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Encyclopedia > Hanja
Hanja

Korean name
Hangul 한자
Hanja 漢字
Revised Romanization Hanja
McCune-Reischauer Hancha
Korean writing systems
Chinese characters
Origins
Traditional Chinese
Variant characters
Simplified Chinese
Simplified Chinese (2nd-round)
Traditional/Simplified (debate)
Kanji
  • Man'yōgana
Hanja
Hán tự
  • Chữ Nôm
East Asian calligraphy
Input methods

Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically, it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the Korean language with Korean phonetics. Hanja-mal or hanja-eo refers to words which can be written with hanja, and hanmun (한문, 漢文) refers to Classical Chinese writing, although "hanja" is sometimes used loosely to encompass these other concepts. Because hanja never underwent major reform, they are almost entirely identical to traditional Chinese and kyūjitai characters. Only a small number of hanja characters are modified or unique to Korean. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Jamo redirects here. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Jamo redirects here. ... Hyangchal (hangul: 향찰; hanja: 鄕札; revised: hyangchal; McCune-Reischauer: hyangchal) is an archaic writing system used in Korea. ... Gugyeol is a system for rendering texts written in Classical Chinese into understandable Korean. ... Idu munja is an archaic writing system which represents the Korean language using hanja. ... Korean romanization means using letters of the Latin alphabet to write Korean language, which in Korea is written using Hangul, and sometimes Hanja. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... The Yale romanizations are four systems created during World War II for use by United States military personnel. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... Areas using only Chinese characters in green; in conjunction with other scripts, dark green; maximum extent of historic usage, light green. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Variant Chinese characters are Chinese characters that can be used interchangeably. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... The second round of Chinese character simplification was officially promulgated on December 20, 1977 by the Peoples Republic of China, and replaced the existing (first round) simplified Chinese characters that were already in use. ... The Traditional Chinese characters versus Simplified Chinese characters debate (繁簡之爭, more recently: 正簡之爭) has existed for a long time among Chinese users. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... It has been suggested that Shakukun be merged into this article or section. ... Idu munja is an archaic writing system which represents the Korean language using hanja. ... Hán tá»± (漢字, lit. ... Chữ nôm (𡦂喃 lit. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The art of calligraphy is widely practiced and revered in the East Asian civilizations that use Chinese characters. ... Oracle bone script (Chinese: 甲骨文; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally shell bone writing) refers to incised (or, rarely, brush-written) ancient Chinese characters found on oracle bones, which are animal bones or turtle shells used in divination in ancient China. ... Left: Bronze fang zun ritual wine container dated c. ... 《尋隱者不遇》—賈島 松下問童子 言師採藥去 隻在此山中 雲深不知處 Seeking the Master but not Meeting by Jia Dao Beneath a pine I asked a little child. ... The clerical script or chancery script (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: lìshu; Japanese: 隸書体, Reishotai;) is an archaic style of Chinese calligraphy which, due to its high legibility to modern readers, is still being used for artistic flavor in a variety of functional applications such as headlines, signboards and advertisements. ... Sheng Jiao Xu by Chu Suiliang: calligraphy of the Kaishu style The Regular Script, or in Chinese Kaishu (楷書 Pinyin: kÇŽishÅ«) and Japanese Kaisho, also commonly known as Standard Regular (正楷), is the newest of the Chinese calligraphy styles (peaked at the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Semi-cursive script is a partially cursive style of Chinese calligraphy. ... Chinese characters of Cursive Script in regular script (left) and cursive script (right). ... Since the Chinese language uses a logographic script — that is, a script where one or two characters corresponds roughly to one word or meaning — there are vastly more characters, or glyphs, than there are keys on a standard computer keyboard. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... This article is mainly about the spoken Korean language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound or voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Look up KyÅ«jitai in Wiktionary, the free dictionary KyÅ«jitai (旧字体, きゅうじたい) is the traditional form of the Japanese kanji used before 1947. ...


Although once of great importance to scholarship in Korea, today hanja are not used to write native Korean words, and even words of Chinese origin — hanja-eo (한자어, 漢字語) — are usually written with the native hangul alphabet. Jamo redirects here. ...

Contents

History

A major impetus for the introduction of Chinese characters into Korea was the spread of Buddhism. The major Chinese text that introduced hanja to Koreans, however, was not a religious text but the Chinese text, Cheonjamun (Thousand Character Classic). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... The Thousand Character Classic (千字文) is a Chinese poem used as a primer for teaching Chinese characters to children. ...


Koreans had to learn Classical Chinese to be properly literate for the most part, but there were some systems developed to use simplified forms of Chinese characters that phonetically transcribe Korean, namely, hyangchal (향찰; 鄕札), gugyeol (구결; 口訣), and idu (이두; 吏讀). Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Hyangchal (hangul: 향찰; hanja: 鄕札; revised: hyangchal; McCune-Reischauer: hyangchal) is an archaic writing system used in Korea. ... Gugyeol is a system for rendering texts written in Classical Chinese into understandable Korean. ... Idu munja is an archaic writing system which represents the Korean language using hanja. ...


One way of adapting hanja to write Korean in such systems (such as Gugyeol) was to represent native Korean grammatical particles and other words solely according to their pronunciation. For example, Gugyeol uses the characters 爲尼 to transcribe the Korean word "hăni", in modern Korean, that means "does, and so". However, in Chinese, the same characters are read as the expression "wéi ní," meaning "becoming a nun." This is a typical example of Gugyeol words where the radical (爲) is read in Korean for its meaning (hă — "to do") and the suffix 尼, ni (meaning 'nun'), used phonetically. In linguistics, the term particle is often employed as a useful catch-all lacking a strict definition. ...


Hanja was the sole means of writing Korean until King Sejong the Great promoted the invention of hangul in the 15th century. However, even after the invention of hangul, most Korean scholars continued to write in hanmun. Birth name Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 – May 18, 1450, r. ... Jamo redirects here. ...


It was not until the 20th century that hangul truly replaced hanja. Officially, hanja has not been used in North Korea since June 1949 (and additionally, all texts become horizontally written instead of vertically), because Kim Il-sung considered it an artifact of Japanese occupation and an impediment to literacy.[citation needed] Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi...


Additionally, many words borrowed from Chinese have been replaced in the North with native Korean words. However, there are a large number of Chinese-borrowed words in widespread usage in the North (although written in hangul), and hanja characters still appear in special contexts, such as recent North Korean dictionaries [1].


Character formation

Each hanja is composed of one of 214 radicals plus in most cases one or more additional elements. The vast majority of hanja use the additional elements to indicate the sound of the character, but a few hanja are purely pictographic, and some were formed in other ways. The left part of mā, a Chinese character meaning mother, is a radical that means woman A radical (from Latin radix, meaning root) is a basic identifiable component of every Chinese character. ...


Eumhun (sound and meaning)

To aid in understanding the meaning of a character, or to describe it orally to distinguish it from other characters with the same pronunciation, character dictionaries and school textbooks refer to each character with a combination of its sound and a word indicating its meaning. This dual meaning-sound reading of a character is called eumhun (음훈; 音訓; from 音 "sound" + 訓 "meaning," "teaching").


For example, the character 愛 is referred to in character dictionaries as sarang ae (사랑 애), where sarang is the native Korean word for "love" (the character's meaning) and ae is its sound. Similarly, the character 人 is read as referred to as saram in (사람 인), where "saram" means "person" and "in" is its sound. When these two example characters are put together to form the word 愛人, they are simply read as aein (애인), and denote the idea of a beloved or sweetheart ("love" + "person").


The word or words used to denote the meaning are often—though hardly always—words of native Korean (i.e., non-Chinese) origin, and are sometimes archaic words no longer commonly used. For example, the character 山 is referred to as me san or moe san (메산, pronounced "meh sahn"; or 뫼산, pronounced "moeh sahn"), where me or moe is an archaic word for "mountain," almost entirely supplanted by the Chinese-derived word san.


Education

Hanja are still taught in separate courses in South Korean high schools, apart from the normal Korean language curriculum. Formal hanja education begins in grade 7 (junior high school) and continues until graduation from senior high school in grade 12. A total of 1,800 hanja are taught: 900 for junior high, and 900 for senior high (starting in grade 10).[1] Post-secondary hanja education continues in some liberal arts universities.[2] The 1972 promulgation of basic hanja for educational purposes was altered in December 31, 2000, to replace 44 hanja with 44 others.[citation needed] The choice of characters to eliminate and exclude caused heated debates prior to and after the 2000 promulgation.[citation needed] In South Korea, education is highly regarded and very competitive. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


Though North Korea rapidly abandoned the general use of hanja soon after independence,[3] the number of hanja actually taught in primary and secondary schools is greater than the 1,800 taught in South Korea.[4] Kim Il-sung had earlier called for a gradual elimination of the use of hanja,[5] but by the 1960s, he had reversed his stance; he was quoted as saying in 1966, "While we should use as few Sinitic terms as possible, students must be exposed to the necessary Chinese characters and taught how to write them."[6] As a result, a Chinese-character textbook was designed for North Korean schools for use in grades 5-9, teaching 1,500 characters, with another 500 for high school students.[7] College students are exposed to another 1,000, bringing the total to 3,000.[8] Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ...


In Korean language and Korean studies programs at universities around the world, a sample of hanja is typically a requirement for students.[citation needed] Becoming a graduate student in these fields usually requires students to learn at least the 1,800 basic hanja.[citation needed] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Current uses of hanja

Because many different hanja—and thus, many different words written using hanja—often share the same sounds, two distinct hanja words (hanjaeo) may be spelled identically in the phonetic hangul alphabet. Thus, hanja are often used to clarify meaning, either on their own without the equivalent hangul spelling, or in parentheses after the hangul spelling as a kind of gloss. Hanja are often also used as a form of shorthand in newspaper headlines, advertisements, and on signs. Some details of use follow.


Hanja in print media

In South Korea, hanja are used most frequently in academic literature, where they often appear without the equivalent hangul spelling.[citation needed] Usually, only those words with a specialized or ambiguous meaning are printed in hanja.[citation needed] In mass-circulation books and magazines, hanja are generally used rarely, and only to gloss words already spelled in hangul when the meaning is ambiguous.[citation needed] hanja are also often used in newspaper headlines as abbreviations or to eliminate the ambiguity typical of newspaper headlines in any language.[9] In contrast, North Korea eliminated the use of hanja even in academic publications by 1949, a situation which has since remained unchanged.[10] Hanja are often used for advertising or decorative purposes, and appear frequently in dictionaries and atlases; see below.[citation needed]


Hanja in dictionaries

In modern Korean dictionaries, all entry words of Sino-Korean origin are printed in hangul and listed in hangul order, with the hanja given in parentheses immediately following the entry word.


This practice helps to eliminate ambiguity, and it also serves as a sort of shorthand etymology, since the meaning of the hanja and the fact that the word is composed of hanja often help to illustrate the word's origin.


As an example of how hanja can help to clear up ambiguity, many homophones are written in hangul as 수도 (sudo), including:

  1. 修道 — spiritual discipline
  2. 受渡 — receipt and delivery
  3. 囚徒 — prisoner
  4. 水都 — 'city of water' (e.g. Hong Kong and Naples)
  5. 水稻 — rice
  6. 水道 — drain
  7. 隧道 — tunnel
  8. 首都 — capital (city)
  9. 手刀 — hand-knife

Hanja dictionaries (Jajeon (자전, 字典) or Okpyeon (옥편, 玉篇)) are organized by radicals, like hanzi and kanji. Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... A disused railway tunnel now converted to pedestrian and bicycle use, near Houyet, Belgium A tunnel is an underground passage. ... The left part of mā, a Chinese character meaning mother, is a radical that means woman A radical (from Latin radix, meaning root) is a basic identifiable component of every Chinese character. ...


Hanja in personal names

Korean personal names generally use hanja, although exceptions exist. On business cards, the use of hanja is slowly fading away. On business cards, most older people have their name in hanja, but not hangul, and most younger people have their name in hangul, but not hanja. Korean personal names usually consist of a one-character family name (seong, 성, 姓) followed by a two-character given name (ireum, 이름). There are a few 2-character family names (eg 南宮, Namgung), and the holders of such names — but not only them — tend to have one-syllable given names. Traditionally, the given name in turn consists of one character unique to the individual and one character shared by all people in a family of the same sex and generation (see Generation name). Things have changed, however, and while these rules are still largely followed, some people have given names that are native Korean words (popular ones include "Haneul" — meaning "heaven" or "sky" — and "Iseul" — meaning "dew"). Nevertheless, on official documents, people's names are still recorded in both hangul and in hanja (if the name is composed of hanja). A Korean personal name consists of a family name followed by a given name. ... Generation name is half of the two-Chinese character given name given to newborns in the same generation of one surname lineage. ...

Hanja in place names

Due to standardization efforts during Goryeo and Joseon eras, native Korean placenames were converted to hanja, and most names used today are hanja-based. The most notable exception is the name of the capital, Seoul. Disyllabic names of railway lines, freeways, and provinces are often formed by taking one character from each of the two locales' names. For Seoul, the abbreviation is the hanja gyeong (京, "capital"). Thus, Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... Joseon redirects here. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ...

  • The Gyeongbu (京釜) corridor connects Seoul (gyeong) with Busan (bu);
  • The Gyeongin (京仁) corridor connects Seoul with Incheon (in);
  • The former Jeolla (全羅) Province took its name from the first characters in the city names Jeonju (全州) and Naju (羅州) ("Naju" is originally "Raju," but the initial "r/l" sound in South Korean is simplified to "n").

Most atlases of Korea today are published in two versions: one in hangul (sometimes with some English as well), and one in hanja. Subway and railway station signs give the station's name in hangul, hanja, and English, both to assist visitors and to disambiguate the name. The name Gyeongbu refers to the Seoul-Busan corridor in South Korea, and is used as the name of the Gyeongbu railway line and Gyeongbu Expressway, both of which connect Seoul—the South Korean capital and largest city—to Busan—the largest port and second-largest city. ... Busan Metropolitan City, also known as Pusan[1] is the largest port city in the Republic of Korea. ... The name Gyeongin refers to the Seoul-Incheon corridor in South Korea, and is used as the name of the Gyeongin railway line and Gyeongin Expressway, both of which link Seoul--the South Korean capital and largest city--to nearby Incheon--the second-largest port and fourth-largest city. ... Inchon redirects here. ... Jeolla (Jeolla-do) was one of the eight provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty. ... Jeonju (Jeonju-si) is a city in and the capital of North Jeolla Province, South Korea. ... Naju (Naju-si) is a city in South Jeolla Province, South Korea. ...


Hanja usage

See also: Korean mixed script

Opinion surveys show that the South Korean public do not consider hanja literacy essential, a situation attributed to the fact that hanja education in South Korea does not begin until the seventh year of schooling.[11] Hanja terms are also expressed through hangul, the standard script in the Korean language. Some studies, however, suggest that hanja use appears to be in decline. In 1956, one study found mixed-script Korean text (in which Sino-Korean nouns are written using hanja, and other words using hangul) were read faster than texts written purely in hangul; however, by 1977, the situation had reversed.[12] In 1988, 80% of one sample of people without a college education "evinced no reading comprehension of any but the simplest, most common hanja" when reading mixed-script passages.[13] Jamo redirects here. ...


Korean hanja

A small number of characters were invented by Koreans themselves. Most of them are for proper names (place-names and people's names) but some refer to Korean-specific concepts and materials. They include 畓 (논 답; non dap; "paddyfield"), 乭 (Dol, a character only used in given names), 㸴 (So, a rare surname from Seongju), and 怾 (Gi, an old name of the Kumgangsan). Seongju County (Seongju-gun) is a county in North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. ... KÅ­mgangsan (Diamond Mountain) is the second-tallest mountain in North Korea, with a height of 1638 metres. ...


Some hanja characters have simplified forms (yakja) that can be seen in casual use. An example is , which is a cursive form of 無. Some of them are similar to Japanese shinjitai (new character forms). Shinjitai (in Shinjitai: ; in KyÅ«jitai: æ–°å­—é«”; meaning new character form), are the forms of Kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946. ...


Pronunciation

Each hanja character is pronounced as a single syllable, corresponding to a single composite character in hangul. The pronunciation of hanja in Korean is not identical to the way they are pronounced in Chinese, particularly Mandarin, although some Chinese dialects and Korean share similar pronunciations. For example, 印刷 "print" is yìnshuā in Mandarin Chinese and inswae (인쇄) in Korean, but it is pronounced insue in Shanghainese (a Wu Chinese dialect). In some cases the pronunciation of hanja in Korean has simplified more than any variety of Chinese, such as in the complete loss of tone from Korean (in contrast, all Chinese dialects retain tone). In other aspects, the pronunciation of hanja is more conservative than most Chinese dialects, for example in the retention of labial consonant codas in characters with labial consonant onsets, such as the characters 法 (법 beop) and 凡 (범 beom); the labial codas existed in Middle Chinese but do not survive intact in most Chinese varieties today, including conservative southern varieties like Cantonese and Min. Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shanghainese (上海言话 [] in Shanghainese), sometimes referred to as the Shanghai dialect, is a dialect of Wu Chinese spoken in the city of Shanghai. ... Wu (吳方言 pinyin wú fāng yán; 吳語 pinyin wú yǔ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Some web browsers may not be able to view this correctly; you may see transcriptions in parentheses after the character, like this: () instead of on top of the character as intended. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... In phonetics and phonology, a syllable onset is the part of a syllable that precedes the syllable nucleus. ... Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggÇ” HànyÇ”), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ...


Due to divergence in pronunciation since the time of borrowing, sometimes the pronunciation of a hanja and its corresponding hanzi may differ considerably. For example, 女 ("woman") is in Mandarin Chinese and nyeo (녀) in Korean. However, in most modern Korean dialects (especially South Korean ones), 女 is pronounced as yeo (여) when used in an initial position, due to a systematic displacement of initial n's followed by y or i. For Korea as a whole, see Korea. ...


Additionally, sometimes a hanja-derived word will have altered pronunciation of a character to reflect Korean pronunciation shifts, for example mogwa 모과 木果 "quince" from mokgwa 목과.


Hanja analogs

There are historical similarities in the development of the hanja and kanji[citation needed], which is the analog used in Japan, and there are also similarities in application between hanja and kanji.[citation needed] The archaic Japanese man'yōgana system of reading is similar to gugyeol.[citation needed] The Japanese on and kun readings of kanji, whereby a character may be read according to its Chinese-derived sound (on) or its native Japanese meaning (kun), is similar in concept to eumhun.[citation needed] It has been suggested that Shakukun be merged into this article or section. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ Hannas (1997). {{{title}}}, p. 71. “A balance was struck in August 1976, when the Ministry of Education agreed to keep Chinese characters out of the elementary schools and teach the 1,800 characters in special courses, not as part of Korean language or any other substantitive curricula. This is where things stand at present” 
  2. ^ Hannas 1997: 68-69
  3. ^ Hannas (1997). {{{title}}}, p. 67. “By the end of 1946 and the beginning of 1947, the major newspaper Nodong sinmun, mass circulation magazine Kulloja, and similar publications began appearing in all-hangul. School textbooks and literary materials converted to all-hangul at the same time or possibly earlier (So 1989:31)” 
  4. ^ Hannas (1997). {{{title}}}, p. 68. “Although North Korea has removed Chinese characters from its written materials, it has, paradoxically, ended up with an educationa program that teachers more characters than either South Korea or Japan, as Table 2 shows.” 
  5. ^ Hannas (1997). {{{title}}}, p. 67. “According to Ko Yong-kun, Kim went on record as early as February 1949, when Chinese characters had already been removed from most DPRK publications, as advocating their gradual abandonment (1989:25)” 
  6. ^ Hannas (1997). {{{title}}}, p. 67. 
  7. ^ Hannas (1997). {{{title}}}, p. 67. “Between 1968 and 1969, a four-volume textbook appeared for use in grades 5 through 9 designed to teach 1,500 characters, confirming the applicability of the new policy to the general student population. Another five hundred were added for grades 10 through 12 (Yi Yun-p'yo 1989: 372)” 
  8. ^ Hannas 2003: 188-189
  9. ^ Brown 1990: 120
  10. ^ Hannas 1997: 67
  11. ^ Brown 1990: 119-121
  12. ^ Taylor and Taylor 1983: 90
  13. ^ Brown 1990: 119

Sources

  • Brown, R.A. (1990). "Korean Sociolinguistic Attitudes in Japanese Comparative Perspective". Journal of Asia Pacific Communication 1: 117-134.
  • DeFrancis, John (1990). The Chinese Language: Fact and Fantasy. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1068-6. 
  • Hannas, William. C. (1997). Asia's Orthographic Dilemma. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X (paperback); ISBN 0-8248-1842-3 (hardcover). 
  • Hannas, William. C. (2003). The Writing on the Wall: How Asian Orthography Curbs Creativity. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0-8122-3711-0. 
  • Taylor, Insup; Taylor, M. Martin (1983). The psychology of reading. New York: Academic Press. ISBN 0-1268-4080-6. 

See also

  • List of Korea-related topics
  • Sino-Korean vocabulary
  • Chinese character
  • Korean mixed script

Image File history File links Incubator-notext. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Incubator logo The Wikimedia Incubator is a wiki run by Wikimedia Foundation. ... This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...

External links

  • Open옥편 (open-source hanja dictionary)
  • Hanja Hangul Convert Project
  • Hanja (Chinese characters)
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  Results from FactBites:
 
learnkorean.com: Hanja lessons (278 words)
Hanja, or 'Sino-Korean characters', means the Chinese characters used in Korea, parallel to Japanese kanji.
The sound of the characters is quite Koreanized, but the meanings are almost exactly the same throughout in Korea, China, and Japan.
Getting oriented with some of the basic hanja's will help you to learn the Far Eastern culture in general.
Hanja - Galbijim (311 words)
Hanja is the name for Chinese characters used in the Korean language.
Korean used to be written entirely in hanja until the invention of hangeul by King Sejong and his scribes, and even then hanja was mainly used until the end of World War II.
Those who know hanja are capable of finding the hanja written in a hangeul script, though the process can be time-consuming especially given the fact that most software in Korea does not recognize hanja compound words and thus the user is often forced to pick characters one at a time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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