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Encyclopedia > Hannibal
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca
247 BC183 BC

This Roman marble bust of Hannibal was found at Capua (Museo Nazionale, Naples) and was apparently made in his honor during Hannibal's own lifetime.
Allegiance Carthaginian Empire
Rank General, commander-in-chief of the Carthaginian armies
Battles/wars Second Punic War: Battle of Lake Trasimene, Battle of Trebia, Battle of Cannae, Battle of Zama

Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca, (247 BC – ca. 183 BC,[1][2][3][4][5] short form Hannibal) was a Carthaginian military commander and tactician, later also working in other professions, who is popularly credited as one of the finest commanders in history. He was born in Carthegena, a Carthaginian colony in Spain at the time. He lived during a period of tension in the Mediterranean, when Rome (then the Roman Republic) established its supremacy over other great powers such as Carthage, Macedon, Syracuse, and the Seleucid empire. He is one of the best-known Carthaginian commanders. His most famous achievement was at the outbreak of the Second Punic War, when he marched an army, which included war elephants, from Iberia over the Pyrenees and the Alps into northern Italy. Hannibal may refer to: Historical people Hannibal is one of the most common prenames in Punic and we know several military commanders (strategos) with this prename during the Punic Wars, while their family names or nicknames are often not recorded. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC - 247 BC - 246 BC 245 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC 184 BC - 183 BC - 182 BC 181 BC... Image File history File links Bust_of_Hannibal. ... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Gaius Flaminius † Strength 30,000 soldiers 30,000-40,000 soldiers Casualties 1,500 soldiers 15,000 killed or drowned 15,000 captured The Battle of Lake Trasimeno (June 24, 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a Roman defeat in the Second... Battle of the Trebia Conflict Second Punic War Date 18 December 218 BC Place Trebbia river, Italy Result Carthaginian victory The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans in 218 BC. Hannibals... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic East Numidia Commanders Hannibal Scipio Africanus Masinissa Strength almost 58,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 Numidian cavalry Casualties 20,000 killed 11,000 wounded 15,000 captured 1,500 killed 4,000 wounded... Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (~270 – 228 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC - 240s BC - 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC Years: 252 BC 251 BC 250 BC 249 BC 248 BC - 247 BC - 246 BC 245 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC 184 BC - 183 BC - 182 BC 181 BC... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


During his invasion of Italy, he defeated the Romans in a series of battles, including those at Trebia, Trasimene and Cannae. After the Battle of Cannae, many Roman allies joined Hannibal, who promised them independence and self-governance. According to some historians Hannibal lacked the siege equipment necessary to attack the heavily defended city of Rome,[6] but as J. F. Lazenby points out it was not a lack of siege equipment, that even Livy mentions, but the shortage of supplies and the political agenda.[7] He maintained an army in Italy for more than a decade afterward, never losing a major engagement, but could not force the Romans to accept his terms for peace. A Roman counter-invasion of Africa forced him to return to Carthage, where he was defeated in the Battle of Zama. After the war he successfully ran for the office of suffet. He enacted much-needed political and financial reforms to enable the payment of the war indemnity imposed by Rome. However, his reforms were unpopular with members of the upper class who, per an eventual demand by the Romans, forced him into exile. During his exile, he lived at the Seleucid court, where he acted as military advisor to Antiochus III in his war against Rome. After Antiochus III met defeat and was forced to accept their terms, Hannibal fled again, making a stop in Armenia, where he worked as a townsplanner for the new capital. His flight ended in the court of Bithynia where he may have achieved an outstanding naval victory by means of biological warfare and was afterwards betrayed to the Romans. Battle of the Trebia Conflict Second Punic War Date 18 December 218 BC Place Trebbia river, Italy Result Carthaginian victory The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans in 218 BC. Hannibals... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Gaius Flaminius † Strength 30,000 soldiers 30,000-40,000 soldiers Casualties 1,500 soldiers 15,000 killed or drowned 15,000 captured The Battle of Lake Trasimeno (June 24, 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a Roman defeat in the Second... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic East Numidia Commanders Hannibal Scipio Africanus Masinissa Strength almost 58,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 Numidian cavalry Casualties 20,000 killed 11,000 wounded 15,000 captured 1,500 killed 4,000 wounded... In Hebrew and several other Semitic languages, shofet (plural shoftim) literally means Judge, from the verb Š-F-T, to pass judgment. In ancient Israel, the shoftim were chieftains who united various Israelite tribes in time of mutual danger to defeat foreign enemies. ... The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic successor state of Alexander the Greats dominion. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great, (ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ...


Hannibal is universally ranked as one of the greatest military commanders and tacticians in history. Military historian Theodore Ayrault Dodge once famously called Hannibal the "father of strategy",[8] because his greatest enemy, Rome, came to adopt elements of his military tactics in its own strategic arsenal. This praise has earned him a strong reputation in the modern world and he was regarded as a "gifted strategist" by men like Napoleon Bonaparte and the Duke of Wellington. His life has been the basis for a number of films and documentaries. Theodore Ayrault Dodge (28 May 1842–1909) was a Union officer in the American Civil War and a military historian of both that war and of the great generals of ancient and European history. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, KG, GCB, GCH, PC, FRS (c. ...

Hannibal: a 19th century engraved portrait based on the Capua bust.

He has been attributed with the famous quote , "We will either find a way, or make one." This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ...

Contents

Background and early career

Hannibal Barca ("grace of Baal", Baal being the patron god of Carthage, now Tunisia) was the son of Hamilcar Barca and his Iberian wife. Barca was not a family name, but it was carried by his sons.[9] For other uses, see Baal (disambiguation). ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (~270 – 228 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal. ... Iberia can mean: The Iberian peninsula of southwest Europe; That part of it inhabited by the Iberians, speaking the Iberian language. ...


Historians refer to the Hamilcar's family as the Barcids to avoid confusion with other Carthaginians of the same name. After Carthage's defeat in the First Punic War, Hamilcar set out to improve his family's and Carthage's fortunes. With that in mind and supported by Gades, Hamilcar began the subjugation of the tribes of the Iberian Peninsula. Carthage at the time was in such a poor state that its navy was unable to transport his army to Iberia (Hispania); instead, Hamilcar had to march it towards the Pillars of Hercules and ferry it across the Strait of Gibraltar (present-day Morocco). The Barcid family was a leading family in the ancient city of Carthage and many of its members were fierce enemies of the Roman Republic. ... Osama was here and he doesnt enjoy this site???? the red sox won and i am one happy camper. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain...


According to Livy, Hannibal much later said that when he came upon his father and begged to go with him, Hamilcar agreed and demanded him to swear that as long as he lived he would never be a friend of Rome. Other sources report that Hannibal told his father, "I swear so soon as age will permit...I will use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome."[10][8] A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...


Hannibal's father went about the conquest of Hispania. When the father was killed in battle, Hannibal's brother-in-law Hasdrubal succeeded to his command of the army. Hasdrubal pursued a policy of consolidation of Carthage's Iberian interests, even signing a treaty with Rome whereby Carthage would not expand north of the Ebre River, so long as Rome did not expand south of it. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Hasdrubal the Fair (d. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Spanish truck maker of the same name, see Ebro trucks. ...


Upon the assassination of Hasdrubal (221 BC), Hannibal was proclaimed commander-in-chief by the army and confirmed in his appointment by the Carthaginian government. Titus Livy, a Roman scholar, gives a depiction of the young Carthaginian: Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC - 220s BC - 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 226 BC 225 BC 224 BC 223 BC 222 BC - 221 BC - 220 BC 219 BC... Bust of Livy Titus Livius (around 59 BC - 17 AD), known as Livy in English, wrote a monumental history of Rome, Ab urbe condita, from its founding (traditionally dated to 753 BC). ...

No sooner had he arrived...the old soldiers fancied they saw Hamilcar in his youth given back to them; the same bright look; the same fire in his eye, the same trick of countenance and features. Never was one and the same spirit more skillful to meet opposition, to obey, or to command...[11]

After he assumed command, Hannibal spent two years consolidating his holdings and completing the conquest of Hispania south of the Ebro.[12] However, Rome, fearing the growing strength of Hannibal in Iberia, made an alliance with the city of Saguntum which lay a considerable distance south of the River Ebro and claimed the city as its protectorate. Hannibal perceived this as a breach of the treaty signed with Hasdrubal and so he laid siege to the city, which fell after eight months. Rome reacted to this apparent violation of the treaty and demanded justice from Carthage. In view of Hannibal's great popularity, the Carthaginian government did not repudiate Hannibal's actions, and the war he sought was declared at the end of the year. Hannibal was now determined to carry the war into the heart of Italy by a rapid march through Hispania and southern Gaul. Saguntum, now Sagunt, (Castilian Sagunto) is an ancient city in the fertile district of Camp de Morvedre in the province of Valencia in eastern Spain. ... This article is about states protected and/or dominated by a foreign power. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Second Punic War in Italy (218–203 BC)

Main article: Second Punic War

Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax...

Overland journey to Italy

Hannibal´s route of invasion given by the Department of History, United States Military Academy.

Hasdrubal became Carthaginian commander in Iberia in 229 BC, a post he would maintain for some eight years until 221 BC. Soon the Romans became aware of a burgeoning alliance between Carthage and the Celts of the Po river valley in northern Italy. The latter were amassing forces to invade Italy, presumably with Carthaginian backing. Thus, the Romans pre-emptively invaded the Po region in 225 BC. By 220 BC, the Romans had annexed the area as Gallia Cisalpina [13]. Hasdrubal was assassinated around the same time (221 BC), bringing Hannibal to the fore. It seems that, having apparently dealt with the threat of a Gaulo-Carthaginian invasion of Italy (and perhaps with the original Carthaginian commander killed), the Romans lulled themselves into a false sense of security. Thus, Hannibal took the Romans by surprise a scant two years later in 218 BC by merely reviving and adapting the original Gaulo-Carthaginian invasion plan of his brother-in-law Hasdrubal. Image File history File links Hannibal_route_of_invasion. ... Image File history File links Hannibal_route_of_invasion. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ...


Hannibal departed New Carthage in late spring of 218 BC[14] He fought his way through the northern tribes to the Pyrenees, subduing the tribes through clever mountain tactics and stubborn fighting. He left a detachment of 11,000 troops to garrison the newly conquered region. At the Pyrenees, he released another 11,000 Iberian troops who showed reluctance to leave their homeland. Hannibal reportedly entered Gaul with 40,000 foot soldiers and 12,000 horsemen.[15] For other places of the same name, see Cartagena Cartagena is a seaport in southeast Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, in the autonomous community of Murcia. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


Hannibal recognized that he still needed to cross the Pyrenees, the Alps, and many significant rivers. Additionally, he would have to contend with opposition from the Gauls, whose territory he passed through. Starting in the spring of 218 BC, he easily fought his way through the northern tribes to the Pyrenees and, by conciliating the Gaulish chiefs along his passage, reached the Rhône River before the Romans could take any measures to bar his advance. Arriving at the Rhône in September, Hannibal's army numbered 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants.[16] Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Rhône River, or the Rhône (French Rhône, Arpitan Rôno, Occitan Ròse, standard German Rhone, Valais German Rotten), is one of the major rivers of Europe, running through Switzerland and France. ...

Hannibal and his men crossing the Alps.

After outmaneuvering the natives, who had tried to prevent his crossing, Hannibal evaded a Roman force marching from the Mediterranean coast by turning inland up the valley of the Rhône. His exact route over the Alps has been the source of scholarly dispute ever since (Polybius, the surviving ancient account closest in time to Hannibal's campaign, reports that the route was already debated). The most influential modern theories favour either a march up the valley of the Drôme and a crossing of the main range to the south of the modern highway over the Col de Montgenevre (argued by Sir Gavin de Beer, Alps and Elephants) or a march farther north up the valleys of the Isere and Arc crossing the main range near the present Col de Mont Cenis (most fully argued by Denis Proctor, Hannibal's March in History). Image File history File links Hannibal3. ... Image File history File links Hannibal3. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Drôme is a département in southeastern France named after the Drôme River. ... The Col de Montgenèvre (Italian: Passo del Monginevro) is a mountain pass in the Cottian Alps, between France and Italy. ... Val dIsere ski resort A view of Val dIsere ski resort. ... Mont Cenis (Italian: Moncenisio) is a massif and pass (el. ...


By whichever route, his passage over the Alps is one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare. Hannibal successfully crossed the mountains, despite numerous obstacles such as harsh climate and terrain, the guerrilla tactics of the native tribes, and the challenge of commanding an army diverse in race and language. He descended from the foothills and arrived into northern Italy in the vicinity of modern Turin, but accompanied by only half the forces he had started with, and only a few elephants. From the start, he seems to have calculated that he would have to operate without aid from Hispania. Historian Adrian Goldsworthy, however, points out that the figures for the number of troops he had when he left Hispania are less than reliable. Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Adrian Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and military writer. ...


Battle of Trebia

Main article: Battle of Trebia

Hannibal's perilous march brought him into the Roman territory and frustrated the attempts of the enemy to fight out the main issue on foreign ground. His sudden appearance among the Gauls of the Po Valley, moreover, enabled him to detach those tribes from their new allegiance to the Romans before the latter could take steps to check the rebellion. Battle of the Trebia Conflict Second Punic War Date 18 December 218 BC Place Trebbia river, Italy Result Carthaginian victory The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans in 218 BC. Hannibals... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Look up rebellion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

A diagram depicting the tactics used in the Battle of Trebbia

Publius Cornelius Scipio, the consul who commanded the Roman force sent to intercept Hannibal, had not expected Hannibal to make an attempt to cross the Alps, since the Romans were prepared to fight the war in Iberia. With a small detachment still positioned in Gaul, Scipio made an attempt to intercept Hannibal. Through prompt decision and speedy movement, he succeeded in transporting his army to Italy by sea, in time to meet Hannibal. Hannibal's forces moved through the Po Valley and were engaged in a small confrontation at Ticinus. Here, Hannibal forced the Romans, by virtue of his superior cavalry, to evacuate the plain of Lombardy.[17] While the victory was minor, it encouraged the Gauls and Ligurians to join the Carthaginian cause, whose troops bolstered his army back to 40,000 men. Scipio was severely injured and retreated across the river Trebia to camp at Placentia with his army intact.[17] Image File history File links Battle_trebia. ... Image File history File links Battle_trebia. ... Battle of the Trebia Conflict Second Punic War Date 18 December 218 BC Place Trebbia river, Italy Result Carthaginian victory The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans in 218 BC. Hannibals... Publius Cornelius Scipio (died 211 BC) was a general and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Publius Cornelius Scipio the elder Strength 6,000 cavalry unknown Casualties small small The Battle of Ticinus was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans under Publius Cornelius Scipio in November 218 BC. It... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ...


The other Roman consular army was rushed to the Po Valley. Even before news of the defeat at Ticinus had reached Rome, the senate had ordered the consul Sempronius Longus to bring his army back from Sicily to meet Scipio and face Hannibal. Hannibal, by skillful maneuvers, was in position to head him off, for he lay on the direct road between Placentia and Arminum, by which Sempronius would have to march in order to reinforce Scipio. He then captured Clastidium, from which he drew large amounts of rations for his men. But this gain was not without its loss, as Sempronius avoided Hannibal's watchfulness, slipped around his flank, and joined his colleague in his camp near the Trebbia River near Placentia. There, in December of the same year, Hannibal had an opportunity to show his superior military skill at Trebia; after wearing down the excellent Roman infantry he cut it to pieces by a surprise attack from an ambush in the flank. This article is about the Roman rank. ... Titus Sempronius Longus (Born c. ... Categories: Stub ... Piacenza (Placentia in Latin and old-fashioned English, Piasëinsa in the local dialect of Emiliano-Romagnolo) is a city in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. ... Battle of the Trebia Conflict Second Punic War Date 18 December 218 BC Place Trebbia river, Italy Result Carthaginian victory The Battle of the Trebia (or Trebbia) was a battle of the Second Punic War fought between the Carthaginian forces of Hannibal and the Romans in 218 BC. Hannibals... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ...


Battle of Lake Trasimene

Having secured his position in northern Italy by this victory, Hannibal quartered his troops for the winter with the Gauls, whose support for him abated. In the Spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to find a more reliable base of operations farther south. Expecting Hannibal to carry on advancing to Rome, Cnaeus Servilius and Gaius Flaminius (the new Consuls of Rome) took their armies to block the Eastern and Western routes Hannibal could use to get to Rome. Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Gaius Flaminius † Strength 30,000 soldiers 30,000-40,000 soldiers Casualties 1,500 soldiers 15,000 killed or drowned 15,000 captured The Battle of Lake Trasimeno (June 24, 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a Roman defeat in the Second...

Battle of Lake Trasimene, -217.
From the Department of History, United States Military Academy

The only alternate route to central Italy lay at the mouth of the Arno. This route was practically one huge marsh, and happened to be overflowing more than usual during this particular season. Hannibal knew that this route was full of difficulties, but it remained the surest and certainly the quickest route to Central Italy. As Polybius claims, Hannibal’s men marched for four days and three nights, “through a route which was under water”, suffering terribly from fatigue and enforced want of sleep. He crossed the Apennines (during which he lost his left eye because of conjunctivitis) and the seemingly impassable Arno without opposition, but in the marshy lowlands of the Arno, he lost a large part of his force, including, it would seem, his remaining elephants. Image File history File links Battle_of_lake_trasimene. ... Image File history File links Battle_of_lake_trasimene. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Gaius Flaminius † Strength 30,000 soldiers 30,000-40,000 soldiers Casualties 1,500 soldiers 15,000 killed or drowned 15,000 captured The Battle of Lake Trasimeno (June 24, 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a Roman defeat in the Second... Arno can refer to: the Arno River in Italy Arno Bay, South Australia the singer Arno Hintjens the American cartoonist Peter Arno the German sculptor Arno Breker Madame Arno, Parisian artist and fighter. ... Polybius (c. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ...


Arriving in Etruria in the spring of 217 BC, Hannibal decided to lure the main Roman army, under Flaminius, into a pitched battle, by devastating under his very own eye the area he had been sent to protect. As Polybius tells us, “he [Hannibal] calculated that, if he passed the camp and made a descent into the district beyond, Flaminius (partly for fear of popular reproach and partly of personal irritation) would be unable to endure watching passively the devastation of the country but would spontaneously follow him . . . and give him opportunities for attack.”[18] At the same time, Hannibal tried to break the allegiance of Rome’s allies, by proving that Flaminius was powerless to protect them. Despite this, Hannibal found Flaminius still passively encamped at Arretium. Unable to draw Flaminius into battle by mere devastation, Hannibal marched boldly around his opponent’s left flank and effectively cut Flaminius off from Rome (thus executing the first recorded turning movement in military history). Advancing through the uplands of Etruria, Hannibal provoked Flaminius to a hasty pursuit and, catching him in a defile on the shore of Lake Trasimenus, destroyed his army in the waters or on the adjoining slopes while killing Flaminius as well (see Battle of Lake Trasimene). He had now disposed of the only field force which could check his advance upon Rome, but, realizing that without siege engines he could not hope to take the capital, he preferred to exploit his victory by passing into central and southern Italy and encouraging a general revolt against the sovereign power. After Lake Trasimeno, Hannibal stated, “I have not come to fight Italians, but on behalf of the Italians against Rome.”[19] The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... Lake Trasimeno or Trasimene (in Italian: Lago Trasimeno), is the largest lake in peninsular Italy with a surface area of 128 km/sq, just slightly less than that of Lake Como. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hannibal Gaius Flaminius † Strength 30,000 soldiers 30,000-40,000 soldiers Casualties 1,500 soldiers 15,000 killed or drowned 15,000 captured The Battle of Lake Trasimeno (June 24, 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a Roman defeat in the Second... Replica battering ram at Château des Baux, France. ...


The Romans appointed Fabius Maximus as a dictator. Departing from Roman military traditions, Fabius adopted the Fabian strategy — named after him — of refusing open battle with his opponent while placing several Roman armies in Hannibal’s vicinity to limit his movement. Quintus Fabius Maximus Verrucosus (c. ... The Fabian strategy is a military strategy where pitched battles are avoided in favor of wearing down an opponent through a war of attrition. ...

Hannibal - Silver double shekel, c. 230 BC, The British Museum

Having ravaged Apulia without provoking Fabius to battle, Hannibal decided to march through Samnium to Campania, one of the richest and most fertile provinces of Italy, hoping that the devastation would draw Fabius into battle. Fabius closely followed Hannibal’s path of destruction, yet still refused to let himself be drawn, and thus remained on the defensive. This strategy was unpopular with many Romans, who believed it was a form of cowardice. Image File history File links Hannibal. ... Image File history File links Hannibal. ... Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south, by Campania... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ...


Hannibal decided that it would be unwise to winter in the already devastated lowlands of Campania but Fabius had ensured that all the passes out of Campania were blocked. To avoid this, Hannibal deceived the Romans into thinking that the Carthaginian Army was going to escape through the woods. As the Romans moved off towards the woods, Hannibal's army occupied the pass, and his army made their way through the pass unopposed. Fabius was within striking distance but in this case his caution worked against him. Smelling a stratagem (rightly), he stayed put. For the winter, Hannibal found comfortable quarters in the Apulian plain. What Hannibal achieved in extricating his army was, as Adrian Goldsworthy puts it, "a classic of ancient generalship, finding its way into nearly every historical narrative of the war and being used by later military manuals".[20] This was a severe blow to Fabius’s prestige, and soon after this, his period of power ended. This article is about the Italian region. ... Adrian Goldsworthy (born 1969) is a British historian and military writer. ...


Battle of Cannae

Destruction of the Roman army, courtesy of The Department of History, United States Military Academy.
Main article: Battle of Cannae

In the spring of 216 BC, Hannibal took the initiative and seized the large supply depot at Cannae in the Apulian plain. By seizing Cannae, Hannibal had placed himself between the Romans and their crucial source of supply.[21] Once the Roman Senate resumed their Consular elections in 216, they appointed Gaius Terentius Varro and Lucius Aemilius Paullus as Consuls. In the meantime, the Romans, hoping to gain success through sheer strength in numbers, raised a new army of unprecedented size, estimated by some to be as large as 100,000 men.[22] Image File history File links Battle_cannae_destruction. ... Image File history File links Battle_cannae_destruction. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Gaius Terentius Varro was a Roman consul and commander. ... Lucius Aemilius Paullus (d. ...


The Roman and Allied legions of the Consuls, resolving to confront Hannibal, marched southward to Apulia. They eventually found him on the left bank of the Aufidus River, and encamped six miles away. On this occasion, the two armies were combined into one, the Consuls having to alternate their command on a daily basis. The Consul Varro, who was in command on the first day, was a man of reckless and hubristic nature, and was determined to defeat Hannibal.[22] Hannibal capitalized on the eagerness of Varro and drew him into a trap by using an envelopment tactic which eliminated the Roman numerical advantage by shrinking the surface area where combat could occur. Hannibal drew up his least reliable infantry in a semicircle in the center with the wings composed of the Gallic and Numidian horse.[22] The Roman legions forced their way through Hannibal's weak center, but the Libyan Mercenaries in the wings, swung around by the movement, menaced their flanks. The onslaught of Hannibal's cavalry was irresistible, and Hasdrubal (not Hasdrubal Barca) who commanded the left, pushed in the Roman right and then swept across the rear and attacked Varro's cavalry on the Roman left.[22] Then he attacked the legions from behind. As a result, the Roman army was hemmed in with no means of escape. This article is about the Italian region. ...


Due to these brilliant tactics, Hannibal, with much inferior numbers, managed to surround and destroy all but a small remainder of this force. Depending upon the source, it is estimated that 50,000-70,000 Romans were killed or captured at Cannae.[8] Among the dead were the Roman consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus, as well two consuls for the preceding year, two quaestors, twenty-nine out of the forty-eight military tribunes and an additional eighty senators (at a time when the Roman Senate comprised no more than 300 men, this constituted 25%–30% of the governing body). This makes the Battle of Cannae one of the most catastrophic defeats in the history of Ancient Rome, and one of the bloodiest battles in all of human history (in terms of the number of lives lost within a single day).[22] After Cannae, the Romans were not as enthusiastic in challenging Hannibal in pitched battles, instead preferring to defeat him by attrition, relying on their advantages of supply and manpower. As a result, Hannibal and Rome fought no more major battles in Italy for the rest of the war.[23] Lucius Aemilius Paullus (d. ... Quaestores were elected officials of the Roman Republic who supervised the treasury and financial affairs of the state, its armies and its officers. ... Military tribunes were officers of the Roman Legions. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...

Hannibal counting the rings of the Roman knights killed during the battle, statue by Sébastien Slodzt, 1704, Louvre.

The effect on morale of this victory meant that many parts of Italy joined Hannibal's cause.[24] As Polybius notes, "How much more serious was the defeat of Cannae, than those which preceded it can be seen by the behavior of Rome’s allies; before that fateful day, their loyalty remained unshaken, now it began to waver for the simple reason that they despaired of Roman Power."[25] During that same year, the Greek cities in Sicily were induced to revolt against Roman political control, while the Macedonian king, Philip V, pledged his support to Hannibal – thus initiating the First Macedonian War against Rome. Hannibal also secured an alliance with newly appointed King Hieronymus of Syracuse. It is often argued that if Hannibal had received proper material reinforcements from Carthage he might have succeeded with a direct attack upon Rome. For the present he had to content himself with subduing the fortresses which still held out against him, and the only other notable event of 216 BC was the defection of certain Italian territories, including Capua, the second largest city of Italy, which Hannibal made his new base. However, only a few of the Italian city-states which he had expected to gain as allies consented to join him. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1590x2890, 2493 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hannibal Battle of Cannae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1590x2890, 2493 KB) Description Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hannibal Battle of Cannae Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera... This article is about the museum. ... Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ... Combatants Roman Republic, Aetolian League, Pergamon Macedon Commanders Marcus Valerius Laevinus, Attalus I Philip V of Macedon The First Macedonian War (214 BC - 205 BC) was fought by Rome, allied (after 211 BC) with the Aetolian League and Attalus I of Pergamon, against Philip V of Macedon, contemporaneously with the... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Capua is a city in the province of Caserta, (Campania, Italy) situated 25 km (16 mi) north of Napoli, on the northeastern edge of the Campanian plain. ...


Stalemate

The war in Italy settled into a strategic stalemate. The Romans utilized the attritional strategies Fabius had taught them, and which, they finally realized, were the only feasible means of defeating Hannibal.[26] Indeed, Fabius received the surname "Cunctator" because of his policy of attrition.[27] The Romans deprived Hannibal of a large-scale battle and instead, assaulted his weakening army with multiple smaller armies in an attempt to both weary him and create unrest in his troops.[8] For the next few years, Hannibal was forced to sustain a scorched earth policy and obtain local provisions for protracted and ineffectual operations throughout Southern Italy. His immediate objectives were reduced to minor operations which centered mainly round the cities of Campania. This article is about the military strategy. ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ...


As the forces detached his lieutenants were generally unable to hold their own, and neither his home government nor his new ally Philip V of Macedon helped to make good his losses, his position in southern Italy became increasingly difficult and his chance of ultimately conquering Rome grew ever more remote. Hannibal still won a number of notable victories: completely destroying two Roman armies in 212 BC, and at one point, killing two Consuls (which included the famed Marcus Claudius Marcellus) in a battle in 208 BC. Nevertheless, without the resources his allies could contribute, or reinforcements from Carthage, Hannibal could not make further significant gains. Thus, inadequately supported by his Italian allies, abandoned by his government (either because of jealousy or simply because Carthage was overstretched) , and unable to match Rome’s resources, Hannibal slowly began losing ground. Hannibal continued defeating the Romans whenever he could bring them into battle, yet he was never able to complete another decisive victory that produced a lasting strategic effect. Coin of Philip V. The Greek inscription reads ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΦΙΛΙΠΠΟΥ ([coin] of King Philip). ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (ca. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC - 208 BC - 207 BC 206 BC...


Carthaginian political will was embodied in the ruling oligarchy. While there was a Carthaginian Senate, the real power in Carthage was with the inner "Council of 30 Nobles" and the board of judges from ruling families known as the "Hundred and Four." These two bodies consisted of the wealthy, commercial families of Carthage. Two political factions operated in Carthage: the war party, also known as the "Barcids" (Hannibal’s family name) and the peace party led by Hanno the Great. Hanno had been instrumental in denying Hannibal’s requested reinforcement following the battle at Cannae. Hundred and Four was a Carthaginian organization of judges. ... The Barcid family was a leading family in the ancient city of Carthage and many of its members were fierce enemies of the Roman Republic. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hannibal had started the war without the full backing of Carthaginian oligarchy. His attack of Saguntum had presented the oligarchy with a choice of war with Rome or loss of prestige in Iberia. The oligarchy and not Hannibal controlled the strategic resources of Carthage. Hannibal constantly sought reinforcement from either Iberia or North Africa. Hannibal’s troops lost in combat were replaced with less well-trained and motivated mercenaries from Italy or Gaul. The commercial interests of the Carthaginian oligarchy dictated the reinforcement of Iberia rather than Hannibal throughout the duration of the campaign.


Hannibal's retreat in Italy

In 212 BC Hannibal captured Tarentum but he failed to obtain control of the harbour. The tide was slowly turning against him, and in favor of Rome. 13241322456878448 8mur ;pgho[nthhjtrughtugo0gu08u8g-=i980u8595i oprjiojmn kjlkiuh8909n07rugre8yg789e0 789g8ryrvugu89werh8 h6n 7h g89g9r6r9wg90yghgp4ghb r yrhgr rng4y2[2u=y780945y54ut5486ut549tj450t87uh845vnnyh g98hhggggy785y49y5gtvnyht758027y4nvth7nt57858857yvbnv5ty589vt58940uv5bnvby[1 In the First Battle of Capua, Hannibal defeats the consuls Quintus Fulvius Flaccus and Appius Claudius, but the Roman army escapes, and soon reestablished the siege once again. ... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ...


The Romans mounted two sieges of Capua, which fell in 211 BC, and the Romans completed their conquest of Syracuse and destruction of a Carthaginian army in Sicily. Shortly thereafter, the Romans pacified Sicily and entered into an alliance with the Aetolian League to counter Phillip V. Philip, who attempted to exploit Rome's preoccupation in Italy to conquer Illyria, now found himself under attack from several sides at once and was quickly subdued by Rome and her Greek allies. Meanwhile, Hannibal had defeated Fulvius at Herdonea in Apulia, but lost Tarentum in the following year. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC... The Aetolian League was a confederation in ancient Greece centering on the cities of Aetolia in central Greece. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ...


In 210 BC Hannibal again proved his superiority in tactics by inflicting a severe defeat at Herdoniac (modern Ordona) in Apulia upon a proconsular army, and in 208 BC destroyed a Roman force engaged in the siege of Locri Epizephyri. But with the loss of Tarentum in 209 BC and the gradual reconquest by the Romans of Samnium and Lucania, his hold on south Italy was almost lost. In 207 BC he succeeded in making his way again into Apulia, where he waited to concert measures for a combined march upon Rome with his brother Hasdrubal Barca. On hearing, however, of his brother's defeat and death at the Metaurus he retired into Bruttium, where he maintained himself for the ensuing years. The combination of these events marked the end to Hannibal's success in Italy. With the failure of his brother Mago Barca in Liguria (205 BC-203 BC) and of his own negotiations with Philip of Macedon, the last hope of recovering his ascendancy in Italy was lost. In 203 BC, after nearly fifteen years of fighting in Italy, and with the military fortunes of Carthage rapidly declining, Hannibal was recalled to Carthage to direct the defense of his native country against a Roman invasion under Scipio Africanus. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC - 210 BC - 209 BC 208 BC... Ordona is a small town in the province of Foggia, in the region of Puglia, Italy. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC - 208 BC - 207 BC 206 BC... Locri Epizephyri (epi-Zephyros, under the West wind; see also List of traditional Greek place names) was founded about 680 BC on the Italian shores of the Ionian Sea, near modern Capo Zefirio, by the Locrians, apparently by Opuntii (East Locrians) from the city of Opus, but including Ozolae (West... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC - 209 BC - 208 BC 207 BC... Samnium (Oscan Safinim) was a region of the southern Apennines in Italy that was home to the Samnites, a group of Sabellic tribes that controlled the area from about 600 BC to about 290 BC. Samnium was delimited by Latium in the north, by Lucania in the south, by Campania... For the mountain in Canada named after Lucania, see Mount Lucania. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 212 BC 211 BC 210 BC 209 BC 208 BC - 207 BC - 206 BC 205 BC... Hasdrubal Barca (d. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic Commanders Hasdrubal Barca † Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Porcius Licinus Strength unknown Livius: 2 city legions, Nero: 6,000 foot, 1,000 horse, Licinus: 2 legions Casualties 57,000 killed, 5,400 prisoners 8,000 killed The Battle of the Metaurus was a pivotal battle... Calabria, formerly Brutium, is a region in southern Italy which occupies the toe of the Italian peninsula south of Naples. ... Mago Barca (also spelled Magon) (243 BC - 203 BC), brother of the Carthaginian General Hannibal, he played a major role in the Second Punic War against Rome. ... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ... Philip II of Macedon (Macedonia) (382 BC - 336 BC), King of Macedon (ruled 359 BC - 336 BC), was the father of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Philip III of Macedon. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 208 BC 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC - 203 BC - 202 BC 201 BC... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ...

Gold signet ring from Capua (late 3rd or early 2nd century B.C.) signed by Herakliedes, and bearing the portrait of Scipio Africanus. ... Gold signet ring from Capua (late 3rd or early 2nd century B.C.) signed by Herakliedes, and bearing the portrait of Scipio Africanus. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ...

Conclusion of Second Punic War (203–201 BC)

Return to Carthage

In 203 BC, when Scipio was carrying all before him in Africa and the Carthaginian peace party were arranging an armistice, Hannibal was recalled from Italy by the war party at Carthage. After leaving a record of his expedition engraved in Punic and Greek upon brazen tablets in the temple of Juno at Crotona, he sailed back to Africa.[28] His arrival immediately restored the predominance of the war party, who placed him in command of a combined force of African levies and his mercenaries from Italy. In 202 BC, Hannibal met Scipio in a fruitless peace conference. Despite mutual admiration, negotiations floundered due to Roman allegations of "Punic Faith," referring to the breach of protocols which ended the First Punic War by the Carthaginian attack on Saguntum, and a Carthaginan attack on a stranded Roman fleet. What had happened was that Scipio and Carthage had worked out a peace plan, which was approved by Rome. The terms of the treaty were quite modest, but the war had been long for the Romans. Carthage could keep its African territory but would lose its overseas empire, a fait-accompli. Masinissa (Numidia) was to be independent. Also, Carthage was to reduce its fleet and pay a war indemnity. But Carthage then made a terrible blunder. Its long-suffering citizens had captured a stranded Roman fleet in the Gulf of Tunes and stripped it of supplies, an action which aggravated the faltering negotiations. Meanwhile Hannibal, recalled from Italy by the Carthaginian senate, had returned with his army. Fortified by both Hannibal and the supplies, the Carthaginians rebuffed the treaty and Roman protests. The decisive battle at Zama soon followed, and it removed Hannibal's air of invincibility. A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... The Punics, (from Latin pūnicus meaning Phoenician) were a group of Western Semitic speaking peoples originating from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician and Cypriot settlers. ... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... Crotone is a city in Calabria, southern Italy, on the Gulf of Taranto. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... “Conscript” redirects here. ... Numidia was an ancient Berber kingdom in North Africa that later alternated between a Roman province and a Roman client state, and is no longer in existence today. ... This article is about the city in Tunisia. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic East Numidia Commanders Hannibal Scipio Africanus Masinissa Strength almost 58,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 Numidian cavalry Casualties 20,000 killed 11,000 wounded 15,000 captured 1,500 killed 4,000 wounded...


Battle of Zama

Main article: Battle of Zama

Unlike most battles of the Second Punic War, at Zama the Romans had superiority in cavalry and the Carthaginians had superiority in infantry. This Roman cavalry superiority was due to the betrayal of Masinissa, who had earlier assisted Carthage in Iberia, but changed sides in 206 BC with the promise of land and due to his personal conflicts with Syphax, a Carthaginian ally. This betrayal gave Scipio Africanus an advantage that had previously been possessed by the Carthaginians. Although the aging Hannibal was suffering from mental exhaustion and deteriorating health after years of campaigning in Italy, the Carthaginians still had the advantage in numbers and were boosted by the presence of 80 war elephants. Combatants Carthage Roman Republic East Numidia Commanders Hannibal Scipio Africanus Masinissa Strength almost 58,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 Numidian cavalry Casualties 20,000 killed 11,000 wounded 15,000 captured 1,500 killed 4,000 wounded... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... Masinissa, King of Numidia Masinissa or Massinissa (c. ... Syphax was a king of the Masaesyles of western Numidia. ...

Engraving of the Battle of Zama by Cornelis Cort, 1567.
Note that the elephants shown are Asian ones rather than the very small North African ones used by Carthage.

The Roman cavalry won an early victory, and Scipio had devised tactics for defeating Carthaginian war elephants.However, the battle remained closely fought. At one point it seemed that Hannibal was on the verge of victory, but Scipio was able to rally his men, and his cavalry attacked Hannibal's rear. This two-pronged attack caused the Carthaginian formation to disintegrate and collapse. With their foremost general defeated, the Carthaginians had no choice but to accept defeat and surrender to Rome. Carthage lost approximately 31,000 troops with an additional 15,000 wounded. In contrast, the Romans suffered only 1500 casualties. The battle resulted in a loss of respect for Hannibal by his fellow Carthaginians. It marked the last major battle of the Second Punic War, with Rome the victor. The conditions of defeat were such that Carthage could no longer battle for Mediterranean supremacy. However, Hannibal has still been glorified despite this loss due to the fact that Scipio had used Hannibal's tactics to defeat him. Image File history File links Zama. ... Image File history File links Zama. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic East Numidia Commanders Hannibal Scipio Africanus Masinissa Strength almost 58,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 Numidian cavalry Casualties 20,000 killed 11,000 wounded 15,000 captured 1,500 killed 4,000 wounded... Cornelis Cort (1536-1578), Dutch engraver, was born at Hoorn in Holland, and studied engraving under Hieronymus Cockx of Antwerp. ... Image:Elephant The Asian or Asiatic Elephant (Elephas maximus), sometimes known by the name of its nominate subspecies (the Indian Elephant), is one of the three living species of elephant, and the only living species of the genus Elephas. ...


Later career

Peacetime Carthage (200–196 BC)

Hannibal was still only 43 and soon showed that he could be a statesman as well as a soldier. Following the conclusion of a peace that left Carthage stripped of its formerly mighty empire, Hannibal prepared to take a back seat for a time. However, the blatant corruption of the oligarchy gave Hannibal a chance of a come back and he was elected as suffet, or chief magistrate. The office had become rather insignificant, but Hannibal restored its power and authority. The oligarchy, always jealous of him, had even charged him with having betrayed the interests of his country while in Italy, for neglecting to take Rome when he might have done so. So effectively did Hannibal reform abuses that the heavy tribute imposed by Rome could be paid by installments without additional and extraordinary taxation. He also reformed the Hundred and Four, stipulating that its membership be chosen by direct election rather than co-option. He also used citizen support to change the term of office in the Hundred and Four from life to a year with a term limit of two years. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Oligarchy (Greek , Oligarkhía) is a form of government where political power effectively rests with a small elite segment of society (whether distinguished by wealth, family or military powers). ... In Hebrew and several other Semitic languages, shofet (plural shoftim) literally means Judge, from the verb Å -F-T, to pass judgment. In ancient Israel, the shoftim were chieftains who united various Israelite tribes in time of mutual danger to defeat foreign enemies. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... Hundred and Four was a Carthaginian organization of judges. ...


Exile and death (195–183 BC)

Fourteen years after the victory of Zama, the Romans, alarmed by Carthage's renewed prosperity, demanded Hannibal's surrender. Hannibal thereupon went into voluntary exile. First he journeyed to Tyre, the mother-city of Carthage, and then to Ephesus, where he was honorably received by Antiochus III of Syria, who was preparing for war with Rome. Hannibal soon saw that the king's army was no match for the Romans. He advised him to equip a fleet and land a body of troops in the south of Italy, offering to take command himself. But he could not make much impression on Antiochus, who listened to his courtiers and would not entrust Hannibal with any important office. Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... For the town in the southern United States, see Ephesus, Georgia. ... Silver coin of Antiochus III Antiochus III the Great, (ruled 223 - 187 BC), younger son of Seleucus II Callinicus, became ruler of the Seleucid kingdom as a youth of about eighteen in 223 BC. (His traditional designation, the Great, stems from a misconception of Megas Basileus (Great king), the traditional...


According to Cicero, while at the court of Antiochus, Hannibal attended a lecture by Phormio, a philosopher, that ranged through many topics. When Phormio finished a discourse on the duties of a general, Hannibal was asked his opinion. He replied: "I have seen during my life many an old fool; but this one beats them all." Another story about Hannibal in exile gives a strange slant to his supposed Punic perfidy. Antiochus III showed off a vast and well-armed formation to Hannibal and asked him if they would be enough for the Roman Republic, to which Hannibal replied, "Yes, enough for the Romans, however greedy they may be." It should be noted that in this situation Hannibal had not been given command of the army, but Antiochus himself had developed the battle plan and was subsequently defeated. For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ...


In 196 BC he was placed in command of a Phoenician fleet but was defeated in a battle off the Eurymedon River. According to Strabo and Plutarch, Hannibal also received hospitality at the Armenian court of Artaxias I where he planned and supervised the building of the new royal capital Artaxata. From the court of Antiochus, who seemed prepared to surrender him to the Romans, Hannibal fled to Crete, but he soon went back to Asia Minor and sought refuge with Prusias I of Bithynia, who was engaged in warfare with Rome's ally, King Eumenes II of Pergamum. Hannibal went on to serve Prusias in this war. In one of the victories he gained over Eumenes at sea, it is said that he used one of the first examples of biological warfare - he threw cauldrons of snakes into the enemy vessels. Hannibal also visited Tyre the home of his forefathers. However the Romans were determined to hunt him down, and they insisted on his surrender. Prusias agreed to give him up, but Hannibal was determined not to fall into his enemies' hands. At Libyssa on the eastern shore of the Sea of Marmora, he took poison, which, it was said, he had long carried about with him in a ring. The precise year of his death is a matter of controversy. If, as Livy seems to imply, it was 183 BC, he died in the same year as Scipio Africanus, at the age of sixty four. Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC - 196 BC - 195 BC 194 BC... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Ancient geographers called the modern day Turkish river of Kopru su, the Eurymedon. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... Artaxias I (also called Artaxes or Artashes) (reigned 190 BCE-159 BCE) was one of the founders of the kingdom of Armenia and its first independent ruler. ... City plan of Artaxatas hill I and its fortifications. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... Prusias I Chlorus (c. ... Coin of Eumenes II Eumenes II of Pergamon (ruled 197 - 158 BC) was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Libyssa (modern-day Gebze) is a city in the north shore of Marmara Sea in Turkey. ... The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...


Possible Gravesite

In modern-day Turkey (ruins near Diliskelesi, South of Gebze, 60km East of Istanbul), an interesting curiosity is to be found in an industrial estate on a small hill beneath some cypress trees. Reputed to be Hannibal's grave, it was magnificently restored by Emperor Septimius Severus (A.D. 193-211), but it is now just a pile of stones. Excavations were carried out in 1906 by Wiegand, but he was skeptical of the site.[29] Lucius Septimius Severus (b. ...


Legacy to the ancient world

Long after his death, his name continued to carry a portent of great or imminent danger within the Roman Republic. It was written that he taught the Romans, who claimed to be fierce descendants of Mars, the meaning of fear. For generations, Roman housekeepers would tell their children brutal tales of Hannibal when they misbehaved. In fact, Hannibal became such a figure of terror, that whenever disaster struck, the Roman Senators would exclaim "Hannibal ad portas" (“Hannibal is at the Gates!”) to express their fear or anxiety. This famous Latin phrase evolved into a common expression that is often still used when a client arrives through the door or when one is faced with calamity.[30] This illustrates the psychological impact Hannibal's presence in Italy had on Roman Culture. Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and a magical flower (or Jupiter). ... This page lists direct English translations of common Latin phrases, such as veni vidi vici and et cetera. ... Julius Caesar, from the bust in the British Museum, in Cassells History of England (1902). ...


A grudging admiration for Hannibal is evident in the works of Roman historians such as Livy and Juvenal. The Romans even built statues of the Carthaginian in the very streets of Rome to advertise their defeat of such a worthy adversary.[31] It is plausible to suggest that Hannibal engendered the greatest fear Rome had towards an enemy. Nevertheless, they grimly refused to admit the possibility of defeat and rejected all overtures for peace, and they even refused to accept the ransom of prisoners after Cannae.[32]


During the war there are no reports of revolutions among the Roman citizens, no factions with the Senate desiring peace, no pro-Carthaginian Roman turncoats, no coups or dictatorships.[33][34] Roman aristocrats throughout the war ferociously competed with each other for positions of command to fight against Rome's most dangerous enemy. Hannibal's military genius was not enough to really disturb the Roman political process and the collective political and military genius of the Roman people. As Lazenby states, "It says volumes, too, for their political maturity and respect for constitutional forms that the complicated machinery of government continued to function even amidst disaster--there are few states in the ancient world in which a general who had lost a battle like Cannae would have dared to remain, let alone would have continued to be treated respectfully as head of state."[35] According to the historian Titus Livy Hannibal's military genius was feared among the Romans and during Hannibal's march against Rome in 211 BC[36] "a messenger who had travelled from Fregellae for a day and a night without stopping created great alarm in Rome, and the excitement was increased by people running about the City with wildly exaggerated accounts of the news he had brought. The wailing cry of the matrons was heard everywhere, not only in private houses but even in the temples. Here they knelt and swept the temple-floors with their dishevelled hair and lifted up their hands to heaven in piteous entreaty to the gods that they would deliver the City of Rome out of the hands of the enemy and preserve its mothers and children from injury and outrage."[37] In the Senate the news were "received with varying feelings as men's temperaments differed,"[38] so it was decided to keep Capua under siege, but send 15,000 infantry and 1,000 cavalry as reinforcements to Rome.[38]. Bust of Livy Titus Livius (around 59 BC - 17 AD), known as Livy in English, wrote a monumental history of Rome, Ab urbe condita, from its founding (traditionally dated to 753 BC). ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC - 210s BC - 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC Years: 216 BC 215 BC 214 BC 213 BC 212 BC - 211 BC - 210 BC 209 BC...


According to Livy, the land occupied by Hannibal's army outside Rome in 211 BC was sold at the very time of its occupation and for the same price.[39] This may not be true but as Lazenby states, "could well be, exemplifying as it does not only the supreme confidence felt by the Romans in ultimate victory, but also the way in which something like normal life continued.[40]. After Cannae the Romans showed a considerable steadfastness in adversity. An undeniable proof of Rome's confidence is demonstrated by the fact that after the Cannae disaster she was left virtually defenseless, but the Senate still chose not to withdraw a single garrison from an overseas province to strengthen the city. In fact, they were reinforced and the campaigns there maintained until victory was secured; beginning first in Sicily under direction of Claudius Marcellus, and later Hispania under Scipio Africanus.[41][42] Although the long-term consequences of Hannibal's war are debatable, this war was undeniably Rome's "finest hour".[43][44] Cannae (mod. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ...


Most of the sources available to historians about Hannibal are from Romans. They considered him the greatest enemy Rome had ever faced. Livy gives us the idea that he was extremely cruel. Even Cicero, when he talked of Rome and her two great enemies, spoke of the "honorable" Pyrrhus and the "cruel" Hannibal. Yet a different picture is sometimes revealed. When Hannibal's successes had brought about the death of two Roman consuls, he vainly searched for the body of Gaius Flaminius on the shores of Lake Trasimene, held ceremonial rituals in recognition of Lucius Aemilius Paullus, and sent Marcellus' ashes back to his family in Rome. Any bias attributed to Polybius, however, is more troublesome, since he was clearly sympathetic towards Hannibal. Nevertheless, Polybius spent a long period as a hostage in Italy and relied heavily on Roman sources, so there remains the possibility that he was reproducing elements of Roman propaganda. A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος) was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic era. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Gaius Flaminius was a politician and consul of the Roman Republic in the 3rd century BC. He was the greatest popular leader to challenge the authority of the Senate before the Gracchi a century later. ... Lake Trasimeno or Trasimene (in Italian: Lago Trasimeno), is the largest lake in peninsular Italy with a surface area of 128 km/sq, just slightly less than that of Lake Como. ... Lucius Aemilius Paullus 216 BC was a Roman Republic Roman general. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (ca. ... Polybius (c. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Legacy to the modern world

The material of legend: in "Snow-storm: Hannibal and his Army Crossing the Alps", J.M.W. Turner envelopes Hannibal’s crossing of the Alps in Romantic atmosphere

Hannibal's name is also commonplace in later art and popular culture, an objective measure of his foreign influence on Western history. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1229, 161 KB) Description: Title: de: Schneesturm: Hannibal und sein Herr überqueren die Alpen Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 144,7 × 236 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Tate... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1229, 161 KB) Description: Title: de: Schneesturm: Hannibal und sein Herr überqueren die Alpen Technique: de: Öl auf Leinwand Dimensions: de: 144,7 × 236 cm Country of origin: de: Großbritanien Current location (city): de: London Current location (gallery): de: Tate... J. M. W. Turner, English landscape painter The fighting Temeraire tugged to her last berth to be broken up, painted 1839. ... Romantics redirects here. ...


Like other military leaders, Hannibal's victories against superior forces in an ultimately losing cause won him enduring fame that outlasted his native country within North Africa. His crossing of the Alps remains one of the most monumental military feats of ancient warfare[45] and has since captured the imagination of the world (romanticized by several artworks).  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ...


TV and film

Year Film Other notes
2008 Hannibal the Conqueror Upcoming Motion Picture starring Vin Diesel
2006 Hannibal - Rome's Worst Nightmare TV film, starring Alexander Siddig
2005 Hannibal vs. Rome in National Geographic Channel
2004 The Phantom of the Opera The beginning Opera being rehearsed is one about Hannibal so titled Hannibal
2005 The True Story of Hannibal British documentary
2001 Hannibal: The Man Who Hated Rome British documentary
1997 The Great Battles of Hannibal British documentary
1996 Gulliver’s Travels Gulliver summons Hannibal from a magic mirror.
1960 Annibale Italian Motion Picture starring Victor Mature
1955 Jupiter's Darling British Motion Picture starring Howard Keel
1939 Scipio Africanus - the Defeat of Hannibal (Scipione l'africano) Italian Motion Picture
1914 Cabiria Italian Silent film

Vin Diesel (born Mark Vincent on July 18, 1967 in New York City), is an American actor, writer, director, and producer, known for his muscular physique and deep voice. ... Hannibal - Romes Worst Nightmare is a 2006 television film, made by the British Broadcasting Corporation. ... Alexander Siddig (Arabic: ألكسندر صدّيق) (born 21 November 1965) is a British actor, also known as Siddig El Fadil. ... The National Geographic Channel is a subscription television network that features documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society. ... The Phantom of the Opera is a 2004 Joel Schumacher directed film adaptation of Andrew Lloyd Webber and Charles Harts internationally successful 1986 stage musical, which is in turn based on the novel The Phantom of the Opera by Gaston Leroux. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... Victor Mature (29 January 1913 – 4 August 1999), an American film actor, was born in Louisville, Kentucky to a Tyrolean father, Marcellus George Mature, a cutler, and a Swiss-American mother, Clara Mature. ... Howard Keel, born Harry Clifford Leek (April 13, 1919 – November 7, 2004) was an American actor who starred in many of the classic film musicals of the 1950s. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ...

Comics

Literature

Novel unless otherwise noted:

  • 1300s, Dante's Divine Comedy, poem, Inferno XXXI.97-132, 115-124 (Battle of Zama) and Paradiso VI
  • 1700s, Gulliver's Travels, satirical work
  • 1862, Gustave Flaubert's Salammbô, set in Carthage at the time of Hamilcar Barca. Hannibal appears as a child.
  • 1996, Elisabeth Craft, A Spy for Hannibal: A Novel of Carthage, 091015533X
  • Ross Leckie, Carthage trilogy, source of the 2008 film (1996, Hannibal: A Novel, ISBN 0-89526-443-9 ; 1999, Scipio, a Novel, ISBN 0-349-11238-X ; Carthage, 2000, ISBN 0-86241-944-1)
  • 2005, Terry McCarthy, The Sword of Hannibal, ISBN 0-446-61517-X
  • 2006, David Anthony Durham, Pride of Carthage: A Novel of Hannibal, ISBN 0-385-72249-4
  • 2006, Angela Render, Forged By Lightning: A Novel of Hannibal and Scipio, ISBN 1-4116-8002-2

Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, in Michelinos fresco. ... Combatants Carthage Roman Republic East Numidia Commanders Hannibal Scipio Africanus Masinissa Strength almost 58,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 80 war elephants 34,000 Roman infantry 3,000 Roman cavalry 6,000 Numidian cavalry Casualties 20,000 killed 11,000 wounded 15,000 captured 1,500 killed 4,000 wounded... First Edition of Gullivers Travels Gullivers Travels (1726, amended 1735), officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Salammbô by Alfons Mucha (1896) Salammbô (1862) is an historical novel by Gustave Flaubert, which interweaves historical and fictional characters. ... Hamilcar Barca or Barcas (~270 – 228 BC) was a Carthaginian general and statesman, leader of the Barcid family, and father of Hannibal. ... David Anthony Durham is an American historical fictionalist, writing about the American Civil War and Ancient Carthage and Hannibal Barca. ... Pride of Carthage is a 2005 an award winning novel by American author David Anthony Durham. ...

Theatre and opera

Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Cover of the score of La prise de Troie, the first two acts of Les Troyens. ... Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido. ... Andrew Lloyd Webber, Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948) is a highly successful English composer of musical theatre, and also the elder brother of cellist Julian Lloyd Webber. ... The Phantom of the Opera is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber, based on the novel by French novelist Gaston Leroux. ...

Military history

Hannibal is usually ranked among the best military strategists and tacticians. According to Appian, several years after the Second Punic War, Hannibal was a political advisor in the Seleucid Kingdom and Scipio was sent there on a diplomatic mission from Rome.

It is said that at one of their meetings in the gymnasium Scipio and Hannibal had a conversation on the subject of generalship, in the presence of a number of bystanders, and that Scipio asked Hannibal whom he considered the greatest general, to which the latter replied, "Alexander of Macedonia."

To this Scipio assented since he also yielded the first place to Alexander. Then he asked Hannibal whom he placed next, and he replied, "Pyrrhus of Epirus," because he considered boldness the first qualification of a general; "for it would not be possible," he said, "to find two kings more enterprising than these." Alexander the Great (Greek: ),[1] Megas Alexandros; July 356 BC–June 11, 323 BC), also known as Alexander III, king of Macedon (336–323 BC), was one of, if not the most successful military commanders in history, conquering most of the known world before his death; he is regarded as... Pyrrhus of Epirus Pyrrhus (318-272 BC) (Greek: Πύρρος) was one of the most successful ancient Greek generals of the Hellenistic era. ...


Scipio was rather nettled by this, but nevertheless he asked Hannibal to whom he would give the third place, expecting that at least the third would be assigned to him; but Hannibal replied, "To myself; for when I was a young man I conquered Hispania and crossed the Alps with an army, the first after Hercules. I invaded Italy and struck terror into all of you, laid waste 400 of your towns, and often put your city in extreme peril, all this time receiving neither money nor reinforcements from Carthage."


As Scipio saw that he was likely to prolong his self-laudation he said, laughing, "Where would you place yourself, Hannibal, if you had not been defeated by me?" Hannibal, now perceiving his jealousy, replied, "In that case I should have put myself before Alexander." Thus Hannibal continued his self-laudation, but flattered Scipio in a delicate manner by suggesting that he had conquered one who was the superior of Alexander.


At the end of this conversation Hannibal invited Scipio to be his guest, and Scipio replied that he would be so gladly if Hannibal were not living with Antiochus, who was held in suspicion by the Romans. Thus did they, in a manner worthy of great commanders, cast aside their enmity at the end of their wars.[46][4] Silver coin of Antiochus III. The reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ...

Hannibal's exploits (especially his victory at Cannae) continue to be studied in military academies all over the world. For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ...

Hannibal's celebrated feat in crossing the Alps with war elephants passed into European legend: a fresco detail, ca. 1510, Capitoline Museums, Rome

The author of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article praises Hannibal in these words: Image File history File links HannibalFrescoCapitolinec1510. ... Image File history File links HannibalFrescoCapitolinec1510. ... The elephants thick hide protects it from injury. ... Michelangelos design for Capitoline Hill, now home to the Capitoline Museums. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Supporters contend that the Eleventh Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica (1910-1911) represents the sum of human knowledge at the beginning of the 20th century; indeed, it was advertised as such. ...

As to the transcendent military genius of Hannibal there cannot be two opinions. The man who for fifteen years could hold his ground in a hostile country against several powerful armies and a succession of able generals must have been a commander and a tactician of supreme capacity. In the use of stratagies and ambuscades he certainly surpassed all other generals of antiquity. Wonderful as his achievements were, we must marvel the more when we take into account the grudging support he received from Carthage. As his veterans melted away, he had to organize fresh levies on the spot. We never hear of a mutiny in his army, composed though it was of North Africans, Iberians and Gauls. Again, all we know of him comes for the most part from hostile sources. The Romans feared and hated him so much that they could not do him justice. Livy speaks of his great qualities, but he adds that his vices were equally great, among which he singles out his more than Punic perfidy and an inhuman cruelty. For the first there would seem to be no further justification than that he was consummately skillful in the use of ambuscades. For the latter there is, we believe, no more ground than that at certain crises he acted in the general spirit of ancient warfare. Sometimes he contrasts most favorably with his enemy. No such brutality stains his name as that perpetrated by Claudius Nero on the vanquished Hasdrubal. Polybius merely says that he was accused of cruelty by the Romans and of avarice by the Carthaginians. He had indeed bitter enemies, and his life was one continuous struggle against destiny. For steadfastness of purpose, for organizing capacity and a mastery of military science he has perhaps never had an equal.[3] An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ... Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...

Even his Roman chroniclers acknowledged his supreme military leadership, writing that, "he never required others to do what he could and would not do himself".[47] According to Polybius 23, 13, p. 423: "It is a remarkable and very cogent proof of Hannibal's having been by nature a real leader and far superior to anyone else in statesmanship, that though he spent seventeen years in the field, passed through so many barbarous countries, and employed to aid him in desperate and extraordinary enterprises numbers of men of different nations and languages, no one ever dreamt of conspiring against him, nor was he ever deserted by those who had once joined him or submitted to him."


Alfred Graf von Schlieffen's eponymously-titled "Schlieffen Plan" was developed from his military studies, with particularly heavy emphasis on Hannibal's envelopment technique he employed to surround and victoriously destroy the Roman army at Cannae.[48][49] George S. Patton believed that he was a reincarnation of Hannibal as well as many other people including a Roman legionary and a Napoleonic soldier.[50][51] Norman Schwarzkopf, the commander of the Coalition Forces in the Gulf War, claimed that "The technology of war may change, the sophistication of weapons certainly changes. But those same principles of war that applied to the days of Hannibal apply today."[52] Alfred Graf von Schlieffen Alfred Graf von Schlieffen (February 28, 1833 - January 4, 1913), German field marshal and strategist, served as Chief of the German Imperial General Staff from 1891 to 1905. ... Image:AlfredGrafVonSchlieffen. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... George Patton redirects here. ... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Norman Schwarzkopf can refer to: Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr. ...


According to the military historian, Theodore Ayrault Dodge, Theodore Ayrault Dodge (28 May 1842–1909) was a Union officer in the American Civil War and a military historian of both that war and of the great generals of ancient and European history. ...

Hannibal excelled as a tactician. No battle in history is a finer sample of tactics than Cannae. But he was yet greater in logistics and strategy. No captain ever marched to and fro among so many armies of troops superior to his own numbers and material as fearlessly and skillfully as he. No man ever held his own so long or so ably against such odds. Constantly overmatched by better soldiers, led by generals always respectable, often of great ability, he yet defied all their efforts to drive him from Italy, for half a generation. Excepting in the case of Alexander, and some few isolated instances, all wars up to the Second Punic War, had been decided largely, if not entirely, by battle-tactics. Strategic ability had been comprehended only on a minor scale. Armies had marched towards each other, had fought in parallel order, and the conqueror had imposed terms on his opponent. Any variation from this rule consisted in ambuscades or other stratagems. That war could be waged by avoiding in lieu of seeking battle; that the results of a victory could be earned by attacks upon the enemy’s communications, by flank-maneuvers, by seizing positions from which safely to threaten him in case he moved, and by other devices of strategy, was not understood . . .[However] For the first time in the history of war, we see two contending generals avoiding each other, occupying impregnable camps on heights, marching about each other's flanks to seize cities or supplies in their rear, harassing each other with small-war, and rarely venturing on a battle which might prove a fatal disaster—all with a well-conceived purpose of placing his opponent at a strategic disadvantage. . .That it did so was due to the teaching of Hannibal.[8]

Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... For the 11th century battle in the Byzantine conquest of the Mezzogiorno, see Battle of Cannae (1018). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Publius Cornelius Scipio†, Tiberius Sempronius Longus Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus, Gaius Flaminius†, Fabius Maximus, Claudius Marcellus†, Lucius Aemilius Paullus†, Gaius Terentius Varro, Marcus Livius Salinator, Gaius Claudius Nero, Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus†, Masinissa, Minucius†, Servilius Geminus† Hannibal Barca, Hasdrubal Barca†, Mago Barca†, Hasdrubal Gisco†, Syphax... An ambush is a long established military tactic in which an ambushing force uses concealment to attack an enemy that passes its position. ...

References

  1. ^ Hannibal's date of death is most commonly given as 183 BC, but there is a possibility it could have taken place in 182 BC.
  2. ^ Microsoft Encarta — Hannibal (general)
  3. ^ a b HANNIBAL ("grace of Baal") 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ a b Mary Macgregor. "The Death of Hannibal", The Story of Rome. 
  5. ^ Church, Alfred J., The Story of Carthage, p. 269
  6. ^ Mackay, Christopher S., Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History, p. 68
  7. ^ J. F. Lazenby, The Punic Wars. A Reappraisal.
  8. ^ a b c d e Ayrault Dodge, Theodore (1995). Hannibal: A History of the Art of War Among the Carthagonians and Romans Down to the Battle of Pydna, 168 BC. Da Capo Press. 
  9. ^ Will Durant, Caesar and Christ, Simon and Schuster, New York 1944, pp 45
  10. ^ Reverse Spins Patton, the Second Coming of Hannibal.
  11. ^ [1] The History of Rome: Vol III, by Livy
  12. ^ Dodge, Theodore Ayrault, Hannibal: A History of the Art of War Among the Carthaginians and Romans Down to the Battle of Pydna, 168 B.C, p. 143
  13. ^ Fagan, Garret G. "The History of Ancient Rome". Lecture 13: "The Second Punic War". Teaching Company, "Great Courses" series.
  14. ^ Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, p. 225
  15. ^ Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Second Punic War, p. 86
  16. ^ Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, p. 60
  17. ^ a b Dodge, Theodore. Hannibal. Cambridge Massachusetts: De Capo Press, 1891 ISBN 0-306-81362-9
  18. ^ Liddell Hart, Basil, Strategy, New York City, New York, Penguin Group, 1967
  19. ^ USAWC Comparing Strategies of the 2nd Punic War by James Parker. View as HTML
  20. ^ Goldsworthy, Adrian K. The Roman Army at War 100 BC - AD 200, New York
  21. ^ Internet Ancient History Sourcebook.
  22. ^ a b c d e Cottrell, Leonard, Enemy of Rome, Evans Bros, 1965, ISBN 0-237-44320-1
  23. ^ Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps, p. xv
  24. ^ Chaplin, Jane Dunbar, Livy's Exemplary History, p. 66
  25. ^ Polybius, The Histories of Polybius, 2 Vols., trans. Evelyn S. Shuckburgh (London: Macmillan, 1889), I. 264-275.
  26. ^ Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Second Punic War, p. 200
  27. ^ Pliny, tr. by Mary Beagon, The Elder Pliny on the Human Animal, p 361
  28. ^ Livy, The War with Hannibal, 28.46
  29. ^ http://wikimapia.org/#y=40782353&x=29441396&z=16&v=2 Coordinates: 40°46'56"N 29°26'29"E
  30. ^ Alan Emrich, Practical Latin
  31. ^ Holland, Rome and her Enemies 8
  32. ^ Livy, The War With Hannibal 22.61
  33. ^ Lazenby, Hannibal's War 237-8
  34. ^ Goldsworthy, The Fall of Carthage 315
  35. ^ J. F. Lazenby, The Hannibalic War, 254
  36. ^ Livy, The War With Hannibal 26.7 http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy26.html
  37. ^ Livy, The War With Hannibal 26.9 http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy26.html
  38. ^ a b Livy, The War With Hannibal 26.8 http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Livy/Livy26.html
  39. ^ Livy, The War with Hannibal, 26.11
  40. ^ J.F. Lazenby, The Hannibalic War, p. 254
  41. ^ Bagnall, The Punic Wars 203
  42. ^ Lazenby, Hannibal's War 235
  43. ^ Lazenby Hannibal's War 254
  44. ^ Goldsworthy The Fall of Carthage 366-7)
  45. ^ Hannibal, Carthaginian general, The Columbia Encyclopedia
  46. ^ Appian, History of the Syrian Wars, §10 and §11 at Livius.org
  47. ^ Hannibal at CarpeNoctem.tv
  48. ^ Daly, Gregory, Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War, p. x
  49. ^ Cottrell, Leonard, Hannibal: Enemy of Rome, p. 134
  50. ^ "Any man who thinks he is the reincarnation of Hannibal or some such isn't quite possessed of all his buttons", quoted by D'Este, Carlo, in Patton: A Genius For War, p. 815
  51. ^ Hirshson, Stanley, General Patton: A Soldier's Life, p. 163
  52. ^ Carlton, James, The Military Quotation Book, New York City, New York, Thomas Dunne Books, 2002

Theodore Ayrault Dodge (28 May 1842–1909) was a Union officer in the American Civil War and a military historian of both that war and of the great generals of ancient and European history. ... The military historian Basil Liddell Hart. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ...

Further reading in Punic Wars

  • Bickerman, Elias J. "Hannibal’s Covenant", American Journal of Philology, Vol. 73, No. 1. (1952), pp. 1–23.
  • Bradford, E, Hannibal, London, Macmillan London Ltd., 1981
  • Caven, B., Punic Wars, London, George Werdenfeld and Nicholson Ltd., 1980
  • Cottrell, Leonard, Hannibal: Enemy of Rome, Da Capo Press, 1992, ISBN 0-306-80498-0
  • Daly, Gregory, Cannae: The Experience of Battle in the Second Punic War, London/New York, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 0-415-32743-1
  • Delbrück, Hans, Warfare in Antiquity, 1920, ISBN 0-8032-9199-X
  • Hoyos, Dexter: Hannibal's Dynasty: Power and Politics in the Western Mediterranean, 247–183 B.C. (Routledge: London & New York, 2003; paperback edition with maps, 2005) - has much discussion of strategy and warfare.
  • Hoyos, Dexter, Hannibal: Rome's Greatest Enemy, Bristol Phoenix Press, 2005, ISBN 1-904675-46-8 (hbk) ISBN 1-904675-47-6 (pbk)
  • Lamb, Harold, Hannibal: One Man Against Rome, 1959.
  • Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, Blackwell Publishing, 1999, ISBN 0631218483
  • Livy, and De Selincourt, Aubery, The War with Hannibal: Books XXI-XXX of the History of Rome from its Foundation, Penguin Classics, Reprint edition, July 30, 1965, ISBN 0-14-044145-X (pbk)(also [2])
  • Prevas, John, Hannibal Crosses the Alps: The Invasion of Italy and the Second Punic War, 2001, ISBN 0306810700, questions which route he took
  • Talbert, Richard J.A., ed., Atlas of Classical History, Routledge, London/New York, 1985, ISBN 0-415-03463-9
  • Yardley, J.C. (translator) & Hoyos, D. (introduction, notes, maps and appendix on Hannibal's march over the Alps): Livy: Hannibal's War: Books 21 to 30 (Oxford World's Classics: Oxford Univ. Press, UK & USA, 2006).

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Hans Delbrück, 1848-1929 Hans Delbrück (November 11, 1848 - July 14, 1929), German historian, was born at Bergen on the island of Rügen, and studied at the universities of Heidelberg and Bonn. ... Harold Albert Lamb (1892 - April 9, 1962) was an American historian and novelist. ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... Richard J.A. Talbert (born 1947 in England) is a contemporary British ancient historian on the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he is William Rand Kenan, Jr. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


See also



  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia4U - Hannibal - Encyclopedia Article (302 words)
Following the end of the war, Hannibal led Carthage for several years, helping it to recover from the devastation of the war, until the jealous Romans forced him into exile in 195 BC.
Hannibal is ranked as one of the best military commanders in history, alongside Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Friedrich II and Napoleon.
Hannibal is the name of a film made in 2001 starring Anthony Hopkins.
Hannibal - definition of Hannibal in Encyclopedia (2226 words)
Hannibal is often ranked as one of the best military commanders in history alongside Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Friedrich II and Napoleon.
Hannibal (mercy or favor of Baal), son of Hamilcar Barca (q.v.), was born in 247 BC.
Accordingly, in spring 217 BC Hannibal decided to find a more trustworthy base of operations farther south; he crossed the Apennines without opposition, but in the marshy lowlands of the Arno he lost a large part of his force through disease and himself became blind in one eye.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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