speech. There then began several attempts to publish reports of debates. Among the early successes, the Parliamentary Register published by John Almon and John Debrett began in 1775 and ran until 1813. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1775 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1813 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


William Cobbett, a noted radical and publisher began publishing Parliamentary Debates as a supplement to his Political Register in 1802, eventually extending his reach back with the Parliamentary History. Cobbett's reports were printed by Thomas Curson Hansard from 1809; in 1812, with his business suffering, Cobbett sold the Debates to Hansard. Neither Cobbett nor Hansard ever employed anyone to take down notes of the debates, which were taken from a multiplicity of sources in the morning newspapers. For this reason, editions of Hansard are not to be absolutely relied upon as a guide to everything discussed in Parliament. William Cobbett (March 9, 1763–June 18, 1835) was a radical agriculturist and prolific journalist. ... --69. ... Thomas Curson Hansard (1776 - 1833), was the son of the printer Luke Hansard. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1812 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Hansard was remarkably successful in seeing off competition such as Almon and Debrett, and the later Mirror of Parliament published by J.H. Barrow from 1828 to 1843; Barrow's work was more comprehensive but he checked each speech with the Member and allowed them to 'correct' anything they wished they had not said. The last attempt at a commercial rival was The Times which published debates in the 1880s. In 1889, the House decided to subsidise its publication so that a permanent record was available and it included more speeches and a near-verbatim record of front-bench speeches. 1828 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom since 1785, and under its current name since 1788. ... // Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


The Hansard of today, a fully comprehensive account of every speech, began in 1909 when Parliament took over the publication. At the same time the decision was made to publish debates of the two houses in separate volumes, and to change the front cover from orange-red to light blue. A larger page format was introduced with new technology in 1980. 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories. ... 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ...


Characteristics

The Hansard is not a verbatim account of debates in Parliament. It seeks to eliminate "repetitions, redundancies and obvious errors". One instance of such an eliminated redundancy involves the calling of members in the House of Commons. In that House, the Speaker must call on a member by name before that member may speak, but Hansard makes no mention of the recognition accorded by the Speaker. Also, Hansard sometimes adds extraneous material to make the remarks less ambiguous. For example, though members refer to each other as "the hon. Member for Constituency Name" rather than by name, Hansard adds, in parentheses, the name of the member being referred to, the first time that Member is referred to in a speech or debate. When a Member simply points at another whose constituency he cannot remember, Hansard identifies them.


Interjections from seated members generally are only included if the member who is speaking at the time refers to it. Any interruption to debate, whether from the member being shouted down or the physical invasion of the chamber, will be marked with the word "(Interruption)".


Hansard also publishes written answers made by Government ministers in response to questions formally posed by members. Since 1909 — and for important votes before then — Hansard has listed how members have voted in divisions. Furthermore, the proceedings and debates in committee are also published in separate volumes. It has been suggested that Division of the house be merged into this article or section. ...


For many years the Hansard did not formally acknowledge the existence of parties in the House, except obliquely, with Members' references to other Members of the same party as "hon. Friends", but in 2003 this changed and so members' party affiliations are now identified. 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Internet, with the help of volunteers, has made the UK Hansard more accessible. It is possible to review and search the UK Hansard from June 2001, with the exception of the Standing Committees. It is also possible to set up key word email alerts for topics of interest or to receive emails whenever a given MP speaks in the Commons or receives an answer to a written question.


Canadian Hansard and machine translation

Given the bilingual nature of the Canadian federal government, two equivalent Canadian Hansards are maintained, one in French and one in English. This makes it a natural parallel text, and it is often used to train French-English machine translation programs. In addition to being already translated and aligned, the size of the Hansards and the fact new material is always being added makes it an attractive corpus. However, its usefulness is hindered by the fact that the translations, although accurate in meaning, are not always literally exact. Bilingual (English/French) sign for Preston Street (rue Preston) in Ottawas Little Italy Bilingualism in Canada refers to laws and policies of the federal government – and some other levels of government – mandating that certain services and communications be available to the public in both English and French. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A parallel text is a text in one language together with its translation in another language. ... Machine translation, sometimes referred to by the acronym MT, is a sub-field of computational linguistics that investigates the use of computer software to translate text or speech in between natural languages. ... In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a large and structured set of texts (now usually electronically stored and processed). ...


In one instance, during a Liberal filibuster in the Canadian Senate, Senator Philippe Gigantès was accused of reading one of his books only so that he could get the translation for free through the Hansard. [1] The Liberal Party of Canada (French: Parti libéral du Canada), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party positioned around the centre of the political spectrum, combining a generally progressive social policy with moderate economics. ... In a legislature or other decision making body, a filibuster is an attempt to extend debate upon a proposal in order to delay or completely prevent a vote on its passage. ... The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... Philippe Deane Gigantès (August 16, 1923 - December 9, 2004) was a war hero, journalist, and Liberal Canadian Senator. ...


See also

The Congressional Record is the official record of the proceedings and debates of the United States Congress. ... Fuddle duddle is a euphemistic substitution for fuck or Fuck Off, whose most famous use was by then-Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau. ... The Hansard Society was formed in 1944 to promote parliamentary democracy. ... A court reporter, stenotype reporter or stenographer is a person whose occupation is to transcribe spoken or recorded speech into written form, typically using a Stenotype to produce official transcripts of court hearings, depositions and other official proceedings. ...

External links

  • United Kingdom Hansard
  • "They Work for You" web interface to United Kingdom Hansard
  • Northern Ireland, United Kingdom Hansard
  • Scotland, United Kingdom Hansard
  • Wales, United Kingdom Hansard
  • Isle of Man, United Kingdom Hansard
  • Jersey, United Kingdom Hansard
  • Canada's Hansard
  • NorthWest Territories, Canada Hansard
  • New Brunswick, Canada, Canada Hansard
  • Yukon, Canada Hansard
  • Nunavut, Canada Hansard
  • Quebec, Canada Hansard
  • Manitoba, Canada Hansard
  • Saskatchewan, Canada Hansard
  • Ontario, Canada Hansard
  • Nova Scotia, Canada Hansard
  • Prince Edward Island, Canada Hansard
  • Alberta, Canada Hansard
  • Newfoundland & Labrador, Canada Hansard
  • British Columbia, Canada Hansard
  • Westminster Hansard (House of Commons) website
  • Westminster Hansard (House of Lords) website
  • New Zealand Hansard
  • Australian Hansard
  • Victoria, Australia Hansard
  • Australia Capital Territory, Australia, Hansard
  • Northern Territory, Australia Hansard
  • South Australia, Australia Hansard
  • Queensland, Australia Hansard
  • Tasmania, Australia Hansard
  • Tasmania, Australia
  • Western Australia, Australia
  • New South Wales, Australia Hansard
  • Zimbabwean Hansard
  • South Africa Hansard
  • Gauteng, South Africa
  • Hong Kong's Hansard
  • Singapore Hansard search
  • Fiji Hansard
  • Ireland Hansard
  • Uganda Hansard
  • Malaysia Hansard
  • Brunei Hansard
  • Australasian and Pacific Hansards

Notes

  1. ^ Hoy, Claire. Nice Work: The Continuing Scandal of Canada's Senate, p. 165

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hansard - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (955 words)
Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government.
Neither Cobbett nor Hansard ever employed anyone to take down notes of the debates, which were taken from a multiplicity of sources in the morning newspapers.
Hansard was remarkably successful in seeing off competition such as Almon and Debrett, and the later Mirror of Parliament published by J.H. Barrow from 1828 to 1843; Barrow's work was more comprehensive but he checked each speech with the Member and allowed them to 'correct' anything they wished they had not said.
::: Department of the Official Report (Hansard) - Homepage::: (198 words)
Hansard is an indispensable aid for Members and others within the House and for those outside it who need an accurate and independent account of the proceedings.
The Department of the Official Report - also known as Hansard - is responsible for producing reports of the proceedings of the main Chamber of the House of Commons, of Westminster Hall and of Standing Committees.
Hansard is an edited verbatim report of proceedings, in which Members' words are reported in accordance with terms of reference drawn up by a Select Committee in 1907 and reproduced in "Erskine May", the authoritative source on parliamentary procedure.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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