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Encyclopedia > Hans von Ohain

Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (December 14, 1911March 13, 1998) was one of the inventors of jet propulsion. His HeS 1 design was the first self-contained jet engine to run, and the later HeS 3 was the first to power an all-jet aircraft. Although none of his designs entered production, his contributions to the development of the jet engine in Germany are invaluable. After the war he met his British counterpart, Frank Whittle, and the two became good friends. December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean [1]. // Coated in ice, power and telephone lines sag and often break, resulting in power outages. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ... Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE FRS (1 June 1907–9 August 1996) was a Royal Air Force officer who invented the jet engine. ...


Early life and jet development

Born in Dessau, Germany, he earned a Ph.D. in Physics and Aerodynamics from the University of Göttingen, then one of the major centers for aeronautical research. During his studies, in 1933 he conceived of "an engine that did not require a propeller." After receiving his degree in 1935, von Ohain became the junior assistant of Robert Wichard Pohl, then director of the Physical Institute of the University. Map of Germany showing Dessau Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. ... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Physics (Greek: (phúsis), nature and (phusiké), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and time and explaining them using mathematics. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Georg-August University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


In 1936, while working for Pohl, von Ohain earned a patent on his version of jet engines, Process and Apparatus for Producing Airstreams for Propelling Airplanes. Unlike Frank Whittle's design, von Ohain's engine used a centrifugal compressor and turbine placed very close together, back to back, with the flame cans wrapped around the outside of the assembly. The resulting engine was even larger in diameter than Whittle's, although much shorter along the thrust axis. 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle, OM, KBE FRS (1 June 1907–9 August 1996) was a Royal Air Force officer who invented the jet engine. ... A ring of can type combustors circles the mid section of this gas turbine. ...


While working at the University, von Ohain often took his sports car to be serviced at a local garage, Bartles and Becker. Here he met an automotive engineer, Max Hahn, and eventually arranged for him to build a model of his engine, which cost about 1,000 DM. When it was complete he took it to the University for testing, but ran into serious problems with combustion stability. Often the fuel would not burn inside the flame cans, and would instead be blown through the turbine where it would ignite in the air, shooting flames out the back and overheating the electric motor powering the compressor.


Heinkel

In February 1936, Pohl wrote to Ernst Heinkel on behalf of von Ohain, telling him of the design and its possibilities. Heinkel arranged a meeting where his engineers were able to grill von Ohain for hours, during which he flatly stated that the current "garage engine" would never work but there was nothing wrong with the concept as a whole. The engineers were convinced, and in April von Ohain and Hahn were set up at Heinkel's works at the Marienehe airfield outside of Rostock, Germany in Warnemünde. Ernst Heinkel (January 24, 1888 - January 30, 1958) was a German aircraft designer and manufacturer. ... Rostock (slavic origin: roztoc) is a city in northern Germany. ...


Once moved, a study was made of the airflow in the engine, and several improvements made over a two month period. Much happier with the results, they decided to produce a completely new engine incorporating all of these changes, running on hydrogen gas. The resulting Heinkel-Strahltriebwerk 1 (HeS 1), German for Heinkel Jet Engine 1, was built by hand-picking some of the best machinists in the company, much to the chagrin of the shop-floor supervisors. Hahn, meanwhile, worked on the combustion problem, an area he had some experience in. This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...


The engine was extremely simple, made largely of sheet metal. Construction started late in the summer of 1936, and completed in March 1937. It ran two weeks later on hydrogen, but the high temperature exhaust led to considerable "burning" of the metal. The tests were otherwise successful, and in September the combustors were replaced and the engine was run on gasoline for the first time. This proved to clog up the combustors, so Hahn designed a new version based on his soldering torch, which proved to work much better. Although the engine was never intended to be a flight-quality design, it proved beyond a doubt that the basic concept was workable.


While work on the HeS 1 continued, the team had already moved on to the design of a flight-quality design, the HeS 3. The major differences were the use of machined compressor and turbine stages, replacing the bent and folded sheet metal, and a re-arrangement of the layout to reduce the cross-sectional area of the engine as a whole by placing the flame cans in an extended gap between the compressor and turbine. The original design proved to have a turbine area that was simply too small to work efficiently, and increasing the size of the turbine meant the flame cans no longer fit in the gap correctly. A new design, the HeS 3b was proposed, which moved the flame cans out of the gap and modified their shape to allow the widest part of the cans to lie in front of the compressor's outer rim. In the 3b, compressed air was piped forward to the combustion chambers, and from there the now-hot air flowed rearward into the turbine inlet. While not as small as the original HeS 3 design, the 3b was nevertheless fairly compact. The 3b first ran July 1939 (some references say May), and was air-tested under the Heinkel He 118 dive bomber prototype. The original 3b engine soon burned out, but a second one was nearing completion at about the same time as a new test airframe, the Heinkel He 178, which first flew on August 27, 1939, the first jet powered aircraft to fly. The HeS 3 was the worlds first operational jet engine to power an aircraft. ... The HeS 3 was the worlds first operational jet engine to power an aircraft. ... The Heinkel He 118 was a German dive bomber design that competed with the Junkers Ju 87 for production, but was never ordered for the Luftwaffe. ... A dive bomber is a bomber aircraft that dives directly at its targets in order to provide greater accuracy. ... The Heinkel He 178 was the worlds first aircraft to fly under turbojet power, and the first practical jet plane. ... August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Work started immediately on larger versions, first the HeS 6 which was simply a larger HeS 3b, and then on a new design known as the HeS 8 which once again re-arranged the overall layout. The 8 separated the compressor and turbine, connecting them with a long shaft, placing a single annular combustion chamber between them, replacing the individual flame cans. It was intended to install the engine on the Heinkel He 280 fighter, but the airframe development progressed much more smoothly than the engine, and had to be used in gliding tests while work on the engine continued. A flight-quality HeS 8 was installed in late March 1941, followed by the first flight on 2 April. Three days later the aircraft was demonstrated for a party of Nazi and RLM officials, all of whom were impressed. Full development funds soon followed. The HeS 8 was an early jet engine designed by Hans von Ohain while working at Heinkel. ... The Heinkel He 280 was the first jet-powered fighter aircraft built in the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Reichsluftfahrtministerium ...


By this point there were a number of turbojet developments taking place in Germany. Heinkel was so impressed by the concept that he had brought on Adolph Müller from Junkers, who was developing an axial compressor-powered design, renamed as the Heinkel HeS 30. Müller had left Junkers after they purchased the Junkers Motoren company, who had their own project underway, which by this time was known as the Junkers Jumo 004. Meanwhile BMW was making good progress with their own design, the BMW 003. For the Prussian/German landowning classes, see junker. The name Junkers (IPA: /ˈjunkeɺs/) is well known in connection with aircraft, which were produced under this name for the Luftwaffe during World War II. In particular the Ju 87 Stuka and Ju 52 Tante Ju were common symbols of the... An animation of an axial compressor. ... The HeS 30 was an early jet engine, originally designed by Adolf Müller at Junkers, but eventually built and tested at Heinkel. ... For the Prussian/German landowning classes, see junker. The name Junkers (IPA: /ˈjunkeɺs/) is well known in connection with aircraft, which were produced under this name for the Luftwaffe during World War II. In particular the Ju 87 Stuka and Ju 52 Tante Ju were common symbols... The Jumo 004 was the worlds first turbojet engine in production and operational use. ... BMW AG (an initialism for Bayerische Motoren-Werke Aktiengesellschaft, or in English, Bavarian Motor Works; ISIN: DE0005190003), is an independent German company and manufacturer of automobiles and motorcycles. ... The BMW 003 was an early turbojet engine produced in Germany during World War II. Work on its design began earlier than the contemporary Junkers Jumo 004 engine, but prolonged developmental problems meant that the BMW 003 entered production much later, and the aircraft projects that had been designed with...


By early 1942 the HeS 8, officially the 109-001 (HeS 001), was still not progressing well. Meanwhile Müller's HeS 30, officially the 109-006 (HeS 006), was developing much more quickly. Both engines were still some time from being ready for production, however, while the 003 and 004 appeared to be ready to go. In early 1942 the director of jet development at the RLM, Helmut Schelp, refused further funding for both designs, and ordered Heinkel to work on a new "pet project" of his own, eventually becoming the Heinkel HeS 011. Although this was the first of Schelp's "Class II" engines to start working well, production had still not started when the war ended. Work continued on the HeS 8 for some time, but it was eventually abandoned in the spring of 1943. Helmut Schelp was the director of advanced engine development at the RLMs T-Amt technical division leading up to and during World War II. He used his office to fund a widespread program in jet engine development, which led to many of the engine concepts still used today. ... The HeS 011 was an advanced (for the era) jet engine built by Heinkel-Hirth. ...


After the war

In 1947 von Ohain was brought to the United States by Operation Paperclip and went to work for the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. In 1956 he was made the Director of the Air Force Aeronautical Research Laboratory and by 1975 he was the Chief Scientist of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory there. Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... Operation Paperclip scientists pose together. ... Aircraft of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and coalition counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert. ... Wright-Patterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force base in Greene and Montgomery counties, adjacent to Riverside, Fairborn, Beavercreek, and Dayton, Ohio. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


During his work at Wright-Patterson, von Ohain continued his own personal work on various topics. In the early 1960s he did a fair amount of work on the design of gas core reactor rockets which would retain the nuclear fuel while allowing the working mass to be used as exhaust. The engineering needed for this role was also used for a variety of other "down to earth" purposes, including centrifuges and pumps. von Ohain would later use the basic mass-flow techniques of these designs to create a fascinating jet engine with no moving parts, in which the airflow through the engine created a stable vortex that acted as the compressor and turbine. Gas core reactor rockets are a conceptual type of rocket that is propelled by the exhausted coolant of a gaseous fission reactor. ... Working mass is a mass against which a system operates in order to produce acceleration. ...


This interest in mass-flow also led von Ohain to research magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for power generation, noting that the hot gases from a coal-fired plant could be used to extract power from their speed when exiting the combustion chamber, remaining hot enough to then power a conventional steam turbine. Thus a MHD generator could extract further power from the coal, and lead to greater efficiencies. Unfortunately this design has proven difficult to build due to a lack of proper materials, namely high-temperature non-magnetic materials that are also able to withstand the chemically active exhaust. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) (magnetofluiddynamics or hydromagnetics) is the academic discipline which studies the dynamics of electrically conducting fluids. ...


He also invented the idea of the "jet wing", in which air from the compressor of a jet engine is bled off to large "augmented" vents in the wings to provide lift for VTOL aircraft. A small amount of high-pressure air is blown into a venturi, which in turn sucks a much larger volume of air along with it, thus leading to "thrust augmentation". The concept was used in the Rockwell XFV-12 experimental aircraft, although the market interest in VTOL aircraft was short-lived. Vertical Take-Off and Landing (VTOL) describes airplanes that can lift off vertically. ... A copper aspirator. ... The Rockwell XFV-12 was a prototype supersonic United States Navy fighter which combined the Mach 2 speed and AIM-7 Sparrow armament of the F-4 Phantom II in a VTOL (vertical takeoff and landing) fighter for the small Sea Control Ship which was under study at the time. ...


During his careers, von Ohain won many engineering and management awards, including (among others) the AIAA's Goddard Award, the US Air Force Exceptional Civilian Service Award, Systems Command Award for Exceptional Civilian Service, the Eugene M. Zuckert Management Award, the Air Force Special Achievement Award, and just before he retired, the Citation of Honor. In 1991 von Ohain and Whittle were jointly awarded the Charles Stark Draper Prize for their work on turbojet engines. The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is the scholarly society for the field of aerospace engineering. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Charles Stark Draper Prize is awarded by the National Academy of Engineering for the advancement of engineering and the education of the public about engineering. ...


He retired from Wright-Patterson in 1979 and took up an associate professor position at the nearby University of Dayton. He later moved to Melborne, Florida with his wife Hanny, where he died in 1998. He is survived by four children. The University of Dayton is a private Catholic university operated by the Society of Mary located in Dayton, Ohio. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hans von Ohain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (292 words)
Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain (December 14, 1911-March 13, 1998) was one of the inventors of jet propulsion, along with Frank Whittle.
Von Ohain developed a second improved engine, the He S.8A, which was first flown on April 2, 1941.
In 1947 von Ohain was brought to the United States by Operation Paperclip and went to work for the United States Air Force at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.
jumbojet (602 words)
Hans von Ohain and Sir Frank Whittle are both recognized as being the co-inventors of the jet engine.
Hans Von Ohain obtained his doctorate in Physics at the University of Göttingen in Germany and then became the junior assistant to Hugo Von Pohl, director of the Physical Institute at the University.
Hans Von Ohain joined Ernst Heinkel in 1936 and continued with the development of his concepts of jet propulsion.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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