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Encyclopedia > Hangover

A hangover (veisalgia) describes the sum of unpleasant physiological effects following heavy consumption of drugs, particularly alcoholic beverages. The most commonly reported characteristics of a hangover include headache, nausea, sensitivity to light and noise, lethargy, dysphoria and thirst. Look up hangover in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Booze redirects here. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Photophobia (also light sensitivity) or fear of light, is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ... The English suffix -phobia is technically used to describe irrational, disabling fear as a mental disorder, and commonly misused to describe hatred of a particular thing or subject. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... Look up dysphoria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hypoglycemia, dehydration, acetaldehyde intoxication, and vitamin B12 deficiency are all theorized causes of hangover symptoms. Hangovers may last up to two or three days after alcohol was last consumed.[1] Roughly 25-30% of drinkers are resistant to hangover symptoms.[2] Some aspects of hangover can be viewed as symptoms of acute ethanol withdrawal, similar to the longer-duration effects of withdrawal from alcoholism, as determined by studying the increases in brain reward thresholds in rats (the amount of current required to receive to electrodes implanted in the lateral hypothalamus) following ethanol injection.[3] Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland (hypophysis). ...

Contents

Symptoms

An alcohol hangover is associated with a variety of symptoms that may include dehydration, fatigue, headache, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, elevated body temperature, hypersalivation, difficulty concentrating, anxiety, irritability, sensitivity to light and noise, erratic motor functions, trouble sleeping, lack of depth perception and/or hair loss. Many people will also be repulsed by the thought or taste of alcohol during a hangover. The symptoms vary from person to person, and occasion to occasion, usually beginning several hours after drinking. It is not clear whether hangovers affect cognitive abilities[citation needed]. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... The term symptom (from the Greek syn = con/plus and pipto = fall, together meaning co-exist) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: A symptom can be a physical condition which shows that one has a particular illness or disorder (see e. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... Exhaustion redirects here. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Heaving redirects here. ... In medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), refers to frequent loose or liquid bowel movements. ... Weakness can mean: The opposite of strength Weakness (medical) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when temperature surrounding is very different. ... Drooling (also known as ptyalism) is caused by saliva flowing outside the mouth. ... Anxiety is a physiological state characterized by cognitive, somatic, emotional, and behavioral components[1]. These components combine to create the feelings that we typically recognize as anger and known as fear, apprehension, or worry. ... Irritability is an excessive response to stimuli. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ...


Causes

Hangovers are multi-causal. Ethanol has a dehydrating effect by causing increased urine production (such substances are known as diuretics), which causes headaches, dry mouth, and lethargy. Dehydration causes the brain to shrink away from the skull slightly.[4] This can be mitigated by drinking water or an oral electrolyte solution after consumption of alcohol. Alcohol's effect on the stomach lining can account for nausea. Because of the increased NADH production during metabolism of ethanol by the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, excess NADH can build up and slow down gluconeogenesis in the liver, thus causing hypoglycemia. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ... Fatigue is a feeling of excessive tiredness or lethargy, with a desire to rest, perhaps to sleep. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... An electrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. ... Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. ... Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Aldehyde dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation (dehydrogenation) of aldehydes. ... Gluconeogenesis pathway with key molecules and enzymes. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Hypoglycemia (hypoglycaemia in British English) is a medical term referring to a pathologic state produced by a lower than normal level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. ...


Another factor contributing to a hangover are the products from the breakdown of ethanol via liver enzymes. Ethanol is converted to acetaldehyde by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, and then from acetaldehyde to acetic acid by the enzyme acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde (ethanal) is mildly toxic, contributing to hangover. These two reactions also require the conversion of NAD+ to NADH. With an excess of NADH, the lactate dehydrogenase reaction is driven to produce lactate from pyruvate (the end product of glycolysis) in order to regenerate NAD+ and sustain life. This diverts pyruvate from other pathways such as gluconeogenesis, thereby impairing the ability of the liver to supply glucose to tissues, especially the brain. Because glucose is the primary energy source of the brain, this lack of glucose contributes to hangover symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, mood disturbances, and decreased attention and concentration. R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1. ... Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Pyruvate (CH3COCOO−) is the ionized form of pyruvic acid. ... Glycolysis is the sequence of reactions that converts glucose into pyruvate with the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of ATP. The word is derived from Greek γλυκύς (sweet) and λύσις (letting loose). ...


There are various nervous system effects: the removal of the depressive effects of alcohol in the brain probably account for the light and noise sensitivity.


In addition, it is thought that the presence of other alcohols (such as fusel oils), by-products of the alcoholic fermentation also called congeners, exaggerate many of the symptoms (congeners may also be zinc or other metals added primarily to sweet liqueurs to enhance their flavor); this probably accounts for the mitigation of the effects when distilled alcohol, particularly vodka, is consumed instead[citation needed]. Fusel alcohols, also sometimes called fusel oils, are higher order (more than two carbons) alcohols formed by fermentation and present in cider, mead, beer, wine, and spirits to varying degrees. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... A congener (from Latin roots meaning born together or within the same race or kind) has several different meanings depending on the field in which it is used. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ...


The amount of congeners in the drink may also have an effect. Red wines have more congeners than white wines, and some people note less of a hangover with white wine. Some individuals have a strong negative reaction to red wine, distinct from hangover, called red wine headache that can affect them within 15 minutes after drinking a single glass of red wine. The headache is usually accompanied by nausea and flushing[citation needed]. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In alcohol metabolism, one molecule of ethanol (the primary active ingredient in alcoholic beverages) produces 2 molecules of NADH, utilizing vitamin B12 as a coenzyme. Over-consumption of ethanol may cause vitamin B12 deficiency as well. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) are two important coenzymes found in cells. ... Cyanocobalamin is a compound that is metabolized to a vitamin in the B complex commonly known as vitamin B12 (or B12 for short). ...


Possible remedies

There is debate about whether a hangover might be prevented or at least mitigated. There is currently no known proven mechanism for making oneself sober short of waiting for the body to metabolize ingested alcohol, which occurs via oxidation through the liver before alcohol leaves the body. However, drinking a large amount of water or a rehydration drink prior to sleep will effectively reduce a large proportion of the symptoms.


A four page literature review in British Medical Journal on hangover cures by Max Pittler of the Peninsula Medical School at Exeter University and colleagues concludes: "No compelling evidence exists to suggest that any conventional or complementary intervention is effective for preventing or treating alcohol hangover. The most effective way to avoid the symptoms of alcohol induced hangover is to practice moderation."[5] The British Medical Journal (BMJ) is a medical journal published weekly in the United Kingdom by the British Medical Association (BMA)which published its first issue in 1845. ... The University of Exeter is the principal University in the English city of Exeter, in Devon. ...


Hangover Prevention Clinical Study

HPF Hangover Prevention Formula contains a patented herbal extract that was clinically proven to have a moderate effect at reducing hangover symptoms by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators. The double blind study, conducted, among graduate medical students at Tulane University, was peer-reviewed by the American Medical Association and published in the Archives of Internal Medicine.2004;164:1334-1340-- The Original Investigation is from the General Internal Medicine Section and Department of Medicine, Tulane Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA ( Drs Wiese and McPherson); and General Internal Medicine Section and Departments of Medicine Section and Departments of Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco (Ms Odden and Dr Schlipak. The authors had no financial interest in the study.


Potential beneficial remedies

  • Rehydration: "Effective interventions include rehydration, prostaglandin inhibitors, and vitamin B6".[6]In Scotland, the drink Irn-Bru is known as a hangover remedy
  • Narcotics: Codeine, dihydrocodeine, tilidine and other such medication directly work against many of the effects of alcohol hangover. It is believed that analgesic preparations containing acetaminophen (paracetamol/Tylenol) may predispose people to the risk of potentially fatal hepatotoxicity. Consumption of narcotics along with alcohol or shortly after consumption thereof is potentially dangerous in itself because of added depressant effects on the central nervous system.
  • Exercise: It is known that exercise after heavy intoxication helps the heart pump blood around the body and increases the amount of oxygen in the body. A light jog that allows the heart rate to increase can help your body get over a hangover.
  • Oxygen: In a double-blind random study of 231 patients at two Vienna hospitals, published in Anesthesiology in 1999 and reported on by The New York Times, it was found that the side-effects of general anesthesia could be diminished by giving patients a mix of 80 percent oxygen and 20 percent nitrogen during the surgery, and for two hours afterward. Only 17 percent of the patients receiving supplemental oxygen experienced nausea and vomiting, compared with 30 percent of the group who were given the standard 30 percent oxygen and 70 percent nitrogen.[7] The study's leader characterized the results for the Times, "Extra oxygen is cheap, risk-free and reduces the incidence of nausea as well as any known drug." A related study by members of Dr. Sessler's team, published in Anesthesiology in October 1999, indicated that patients given oxygen in amounts up to 80 percent did not suffer impaired lung function. In addition, there have been anecdotal reports, from doctors, nurses and SCUBA divers, that oxygen can also reduce the symptoms of hangovers sometimes caused by alcohol consumption. The theory is that the increased oxygen flow resulting from oxygen therapy improves the metabolic rate, and thus increases the speed at which toxins are broken down.[8]
  • Magnesium: It is well studied that excessive alcohol consumption can lead to a magnesium deficiency, or reduce levels of magnesium, as well as depleting zinc and other minerals. Individuals with lower magnesium levels may experience more severe hangovers. A healthy diet that contains an adequate intake of magnesium and other minerals may help in the long term to reduce the effects of hangovers. The hangover symptoms of headache, and light and sound sensitivity, are very similar to those of migraine. A common treatment for chronic migraine headaches is magnesium. Some scientists hypothesize that a hangover may be exhibiting at least some symptoms of an acute magnesium deficiency.
  • Tolfenamic acid (TA): A study concludes, "TA was found significantly better than placebo in the subjective evaluation of drug efficacy (p<0.001) and in reducing the reported hangover symptoms in general (p < 0.01). In the TA group, significantly lower symptom scores were obtained for headache (p<0.01), and for nausea, vomiting, irritation, tremor, thirst, and dryness of mouth (all p < 0.05)."[9]
  • Vitamin B6 (pyritinol): Some studies have found that Vitamin B6 reduces hangovers.[6][10]
  • Chlormethiazole: "Chlormethiazole was found to lower blood pressure and adrenaline output and, furthermore, to relieve unpleasant physical symptoms, but did not affect fatigue and drowsiness. The cognitive test results were only slightly influenced by this agent, while psychomotor performance was significantly impaired. Subjects with severe subjective hangover seemed to benefit more from the chlormethiazole treatment than subjects with a mild hangover."[11] "However, all 8 subjects had unpleasant nasal symptoms following chlormethiazole, and it is therefore not an ideal hypnotic for this age group."[12]
  • Rosiglitazone: [Study in rats] "Rosiglitazone alleviated the symptoms of ethanol-induced hangover by inducing ALD2 expression…"[13]
  • Acetylcysteine: There are claims that N-acetylcysteine can relieve or prevent symptoms of hangover through scavenging of acetylaldehyde.
  • Food and Water: Simple consumption of foods such as eggs, which contain cysteine, and water may be enough to replenish lost moisture and at least rehydrate the body, making a hangover shorter.
  • A glass of Milk, water and orange juice. The Calcium, re-hydration properties, and vitamin C contained in each product respectively is found to combat the symptoms of a hangover if taken shortly after consumption.

Irn Bru Irn Bru is the most popular caffeinated soft drink in Scotland. ... For the band, see Codeine (band). ... Dihydrocodeine, also called DHC, Drocode, Paracodeine and Parzone and by the brand names of Synalgos DC, Panlor DC, Panlor SS, SS Bron, Drocode, Paracodin, Codidol, Didor Continus, Dicogesic, Codhydrine, Dekacodin, DH-Codeine, Didrate, Dihydrin, Hydrocodin, Nadeine, Novicodin, Rapacodin, Fortuss, Dico, and DF-118 amongst others, is a semi-synthetic opioid... Tilidine (INN, USAN), or tilidate (BAN) (Valoron®, Valtran®, Tilidin) is a synthetic opioid analgesic, used for treatment of moderate to severe pain, both acute and chronic[1]. Considered a low- to medium-potency opioid, it has the oral potency of about 0. ... Acetaminophen (USAN) or paracetamol (INN), is a popular analgesic and antipyretic drug that is used for the relief of fever, headaches, and other minor aches and pains. ... The term Exercise can refer to: Physical exercise such as running or strength training Exercise (options), the financial term for enacting and terminating a contract Category: ... Oxygen first aid kit showing a demand valve and a constant flow mask Oxygen therapy is the administration of oxygen as a therapeutic modality. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... may refer to: Scuba diving, the use of a self-contained breathing set to stay underwater for periods of time. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Magnesium deficiency refers to an absolute lack of magnesium, the result of numerous conditions. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... A healthy diet is the practice of making choices about what to eat with the intent of improving or maintaining good health. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... General Name, symbol, number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white solid at room temp Standard atomic weight 24. ... Tolfenamic acid (TA) is one of the class of non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). ... In statistical hypothesis testing, the p-value of a random variable T used as a test statistic is the probability that T will assume a value at least as extreme as the observed value tobserved, given that a null hypothesis being considered is true. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Chlormethiazole is a sedative and hypnotic that is widely used in treating and preventing symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal. ... Epinephrine (INN) or adrenaline (BAN) is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. ... Rosiglitazone is an anti-diabetic drug from the thiazolidinedione class. ... Acetylcysteine (rINN) (IPA: ), also known as N-acetylcysteine (abbreviated NAC), is a pharmacological agent used mainly as a mucolytic and in the management of paracetamol overdose. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about the material. ... A glass of cows milk. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... For other uses, see Orange juice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the nutrient. ...

Possibly ineffective remedies

  • Antipokhmelin: Also known under its tradename RU-21, it is an over-the-counter dietary supplement whose primary active ingredient is succinic acid, an extract of amber. It has been touted by internet marketers as a miracle cure for alcohol hangovers, alleged to have been produced by Soviet scientists for a KGB spy program. To-date, however, no double-blind, placebo-controlled scientific studies confirming the marketers' claims have been released.
  • Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) extract: "Our results suggest that artichoke extract is not effective in preventing the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover."[14]
  • Artichoke and Sarsaparilla extract: A November 2004 issued U.S. Patent No. 6,824,798 states that the method described in the patent "results in complete elimination of veisalgia (hangover) in more than 80% of individuals". These plant extracts, when administered separately, do not seem to have a similar effect. The patent further states that the right combination of the extracts of both of these plants are required and that they then contain a complex of polyphenols, flavonoids, and phytosterols that are effective. However, no evidence is required for such statements to appear in a patent application or in the patent itself. The existence of a patent is merely legal evidence of intellectual property, not evidence of efficacy.
  • Propranolol: "We conclude that propranolol does not prevent the symptoms of hangover."[15][16]
  • Fructose and glucose: A 1976 research has come to the conclusion that "The results indicate that both fructose and glucose effectively inhibit the metabolic disturbances induced by ethanol but they do not affect the symptoms or signs of alcohol intoxication and hangover."[17] Nevertheless, consumption of honey (a significant fructose and glucose source) is often suggested as a way to reduce the effect of hangovers.[18]
  • Kudzu (Pueraria lobata): With respect to preventing hangovers, "The evidence regarding kudzu's effectiveness is mixed" and "There are no studies to demonstrate that kudzu can serve as a morning-after potion for eliminating hangovers as used in traditional Chinese practice."[19]

Antipokhmelin is a Russian tablet that helps to prevent or overcome the negative effects of alcohol consumption and hangover. ... Antipokhmelin is a Russian tablet that helps to prevent or overcome the negative effects of alcohol consumption and hangover. ... Succinic acid, originally called spirit of amber, is a carboxylic acid with the formula: HOOC-CH2-CH2-COOH At room temperature, pure succinic acid is a solid that forms colorless, odorless prisms. ... For other uses, see Amber (disambiguation). ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Binomial name Cynara scolymus L. The Globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is a perennial, thistle-like plant, originating in southern Europe around the Mediterranean. ... Propranolol (INN) (IPA: ) is a non-selective beta blocker mainly used in the treatment of hypertension. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kudzu (disambiguation). ...

Etymology

Look up hangover in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up veisalgia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

The term hangover was originally a 19th century expression describing unfinished business—something left over from a meeting—or ‘survival.’ In 1904, the meaning "after-effect of drinking too much" first surfaced.[20][21] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


See also

Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... Blood Alcohol Content (or Blood Alcohol Concentration), often abbreviated BAC, is the concentration of alcohol in blood, measured, by volume, as a percentage. ... A wine fault or defect is an unpleasant characteristic of a wine often resulting from poor wine making practices or storage conditions, and leading to wine spoilage. ... Withdrawal, also known as withdrawal syndrome, refers to the characteristic signs and symptoms that appear when a drug that causes physical dependence is regularly used for a long time and then suddenly discontinued or decreased in dosage. ... Alcohol detoxification or detox for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs that have similar effects in order to prevent alcohol withdrawal. ...

References

  1. ^ Federal Aviation Administration. Pilot Safety Brochure
  2. ^ PMID 18412754
  3. ^ PMID 16938626
  4. ^ The effects of dehydration on brain volume – preliminary results’, International Journal of Sports Medicine 2005; 26:481–485
  5. ^ Max H Pittler, et al.Interventions for preventing or treating alcohol hangover: systematic review of randomised controlled trials BMJ 2005;331:1515-1518 (24 December), doi:10.1136/bmj.331.7531.1515
  6. ^ a b Jeffrey G. Wiese, Michael G. Shlipak, Warren S. Browner The Alcohol Hangover Annals of Internal Medicine 6 June 2000 Volume 132 Issue 11 pp897–902
  7. ^ Dr. Daniel Sessler Extra Oxygen for Anesthesia's Hangover The New York Times 9 November 1999
  8. ^ Timothy Walker and Mary Fitzgerald A drinker's guide to hangover cures The Independent 17 April 2007
  9. ^ S. Kaivola1, J. Parantainen, T. Österman and H. Timonen Hangover headache and prostaglandins: Prophylactic treatment with tolfenamic acid Cephalalgia Volume 3 Page 31 - March 1983 doi:10.1046/j.1468–2982.1983.0301031.x
  10. ^ Khan MA, Jensen K, Krogh HJ. Alcohol-induced hangover: A double-blind comparison of pyritinol and placebo in preventing hangover symptoms Q J Stud Alcohol. 1973;34:1195–201
  11. ^ Myrsten AL, Rydberg U, Idestrom CM, Lamble R. Alcohol intoxication and hangover: modification of hangover by chlormethiazole Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1980;69(2):117–25.
  12. ^ Castleden CM, George CF, Sedgwick EM. Chlormethiazole--no hangover effect but not an ideal hypnotic for the young Postgrad Med J. 1979 Mar;55(641):159–60.
  13. ^ Jung TW, Lee JY, Shim WS, Kang ES, Kim SK, Ahn CW, Lee HC, Cha BS. Rosiglitazone relieves acute ethanol-induced hangover in sprague-dawley rats Alcohol Alcohol 2006 May-Jun;41(3):231-5. Epub 2006 Mar 22
  14. ^ Max H. Pittler, Adrian R. White, Clare Stevinson and Edzard Ernst Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial CMAJ December 9, 2003; 169 (12)
  15. ^ Bogin RM, Nostrant TT, Young MJ. Propranolol for the treatment of the alcoholic hangover Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1986;12(3):279–84.
  16. ^ Bogin RM, Nostrant TT, Young MJ Propranolol for the treatment of the alcoholic hangover Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 1987;13(1-2):175–80.
  17. ^ Ylikahri RH, Leino T, Huttunen MO, Poso AR, Eriksson CJ, Nikkila Effects of fructose and glucose on ethanol-induced metabolic changes and on the intensity of alcohol intoxication and hangover Eur J Clin Invest 1976 Jan 30;6(1):93–102.
  18. ^ UMDNJ Experts Suggest Remedies for Holiday Headaches
  19. ^ The latest review suggests that Kudzu root may be linked to negative health outcomes if taken at the same time as alcohol in much the same way as other alcohol aversion drugs, such as Disulphram. It may lead to increased risk of development of throat cancer if consumed chronically with alcohol(Ref Alcohol Vol 41 November issue pages 469-478). http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/HealthIssues/1127332920.html Kudzu and Alcohol Consumption]
  20. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary Hangover
  21. ^ Frank Kelly Rich On the Cuff & Under the Table: The Origins and History of Drinking Words and Phrases Modern Drunkard Magazine

External links

  • Fight Hangover
  • "Alcohol Hangover: Mechanisms and Mediators" [PDF] by Robert Swift, M.D., Ph.D. and Dena Davidson, Ph.D., NIAAA Alcohol Health and Research World, January 14, 2002, retrieved November 22, 2004.
  • "The party's over: Advice on treating hangovers" by Dr. Thomas Stuttaford, The Times, December 13, 2004 retrieved August 24, 2005. A colorful article on hangovers, their cause and treatment along with reference to famous Soho drinkers, such as Jeffrey Bernard, Dylan Thomas and Francis Bacon.
  • "The ultimate hangover cure?" by Becky McCall, BBC News Magazine, December 28, 2005, retrieved December 28, 2005.
  • Hangover Cures, Solutions and Treatments
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. ... Dr Thomas Stuttaford (1931-) is a British doctor, author, medical columnist of The Times and former Conservative Member of Parliament. ... For other uses, see Times. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ... Jeffrey Bernard (May 27, 1932 - September 4, 1997) was a British journalist, notorious for a feckless and chaotic career and life of alcohol abuse. ... Dylan Marlais Thomas (27 October 1914 - 9 November 1953) was a Welsh poet. ... Francis Bacon (28 October 1909 – 28 April 1992) was an Irish figurative painter. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Booze redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... An American-produced bottle of ginjō-shu sake. ... The relationship between alcohol consumption and health has been the subject of formal scientific research since at least 1926, when Dr. Raymond Pearl published his book, Alcohol and Longevity, in which he reported his finding that drinking alcohol in moderation was associated with greater longevity than either abstaining or drinking... Alcohol advertising is the promotion of alcoholic beverages by alcohol producers through a variety of media. ... Image:Frans Hals 002 . ... This article is about beer. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Winemakers often use carboys like these to ferment smaller quantities of wine Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. ... Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Rice wine refers to alcoholic beverages made from rice. ... Chicha served with pipeño Chicha is a Spanish word for any variety of fermented beverage. ... Shaoxing jiu, a famous huangjiu Huangjiu (黄酒; pinyin: huáng jiǔ, lit. ... In the West, Kumis has been touted for its health benefits, as in this 1877 book also naming it Milk Champagne. Kumis (also spelled kumiss, koumiss, kymys; called airag in Mongolian cuisine) is a fermented milk drink traditionally made from the milk of horses. ... A glass of mint kvass. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... Pulque, or octli, is an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice of the maguey, and is a traditional native beverage of Mesoamerica. ... Finlandia Sahti, Finnish sahti label Sahti is a traditional beer from Finland made from a variety of grains, malted and unmalted, including barley, rye, wheat, and oats; sometimes bread made from these grains is fermented instead of malt itself. ... Main article: Chinese wine Gouqi jiu(zh:枸杞酒) is one kind of fruit alcoholic beverage made from Gouqi. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Various brands of tequila Tequila is a spirit made primarily in the area surrounding Tequila, a town in the western Mexican state of Jalisco, 65 km northwest of Guadalajara and in the highlands of Jalisco, 65 km east of Guadalajara. ... A cheap commercial bottle of Mexican Mezcal bought in Cancun. ... The Amaretto Disaronno square bottle The term amaretto refers to a sweet liqueur made from a basic infusion of the stones of drupe fruits, such as peaches, as well as a related almond biscotto. ... A reservoir glass filled with a naturally-colored verte, next to an absinthe spoon. ... Arak Rayan, from Syria. ... A small souvenir bottle of ouzo Ouzo (ούζο) is a Greek anise-flavored liqueur that is widely consumed in Greece. ... Rakı becomes cloudy white, when mixed with water. ... A glass of diluted pastis French pastis Pastis is an anise-flavored liqueur and apéritif from France, typically containing 40-45% alcohol by volume, although there exist alcohol-free varieties. ... Sambuca is an Italian aniseed-flavored, usually colorless liqueur. ... For other uses, see Applejack. ... A bottle of calvados Pays DAuge Calvados is an apple brandy from the French région of Lower Normandy. ... Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland. ... Irish Whiskeys For the novel of the same name, see Irish Whiskey (novel). ... Whisky production in Japan began around 1870, but the first commercial production was in 1923, when the countrys first distillery—Yamazaki—opened. ... An Indian liquor made from either coconut or the juice of the cashew apple. ... Arrack refers to strong spirits distilled mainly in South and South East Asia from fermented fruits, grains, sugarcane, or the sap of coconuts or other palm trees. ... Malibu Rum is a rum made in Barbados with natural coconut extract. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Kirschwasser, German for cherry water, (pronounced ), often known simply as Kirsch (German for cherry), is a clear brandy made from double distillation of the fermented juice of a small black cherry. ... Limoncello [limontlːo] is a lemon liqueur produced in the south of Italy, mainly in the region around the Gulf of Naples and the coast of Amalfi and Islands of Ischia and Capri, but also in Sicily, Sardinia and the Maltese island of Gozo. ... For other uses, see Pisco (disambiguation). ... A bottle of apricot Hungarian Pálinka. ... A traditional bottle of slivovitz, plum rakia Croatian Sljivovica and Slovenian Slivovka, two different names for the same drink, a plum rakia Rakia or Rakija (Bulgarian: , Croatian and Bosnian (rakija), Albanian: , Macedonian and Serbian: , Slovenian: , Romanian: ) is hard liquor similar to brandy, made by distillation of fermented fruits, popular throughout... Schnapps is a type of distilled beverage. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Cognac in a tulip glass Cognac (pronounced ), named after the town of Cognac in France, is a brandy produced in the region surrounding the town. ... 1956 Armagnac Armagnac (IPA [aʁmaɲak]), the region of France, has given its name to its distinctive kind of brandy or eau de vie, made of the same grapes as Cognac and undergoing the same aging in oak barrels, but with column still distillation (Cognac is distilled in pot... Bärenjäger is a honey-flavoured liqueur based on vodka, made by Teucke & König in Germany. ... Polish Krupnik Krupnik, or Krupnikas as it is known in Lithuanian, is a traditional sweet vodka, similar to a liqueur, based on grain spirit and honey, popular in Poland and Lithuania. ... Bourbon bottle, 19th century Oak casks in ricks used store and age bourbon. ... Corn whiskey is an American whiskey made from a mash made up of at least 80 percent maize, or corn. ... Tennessee whiskey is a type of American whiskey. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ţuică (in Romanian , sometimes spelled tuica, tzuika, tsuika, tsuica, or tzuica), is a traditional Romanian alcoholic beverage, usually made from plums. ... A glass of grappa Grappa is a fragrant grape-based pomace brandy of between 30% and 80% alcohol by volume (60 to 160 proof), of Italian origin. ... Pomace brandy is a liquor distilled from pomace wine. ... Orujo is a liquor obtained from the distillation of the pomace of the grape. ... Zivania (also Zivana) (Greek: Ζιβανία) is a traditional Greek-Cypriot distillate produced in the island of Cyprus from pomace (or marcs), the residue of grapes that were pressed during the winemaking process (including the stems and seeds) mixed with high-quality dry wines produced from the local grape varieties of Cyprus. ... Tsikoudia or raki is a grape-based spirit from the island of Crete (Greece), made from the distillation of pomace, i. ... Tsipouro (Greek: Τσίπουρο) is a distilled alcoholic beverage, more precisely a pomace brandy, from Greece and in particular Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, and the island of Crete, where the same spirit with a stronger aroma is known as tsikoudia. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... A bottle and glass of Linie brand akvavit. ... A 500 ml plastic bottle of Brennivín featuring its distinctive black label. ... Snaps is a small shot of a strong alcoholic beverage taken during the course of a meal, very much like the German schnapps. ... Baijiu (Chinese: 白酒; pinyin: ) or Shaojiu is potent Chinese alcohol. ... Kaoliang jiu (literally sorghum liquor; often called simply kaoliang) is a strong distilled liquor, made from fermented sorghum (which is called gaoliang in Chinese). ... Rice baijiu (Chinese: 米白酒; pinyin: mǐbáijiǔ), also known as rice fragrance baijiu (米香型白酒), is a variety of distilled beverage popular in China. ... Soju is a distilled beverage native to Korea and traditionally made from rice. ... Awamori (泡盛) is an alcoholic beverage indigenous to and unique to Okinawa, Japan. ... Sake barrels at Itsukushima Shrine. ... Rye whiskey describes two types of whiskies, theoretically distilled from rye. ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Cachaça Java, from Salinas-MG, Brazil Cachaça (IPA: ) is the most popular distilled alcoholic beverage in Brazil. ... Aguardiente is the Spanish generic name for alcoholic drinks between 29 and 45 percent alcohol, meaning fiery water, or, literally burning water [1] (as it burns the throat of the drinker). ... Falernum is a sweet syrup used in Tropical and Caribbean drinks. ... This page is about the drink, for the locality, go to Guaro Guaro is the name of a kind of liquor in many places in Central America. ... Seco Herrerano is considered the national alcoholic beverage of Panama. ... Shōchū ) is a distilled alcoholic beverage popular in Japan. ... This article is about the beverage. ... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... For other uses, see Whisky (disambiguation). ... Canadian whisky is whisky made in Canada; by law it must be aged there at least three years in a barrel. ... Jenever (also known as genever or jeniever), is the juniper-flavored and strongly alcoholic traditional liquor of the Netherlands and Flanders, from which gin has evolved. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ... In scuba diving, the word cocktail also means a hazard with diving with some rebreathers: it means a caustic solution resulting from water reaching and dissolving the absorbent. ... The shot glass containing Midori was dropped into a shandy, making a fairly potent beer cocktail. ... Wikibooks Bartending has a page on the topic of Cocktails A cocktail is a style of mixed drink made predominantly with a distilled beverage, such as vodka, gin, whiskey, rum, or tequila, mixed with another drink other than water. ... Serving multiple flaming cocktails can be an impressive skill to learn. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... A wine cocktail is a mixed drink similar to a true cocktail. ... It has been suggested that glogg be merged into this article or section. ...

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Hangover Cure by SOBER X - Our Hangover FREE Patch makes Hangover History! (426 words)
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