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Encyclopedia > Hanoi
The City of Hanoi
Hà Nội (River Interior)

Seal
Central city Hanoi
Districts 14
Founded, Capital of the Đại Việt Kingdom 1010
Capital of Vietnam September 2, 1945
Area
 - City 920.97 km² (355.6 sq mi)
 - Urban 186.22 km² (71.9 sq mi)
Population (2007)
 - City 3.398.889
 - Density 3,347/km² (8,668.7/sq mi)
Website: www.hanoi.gov.vn
Hanoi seen from Spot Satellite

Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Nội, Hán Tự: 河内) pronunciation , estimated population 3.398.889 (2007) [1], is the capital of Vietnam. From 1010 until 1802, it was the political centre of an independent Vietnam with a few brief interruptions. It was eclipsed by Huế during the Nguyen Dynasty as the capital of Vietnam, but served as the capital of French Indochina from 1887 to 1954. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam. A model set of the Towers of Hanoi (with 8 disks) An animated solution of the Tower of Hanoi puzzle for T(4,3). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... Events The Ly Dynasty in Vietnam is established (or 1009). ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... Image File history File links Ha_noi. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Events The Ly Dynasty in Vietnam is established (or 1009). ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... The Nguyễn Dynasty (阮朝) was a line of rulers of Vietnam in the 19th century to mid-20th century. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ...


The city is located on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is located at 21°2' North, 105°51' East, 1760 km (1094 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City.[2] Flowing from China through Vietnam to the South China Sea, the Red River (Vietnamese Sông Hồng, Chinese Hónghé) is also known as the Yuan Jiang (元江, pinyin yuan2jiang1), which means Primary River. ... Saigon redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Hoàn Kiếm Lake in the centre of Hanoi, with the streets of the old town in the background (1999)
Tháp Bút (pen tower) next to Hoàn Kiếm Lake (2007)

The area around modern Hanoi has been inhabited since at least 3000 BC. One of the first known permanent settlements is the Co Loa citadel founded around 200 BC. Download high resolution version (1024x641, 67 KB)Hoan Kiem lake in the centre of Hanoi, August 1999 Photo by Bob Tubbs I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (1024x641, 67 KB)Hoan Kiem lake in the centre of Hanoi, August 1999 Photo by Bob Tubbs I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Hoan Kiem Lake (Vietnamese: Ho Hoan Kiem, meaning Lake of the Returned Sword, also known as Ho Guom) is a lake in the historical center of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1944 × 2592 pixel, file size: 1. ...


Hanoi has had many names throughout history, all of them of Sino-Vietnamese origin. During the Chinese domination of Vietnam, it was known as Tống Bình (宋平) and later Long Đỗ. In 866, it was turned into a citadel and was named Đại La (大羅).


In 1010, Lý Thái Tổ, the first ruler of the Lý Dynasty, moved the capital of Đại Việt (大越, the Great Viet, then the name of Vietnam) to the site of the Đại La Citadel. Claiming to have seen a dragon ascending the Red River, he renamed it Thăng Long (昇龍, Ascending dragon) - a name still used poetically to this day. It remained the capital of Vietnam until 1397, when the capital was moved to Thanh Hóa, also known as Tây Đô (西都, Western Capital). Thăng Long then became Đông Đô (東都, Eastern Capital). The Lý Dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Lý, pronounced like Lee), sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Anterior Lê Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen L... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... Thanh Hoa is a city in Vietnam. ...


In 1408, Vietnam was invaded by Chinese troops from the Ming Dynasty and Đông Đô was renamed Đông Quan (東關, Eastern Gateway) by the Chinese. In 1428, Vietnam was liberated from Chinese rule by Lê Lợi, the founder of the Le Dynasty and Đông Quan was renamed Đông Kinh (東京, Eastern Capital - the name known to Europeans as Tonkin; and evidently, the same characters used for Tokyo). During the Tây Sơn Dynasty, it was named Bắc Thành (北城, Northern Citadel). This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Events October 12 - English forces under Thomas Montacute, 4th Earl of Salisbury besiege Orléans. ... Lê Lợi (黎俐; 1384 or 1385? – 1433), Emperor of Vietnam and founder of the Le Dynasty. ... // Lê Lợi (1382-1433), emperor Lê Thai To(1428-1433) Background and aspiration Lê Lợi came from a family of wealthy landowners. ... Tonkin, also spelled Tongkin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Chinas Yunnan and Guangxi Provinces, east of northern Laos, and west of the Gulf of Tonkin. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The name of Tây SÆ¡n is used in many ways referring back to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the eras of the Lê and Nguyá»…n dynasties in history of Vietnam. ...


In 1802, when the Nguyễn Dynasty was established and then moved the capital down to present-day Huế, it was renamed Thăng Long ( "ascending dragon"). However, the second syllable of the toponym is actually a homonym of the word long, and so, actually suggests “to flourish” as opposed to “dragon”. Therefore, the name would then have appeared as 昇隆, roughly to ascend and flourish. In 1831 the Nguyen Dynasty renamed it Hà Nội (河内, can be translated as Between Rivers or River Interior) . Hanoi was occupied by the French in 1873 and passed to them ten years later. It became the capital of French Indochina after 1887. Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Tây SÆ¡n Dynasty (1778–1802) Nguyá»…n Dynasty (1802–1945) French Indochina (1887–1954) Empire of Vietnam (1945) North-South Division During The Indochina Wars (1945–1975) Democratic Republic of Vietnam State of Vietnam Republic of Vietnam Republic of South Vietnam Socialist Republic of Vietnam (from 1976) List... Huế (化 in Vietnamese Chữ nôm, 順化 in Chinese characters) is the former modern capital of Vietnam. ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The city was occupied by the Japanese in 1940, and liberated in 1945, when it became the seat of Vietnam's government. From 1946 to 1954, it was the scene of heavy fighting between the French and Viet Minh forces. At that point, the city became the capital of an independent North Vietnam. Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... The Viet Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam ộc Lập ồng Minh Hội, League for the Independence of Vietnam) was formed by Ho Ngoc Lam and Nguyen Hai Than in 1941 to seek independence for Vietnam from France. ... The Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), also known as North Vietnam, was founded by Ho Chi Minh and was recognized by China and the USSR in 1950. ...


During the Vietnam War Hanoi's transportation facilities were disrupted by the bombing of bridges and railways, which were, however, promptly repaired. Following the end of the war, Hanoi became the capital of Vietnam when North and South Vietnam were reunited on July 2, 1976. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Anthem Thanh niên Hành Khúc (Call to the Citizens) Capital Saigon Language(s) Vietnamese Government Republic Last President¹ Duong Van Minh Last Prime minister Vu Van Mau Historical era Cold War  - Regime change June 14, 1955  - Dissolution April 30, 1975 Area  - 1973 173,809 km² 67,108... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Geography

Hanoi experiences the typical climate of northern Vietnam, where summers are hot and humid, and winters are relatively cool and dry. The summer months from May to September receive the majority of rainfall in the year (1,682 mm rainfall/ year). The winter months from November to March are relatively dry, although spring then often brings light rains. The minimum winter temperature in Hanoi can dip as low as 6–7°C (43°F) not including the wind chill, while summer can get as hot as 38–40°C (100-104°F).[3]

Weather averages for Hanoi
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Average high °C (°F) 19 (66) 19 (67) 22 (72) 27 (80) 31 (87) 32 (90) 32 (90) 32 (89) 31 (88) 28 (82) 24 (76) 22 (71)
Average low °C (°F) 14 (58) 16 (60) 18 (65) 22 (71) 25 (77) 27 (80) 27 (80) 27 (80) 26 (78) 23 (73) 19 (66) 16 (60)
Precipitation mm (inches) 20.1 (0.79) 30.5 (1.20) 40.6 (1.60) 80 (3.15) 195.6 (7.70) 240 (9.45) 320 (12.6) 340.4 (13.4) 254 (10.0) 100.3 (3.95) 40.6 (1.60) 20.3 (0.80)
Source: weather.com[4]and asiaforvisitors.com[5] 2008-02-26

Education

Indochina Medical College, taken in early 20th century (now: Hanoi Medical University)

Hanoi, as the capital of French Indochina, was home to the first Western-style universities in Indochina, including: Indochina Medical College (1902) - now Hanoi Medical University, Indochina University (1904) - now Hanoi National University, and École Supérieure des Beaux-Arts de L'Indochine (1925) - now Hanoi University of Fine Art. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... Vietnam National University, Hanoi (Abbreviation: VNU; Vietnamese: Đại học Quốc gia Hà Ná»™i) is located in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam. ...


After the Communist Party took control over Hanoi in 1954 with support from the Soviet Union, many new universities were built, such as Hanoi University of Technology, Le Quy Don Technical University, University of Foreign Trade (Vietnam), and Water Resources University (Vietnam). Hanoi University of Technology remains the largest technical university in Vietnam. Category: Possible copyright violations ...


Hanoi is the largest centre of education in Vietnam. It is estimated that 62 % of the scientists in the whole country are living and working in Hanoi.[6] Admissions to undergraduate study are through entrance examinations, which are conducted annually and open for everyone (who has successfully completed his/her secondary education) in the country. The majority of universities in Hanoi are public, although in recent years a number of private universities have started their operation. Thang Long university, founded in 1988, by some Vietnamese mathematics professors in Hanoi and France [7] is the first private university in Vietnam.

Hanoian pupils

Because many of Vietnam's major universities are located in Hanoi, students from other provinces (especially in the northern part of the country) wishing to enter university often travel to Hanoi for the annual entrance examination. Such events often take place in June and July, during which a large number of students and their families converge on the city for several weeks around this intense examination period. In recent years, these entrance exams have been centrally coordinated by the Ministry of Education, but passing marks are decided independently by each university. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (486 × 648 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (486 × 648 pixel, file size: 140 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Pre-tertiary (elementary and secondary) schools in Hanoi mainly serve their local districts. Education is equivalent to the K–12 system in the US, with elementary school between grades 1 and 5, middle school (or junior high) between grades 6 and 9, and high school from grades 10 to 12. A primary school in ÄŒeský Těšín, Poland Primary education is the first stage of compulsory education. ... Middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) covers a period of education that straddles primary/elementary education and secondary education, serving as a bridge between the two. ... For other uses, see High school (disambiguation). ...


Tourist Attractions

As the capital of Vietnam for almost a thousand years, Hanoi is considered to be the cultural centre of Vietnam, where every dynasty has left behind their imprint. Even though some relics have not survived through wars and time, the city still has many interesting cultural and historic monuments for visitors and residents alike. Historians liken the life-giving Red River with its banks crowded with green rice paddies and farms to the Tigris and Euphrates rivers; a cradle of civilization. Even when the nation's capital moved to Hue under the Nguyen dynasty in 1802, the city of Hanoi continued to flourish, especially after the French took control in 1888 and modeled the city's architecture to their tastes, lending an important aesthetic to the city's rich stylistic heritage. The city boasts more than 1,000 years of history, and that of the past few hundred years has been well preserved.[8] Hanoi operahouse, by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hanoi operahouse, by Andrew Lih File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hanoi Opera House Opéra Garnier de Paris, seen as the model for Hanoi Opera House Hanoi Opera House is an opera house in downtown Hanoi. ...


Hanoi hosts more cultural sites than any city in Vietnam, including over 600 pagodas and temples.[9]


The Old Quarter, near Hoan Kiem lake, has the original street layout and architecture of old Hanoi. At the beginning of the 20th century the city consisted of only about 36 streets, most of which are now part of the old quarter. Each street then comprised of merchants and households specialized in a particular trade, such as silk traders, jewellery, etc. The street names nowadays still reflect these specializations, although few of them remain exclusively in their original commerce. The area is famous for its small artisans and merchants, including many silk shops. Local cuisine specialties as well as several clubs and bars can be found here also. A night market (near Đồng Xuân market) in the heart of the district opens for business every Friday, Saturday, and Sunday evening with a variety of clothing, souvenirs and food.

The Temple of Literature , main entry

Some others prominent places are: The Temple of Literature (Văn Miếu), site of the oldest university in Vietnam 1070; One Pillar Pagoda (Chùa Một Cột); Flag Tower of Hanoi (Cột cờ Hà Nội). In 2004, a massive part of the 900 year old citadel was discovered in central Hanoi, near the site of Ba Dinh square. [10] Van Mieu (Văn Miếu, 文廟) or Temple of Literature is a historic site situated in Hanoi, Vietnam. ... Events Hereward the Wake begins a Saxon revolt in the Fens of eastern England. ... The Flag Tower of Hanoi (Vietnamese: ) is a tower in Hanoi, Vietnam, which is one of the symbols of the city. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


A city between the rivers, built from lowland, Hanoi has many scenic lakes and sometime is called "city of lakes". Among its lakes, the most famous are Hoan Kiem Lake, West Lake, Halais Lake (Hồ Thiền Quang) in Vietnamese), and Bay Mau Lake. West Lake (Hồ Tây) is a popular place for people to spend time. It is the largest lake in Hanoi and there are many temples in the area. There are small boats for hire and a floating restaurant. Hoan Kiem Lake (Vietnamese: Ho Hoan Kiem, meaning Lake of the Returned Sword, also known as Ho Guom) is a lake in the historical center of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. ...


Under French rule, as an administrative centre for the French colony of Indochina, the French colonial architecture style became donminant, many examples remain today: the tree-lined boulevards (e.g Phan Dinh Phung street), The Grand Opera House, The State Bank of Vietnam (formerly The Bank of Indochina), The Presidential Palace (formerly Place of The Governor-General of French Indochina), the cathédrale St-Joseph, and historic hotel Sofitel Metropole. Hanoi Opera House Opéra Garnier de Paris, seen as the model for Hanoi Opera House Hanoi Opera House is an opera house in downtown Hanoi. ... Presidential Palace, Hanoi The Presidential Palace of Vietnam, located in the city of Hanoi, was built between 1900 and 1906 to house the French Governor-General of Indochina. ... Hôtel Sofitel Metropole Hanoi Sofitel Metropole is a historic hotel built in 1901 with the French colonial style in Hanoi Vietnam. ...


Museums

Hanoi is also home to a number of museums:

  • National Museum of Vietnamese History
  • Vietnam National Museum of Fine Arts
  • Vietnam Museum of Ethnology
  • Vietnam Museum of Revolution
  • Hanoi Hilton
  • Ho Chi Minh Museum
  • Contemporary Arts Centre

Entrance to the Museum of Ethnology An outdoor exhibit at the museum, consisting of an Ede dwelling from the Central Highland region The Vietnam Museum of Ethnology (Bảo tàng Dân tộc học Việt Nam) is a museum in Hanoi, Vietnam, which focuses on the... This article is about the incarceration center for prisoners of war used during the Vietnam War. ...

Entertainment

Water Puppet theatre (Traditional theatre)

A variety of options for entertainment in Hanoi can be found throughout the city. Modern and traditional theaters, cinemas, karaoke bars, dance clubs, bowling alleys, and an abundance of opportunities for shopping provide leisure activity for both locals and tourists. With its rapid growth and extremely high population density, several modern shopping centers have been built in Hanoi. Metro Hanoi, Vincom City Towers, Big C Thang Long Supercenter, Me Linh Plaza Furniture Hypermarket, Pico Plaza Electronics Hypermarket, and Trang Tien Plaza have all established large crowds on a regular basis. Multiple supermarket chains have also proved successful in Hanoi, including Intimex, HaproMart, Fivimart and Marko. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 967 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) a picture of mine that i took in the puppet theatre in Hanoi, Vietnam File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 967 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) a picture of mine that i took in the puppet theatre in Hanoi, Vietnam File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete... METRO AG Logo METRO AG is a diversified retail and wholesale/cash and carry group based in Germany. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Packaged food aisles of Fred Meyer in Portland, Oregon In commerce, a hypermarket or multi-department store is a superstore which combines a supermarket and a department store. ...


Hanoi is home to no fewer than ten movie theaters, with more in development, most of which feature films in both Vietnamese and English with appropriate subtitles. Currently, Megastar Cineplex provides the only screens in town equipped with Dolby Digital sound[11]. Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ...


Cuisine

Bánh cuốn Thanh Tri

Hanoi has rich food traditions and many of Vietnam's most famous dishes, such as phở, chả cá, bánh cuốn and cốm are thought to come from Hanoi. Perhaps most widely known is Phở, a simple rice noodle soup often eaten as a breakfast dish in the home or at streetside cafes, but also served in restaurants as a meal. Two varieties dominate the Hanoi scene: Phở Bò, containing beef, and Phở Gà, containing chicken. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,072 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,072 × 2,304 pixels, file size: 2. ... A dish of homemade bánh cuốn Bánh cuốn is a dish from northern Vietnam. ... Typical beef phở (phở bò ) A chicken-based phở (phở gà) with basil leaves, hoisin sauce, and Sriracha hot sauce, before mixing. ... A dish of homemade bánh cuốn Bánh cuốn is a dish from northern Vietnam. ...


Population

Hanoian girls wearing traditional costume Áo dài during APEC Summit 2006

Hanoi's population is constantly growing (about 3,5% per year [12]), a reflection of the fact that the city is both a major metropolitan area of Northern Vietnam, and also the country's political centre. This population growth also puts a lot of pressure onto the infrastructure, some of which is antiquated and dates back from the early 20th century. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 561 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 561 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... World Leaders attending the APEC 2006 Summit in Hanoi dressed in áo dài and áo gấm. ... APEC may refer to: Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Action Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour Advanced Placement European Civilization Atlantic Provinces Economic Council This article consisting of a 4-letter acronym or initialism is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ...


The number of Hanoians who settled down for more than three generations is likely to be very small as compared to the overall population of the city. Even in the Old Quarter, where commerce started hundreds years ago and was mostly a family business, many of the street-front stores nowadays are owned by merchants and retailers from other provinces. The original owner family may have either rented out the store and moved to live further inside the house, or just moved out of the neighbourhood altogether. The pace of change has especially escalated after the abandonment of central-planing economic policies, and relaxing of the district-based household registrar system.[citation needed]


Transportation

Motor scooters dominate the roads in the Old Quarter (2007)

Hanoi is served by Noi Bai International Airport, located in the Soc Son District, approximately 40 km (25 miles) north of Hanoi. Noi Bai is the only international airport for the northern regions of Vietnam. Direct daily flights are available to other cities in Vietnam, Asia, Australia, and Europe. The airport has recently been rebuilt with modern facilities. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1926 × 2568 pixel, file size: 914 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hanoi City I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1926 × 2568 pixel, file size: 914 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Hanoi City I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Ná»™i Bài International Airport (IATA: HAN, ICAO: VVNB), the biggest airport in northern Vietnam, serves the capital city of Hanoi. ...


There are two main highways linking the airport and city. The route to the city via Thang Long Bridge is more direct than Highway 1, which runs along the outskirts of the city. The main highways are shared by cars, motor scooters, with separate lanes by the side for bicycles. Taxis are plentiful and usually have trip meters, although it is also common to agree on the trip price before taking a taxi from airport to the city centre. Tourists also sometimes tour the city on cyclos especially in the Old Quarter. A betchak and its driver wait for a fare in Bandung, Indonesia Rickshaw in Hamburg. ...


Hanoi is also the origin departure point for many train routes in the country. The Union Express (tàu Thống Nhất) runs from Hanoi to Ho Chi Minh City from Hanoi station (formerly Hang Co station), with stops at cities and provinces along the line. Trains also depart Hanoi frequently for Hai Phong and other northern cities.


The main means of transport within the city are motorbikes, buses, taxis, and bicycles. Motorbikes remain the most common way to move around the city. Public buses run on many routes and fare can be purchased on the bus. For short trips, "xe ôm" (literally, "hug vehicle") motorcycle taxis are available where the passenger sits at the rear of a motorbike.


Economy

The Manor - luxurious urban area in Western Hanoi

Hanoi has the highest Human Development Index among the cities in Vietnam. Though representing only 3.6 percent of the country's population and 0.3 percent of the national territory, Hanoi contributes 15 percent to the national GDP and 45 percent of the Red River Delta's economy.[citation needed] Flowing from China through Vietnam to the South China Sea, the Red River (Vietnamese Sông Hồng, Chinese Hónghé) is also known as the Yuan Jiang (元江, pinyin yuan2jiang1), which means Primary River. ...


Industrial production in the city has experienced a rapid boom since the 1990s, with average annual growth of 19.1 percent from 1991–95, 15.9 percent from 1996–2000, and 20.9 percent during 2001–2003. In addition to eight existing industrial parks, Hanoi is building five new large-scale industrial parks and 16 small- and medium-sized industrial clusters. The non-state economic sector is expanding fast, with more than 48,000 businesses currently operating under the Enterprise Law (as of 3/2007) [13].


Trade is another strong sector of the city. In 2003, Hanoi had 2,000 businesses engaged in foreign trade, having established ties with 161 countries and territories. The city's export value grew by an average 11.6 percent each year from 1996–2000 and 9.1 percent during 2001–2003.[citation needed] The economic structure also underwent important shifts, with tourism, finance, and banking now playing an increasingly important role. Tourist redirects here. ... The field of finance refers to the concepts of time, money and risk and how they are interelated. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ...


Hanoi's business districts are traditionally Hoan Kiem and the neighborhood; and a newly developing Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh in the South Western. Hoan Kiem Lake (Vietnamese: Ho Hoan Kiem, meaning Lake of the Returned Sword, also known as Ho Guom) is a lake in the historical center of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. ...


Similar to Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi enjoys a rapidly-developing real estate market. [14] The metropolis's economy growth does not seem correlative to its infrastructure. Overloading population requires a much larger supply of accommodations, while the constructing celerities of both transport system and new urban areas are too low[15]. Not surprisingly, as an effect of this problem, the apartment and real estate fever occur severely during the time[16]. More widespread, the fever even influences Ha Tay, the neighboring province, considered the future development space of the capital[17]. The current most notable new urban areas are central Trung Hoa Nhan Chinh, My Dinh, the luxurious zones of The Manor and Ciputra. Saigon redirects here. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... Ha Tay (Vietnamese: Hà Tây) is a Province of Vietnam. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ...


Agriculture, previously a pillar in Hanoi's economy, has striven to reform itself, introducing new high-yield plant varieties and livestock, and applying modern farming techniques.


Together with economic growth, Hanoi's appearance has also changed significantly, especially in recent years. Infrastructure is constantly being upgraded, with new roads and an improved public transportation system. The rate of telephone users was 30 per 100 people in 2003. New urban areas are growing rapidly, with 1.5 million square metres of housing constructed during 1996–2000 and 1.3 million square metres built in 2003 alone.


Social services have been developed in both scale and quality. The public healthcare network has been strengthened, ensuring at least one doctor for each commune and ward. Thanks to these accomplishments, Hanoi has the highest development index in the country. Movements such as raising donations for poor people or promoting a "cultural lifestyle", have received support from local people and been maintained.[citation needed]


Sport Centers

My Dinh National Stadium

There are several gymnasiums and stadiums throughout the city of Ha Noi. The biggest ones are My Dinh National Stadium (Le Duc Tho Boulevard), Quan Ngua Sporting Palace (Van Cao Avenue) and Underwater Sporting Palace. The others include Ha Noi stadium (as known as Hang Day stadium), Trinh Hoai Duc gymnasium, Gia Lam gymnasium, Cau Giay gymnasium, Hai Ba Trung gymnasium, Flag Pole stadium... It is decided that Asian Indoor Games will held at Hanoi in 2009. My Dinh National Stadium Mỹ Đình National Stadium in Hanoi, Vietnam has a capacity of 40,000 seats and is the centerpiece of Vietnams National Sports Complex. ... Le Duc Tho (Lê Ðức Thọ  ) (October 14, 1911 – October 13, 1990) was a Vietnamese revolutionary, general, diplomat, and politician. ... Văn Cao (November 15, 1923 – July 10, 1995) was a noted Vietnamese composer whose works include Tiến Quân Ca, which became the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and its successor, the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. ... Procession commemmorating the Trung Sisters in early 20th century The TrÆ°ng Sisters, known in Vietnamese as Hai Bà TrÆ°ng (the two TrÆ°ng ladies), are two 1st century women regarded as national heroines of Vietnam after they successfully repelled Chinese invasions for three years. ... Categories: ‪Sports stubs‬ | ‪Asian Indoor Games‬ ...


Health care and other facilities

Some medical facilities in Hanoi:

Bach Mai Hospital - multi-field medical facility in Hanoi considered one of the largest in Vietnam. ... Viet Duc Hospital (aka. ... Saint Paul Hospital in Hanoi Saint Paul Hospital - a large multi-field medical complex situated in the central part of Hanoi - the capital of Vietnam. ... 108 Hospital, also known as many variations on Army Medical Institute 108, or Army Central Hospital 108 (Vietnamese: Bệnh viện Trung ương Quân Đội 108), is a Vietnamese Hospital located at 1 Trần Hưng Đạo Street, in Hanoi. ... The French Hospital of Hanoi (French: LHôpital Français De Hanoï, Vietnamese: Bệnh Viện Việt Pháp), formerly the Viet Nam International Hospital, is a privatised hospital in Hanoi, Vietnam, sold to a French company in September 2000. ... Overview International SOS is a global provider of integrated medical and security assistance and risk management services to multinational corporations, governments, non-profit organisations and individuals. ...

Districts

Hà Nội is divided into five outer districts and nine inner districts.


The inner districts include:

  • Ba Đình (Three Temples) - political center, named after a destionation (there was a uprising) in Thanh Hoa.
  • Cầu Giấy (Paper Bridge) - in the past, there were many traditional papermaking workshops.
  • Đống Đa - named after a historic victory of Quang Trung again Qing Dynasty at this area.
  • Hai Bà Trưng (Two First Ladies) - named after the two Vietnamese heroines Hai Ba Trung
  • Hoàn Kiếm (Sword Recurrent)- downtown of Hanoi, named after the central lake - Hoan Kiem Lake
  • Hoàng Mai (Yellow Ume) - where there were many ume/apricot trees.
  • Long Biên (Dragon Fin) - across the Red River, named after the position as the traditional outskirt of Hanoi.
  • Tây Hồ (West Lake) - named after the largest lake - West Lake (Hanoi).
  • Thanh Xuân (literally Green Spring, i.e. Youth) - Industrial, labor district, a propaganda name from the past.

The outer districts include: This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Thanh Hoa is a city in Vietnam. ... The Diamond Sutra of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, the oldest dated printed book in the world, found at Dunhuang, from 868 AD. Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is ubiquitous today for writing and packaging. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Procession commemmorating the Trung Sisters in early 20th century The Trưng Sisters, known in Vietnamese as Hai Bà Trưng (the two Trưng ladies), are two 1st century women regarded as national heroines of Vietnam after they successfully repelled Chinese invasions for three years. ... Hoan Kiem Lake (Vietnamese: Ho Hoan Kiem, meaning Lake of the Returned Sword, also known as Ho Guom) is a lake in the historical center of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. ... Hoan Kiem Lake (Vietnamese: Ho Hoan Kiem, meaning Lake of the Returned Sword, also known as Ho Guom) is a lake in the historical center of Hanoi, the capital city of Vietnam. ... Binomial name Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc. ... Red River may refer to the following: Rivers Red River of the North, flows through Minnesota, North Dakota, and Manitoba, in the Red River Valley Red River of the South,, a. ...

  • Đông Anh
  • Gia Lâm
  • Sóc Sơn (Sóc Mountain)
  • Thanh Trì (Green Ponds)- the lowest part of Hanoi, where there are many ponds.
  • Từ Liêm

Gia Lam is one of two major airports in Hanoi. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peking redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Location within Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governor Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ...

Photos of Hanoi

Literature

  • Boudarel, Georges (2002). Hanoi: City Of The Rising Dragon. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 208 pages. ISBN 0-7425-1655-5. 
  • Logan, William S. (2001). Hanoi: Biography of a City. University of Washington Press, 304 pages. ISBN 0-295-98014-1. 

References

  1. ^ VnExpress - Ha Noi co 3,4 trieu nguoi
  2. ^ Country files (GNS). National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  3. ^ Historical Weather for Hanoi, Vietnam. www.weatherbase.com.
  4. ^ Weather for Hanoi (English). weather.com. Retrieved on 26 Feb, 2008.
  5. ^ Precipitation for Hanoi (English). asiaforvisitors.com. Retrieved on 26 Feb, 2008.
  6. ^ Hanoi - The capital of Vietnam: Preface. Hanoi City People's Committee.
  7. ^ http://vietnamnews.vnagency.com.vn/showarticle.php?num=01INN290106
  8. ^ Introduction to Hanoi. The New York Times.
  9. ^ The quick look at Hanoi. Vietnam National Administration of Tourism.
  10. ^ Thang Long the ancient city underneath Hanoi. New York Times. Retrieved on 2007-10-22.
  11. ^ http://vietsee.com/?cid=84&dnid=555
  12. ^ VnExpress - Ha Noi co 3,4 trieu nguoi
  13. ^ VnExpress - 'Tram hoa' doanh nghiep dua no
  14. ^ NLĐO - Bat dong san Ha Noi soi dong ~ Bất động sản Hà Nội sôi động - KINH TẾ - TIÊU DÙNG
  15. ^ Hà Nội: Cải tạo, xây dựng chung cư cũ còn rất chậm
  16. ^ VTC News - Thị trường nhà đất Hà Nội lên cơn sốt mới
  17. ^ LAODONG.COM.VN | Hà Nội: "Hội chứng sốt" đất phía tây! - Ha Noi: "Hoi chung sot" dat phia tay!

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hà Nội
  • Official Site of Hanoi Government
  • An article in New York Times about Hanoi
  • NewHanoian.com - Community information with user-created content, interactive maps, and reviews
  • Hanoi travel guide from Wikitravel

Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

See also

  • Capitals of Vietnam
Image File history File links Flag_of_La_Francophonie. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hanoi travel guide - Wikitravel (7496 words)
Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, is a fascinating blend of East and West, with Chinese influence from centuries of dominance, and French design from its colonial past.
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Bat Trang is a village world-famous for its pottery, 9 km southeast of Hanoi.
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