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Encyclopedia > Hanged, drawn and quartered

To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. It is considered by many to be the epitome of cruel punishment,[1] and was reserved for treason as this crime was deemed more heinous than murder and other capital offences. It was only applied to male criminals. Women found guilty of treason in England were burnt at the stake, a punishment abolished in 1790. In law, a sentence forms the final act of a judge-ruled process, and also the symbolic principal act connected to his function. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...

Seventeenth century print of the execution, by hanging, drawing and quartering, of the members of the Gunpowder plot.

Contents

Image File history File links Gunpowderhdq2. ... Image File history File links Gunpowderhdq2. ... <imagemap>: no valid link was found at the end of line 11 The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up...

Details of the punishment

Until 1814, the full punishment for the crime was to be hanged, drawn and quartered in that the condemned prisoner would be:

  1. Dragged on a hurdle (a wooden frame) to the place of execution. (This is one possible meaning of drawn.)
  2. Hanged by the neck for a short time or until almost dead. (hanged).
  3. Disembowelled and emasculated, and the genitalia and entrails burned before the condemned's eyes (This is another meaning of drawn. It is often used in cookbooks to denote the disembowelment of chicken or rabbit carcasses before cooking).[2]
  4. Beheaded and the body divided into four parts (quartered).

Typically, the resulting five parts (i.e. the four quarters of the body and the head) were gibbeted (put on public display) in different parts of the city, town, or, in famous cases, country, to deter would-be traitors who hadn't seen the execution. Gibbeting was abolished in England in 1843. After 1814 the convict would be hanged until dead and the mutilation would be performed after death. Drawing and quartering was abolished in 1870. Hanging is the suspension of a person by a ligature, usually a cord wrapped around the neck, causing death. ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of some or all of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... Emasculation is the removal of the genitalia of a male, notably the penis and/or the testicles, by surgery, violence, or accident (see castration). ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Gibbet is a term applied to several different devices used in the capital punishment of criminals and/or the deterrence of potential criminals. ...


There is confusion among modern historians about whether "drawing" referred to the dragging to the place of execution or the disembowelling, but since two different words are used in the official documents detailing the trial of William Wallace ("detrahatur" for drawing as a method of transport, and "devaletur" for disembowelment), there is no doubt that the subjects of the punishment were disembowelled.[3] For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ...


The condemned man would usually be sentenced to the short drop method of hanging, so that the neck would not break. The man was usually dragged alive to the quartering table, although in some cases men were brought to the table dead or unconscious. A splash of water was usually employed to wake the man up if unconscious, then he was laid down on the table. A large cut was made in the gut after removing the genitalia, and the intestines would be spooled out on a device that resembled a dough roller. Each piece of organ would be burnt before the sufferer's eyes, and when he was completely disembowelled, his head would be cut off. The body would then be cut into four pieces, and the king would decide where they were to be displayed. Usually the head was sent to the Tower of London and, as in the case of William Wallace, the other four pieces were sent to different parts of the country.


Judges delivering sentence at the Old Bailey also seemed to have had some confusion over the term "drawn", and some sentences are summarised as "Drawn, Hanged and Quartered". Nevertheless, the sentence was often recorded quite explicitly. For example, the record of the trial of Thomas Wallcot, John Rouse, William Hone and William Blake for offences against the king, on 12 July 1683 concludes as follows: The Old Bailey. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...

"Then Sentence was passed, as followeth, viz. That they should return to the place from whence they came, from thence be drawn to the Common place of Execution upon Hurdles, and there to be Hanged by the Necks, then cut down alive, their Privy-Members cut off, and Bowels taken out to be burnt before their Faces, their Heads to be severed from their Bodies, and their Bodies divided into four parts, to be disposed of as the King should think fit."[4]

History

Edward I, the instigator of hanging, drawing and quartering, as depicted in Cassell's History of England

H. Thomas Milhorn claims that hanging, drawing and quartering was first used against William Maurice, who was convicted of piracy in 1241.[5] This would make Henry III the first practitioner. edward i of england - statue in york minster The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... edward i of england - statue in york minster The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ...


The punishment was more famously and verifiably employed by King Edward I ('Longshanks') in his efforts to bring Wales, Scotland, and Ireland under English rule. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and who tried to do the same to Scotland. ... This article is about the country. ... This article is about the country. ...


In 1283, it was inflicted on the Welsh prince Dafydd ap Gruffydd in Shrewsbury. Dafydd had been a hostage in the English court in his youth, growing up with Edward and for several years fought alongside Edward against his brother Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the Prince of Wales. Llywelyn had won recognition of the title, 'Prince of Wales', from Edward's father King Henry III, and both Edward and his father had been imprisoned by Llywelyn's ally, Simon de Montfort, the Earl of Leicester, in 1264. Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ... , Shrewsbury (pronounced either or [1]) is the county town of Shropshire, West Midlands, England. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffudd or Gruffydd (c. ... This article is about the title Prince of Wales. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon V de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ...


Edward's enmity towards Llywelyn ran deep. When Dafydd returned to the side of his brother and attacked the English Hawarden Castle, Edward saw this as both a personal betrayal and a military setback and hence his punishment of Dafydd was specifically designed to be harsher than any previous form of capital punishment. The punishment was part of an overarching strategy to eliminate Welsh independence. Edward built an 'iron ring' of castles in Wales and had Dafydd's young sons incarcerated for life in Bristol Castle and daughters sent to a nunnery in England, whilst having his own son, Edward II, assume the title Prince of Wales. Dafydd's head joined that of his brother Llywelyn (killed in a skirmish months earlier) on top of the Tower of London, where the skulls were still visible many years later. His quartered body parts were sent to four English towns for display. Hawarden Old Castle is a medieval castle near Hawarden, Flintshire, Wales. ... Bristol Castle refers to the remains of an 11th or 12th century motte and bailey castle, with curtain walls and a great keep dating from 1140. ... Edward II, (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... For other uses, see Tower of London (disambiguation) Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress The Tower of London, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically simply as The Tower), is an historic monument in central London, England on the north bank of the River Thames. ...


William Wallace

Two decades later, Sir William Wallace was the next person to be hanged, drawn and quartered, which occurred as a result of Edward I's Scottish wars. This established the precedent as the ultimate penalty for treason against the English crown. Both Dafydd ap Gruffydd and William Wallace asserted at their trials that they were not traitors for having fought in defence of Wales and Scotland against foreign invaders.[6] Wallace had a better claim than his Welsh counterpart, having never fought for Edward before fighting against him. For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ...


Tudors

In an attempt to intimidate the Roman Catholic clergy to take the Oath of Supremacy, Henry VIII ordered that John Houghton, the prior of the London Charterhouse, be condemned to be hanged, drawn and quartered, along with two other Carthusians. Henry also famously condemned Francis Dereham to this form of execution for being one of Catherine Howard's lovers. Dereham and the King's good friend Thomas Culpeper were both executed shortly before Catherine herself, but Culpeper was spared the cruel punishment and was instead beheaded. Sir Thomas More, who was found guilty of high treason under the Treason Act of 1534, was spared this punishment; Henry commuted the execution to one by beheading. The Oath of Supremacy, imposed by the Act of Supremacy 1559, provided for any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... “Henry VIII” redirects here. ... Saint John Houghton was an English Catholic martyr. ... A Carthusian Monastery in Jerez, Spain The Carthusians are a Christian religious order founded by St Bruno in 1084. ... Francis Dereham was most famous for his affair with Queen Catherine Howard, Fifth wife of Henry VIII of England. ... Catherine Howard (between 1520 and 1525 – 13 February 1542), also called Katherine Howard [1] was the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England (1540-1542), and sometimes known by his reference to her as the rose without a thorn. Her birth date and place of birth is unknown, (occasionally cited... Thomas Culpeper (executed December 10, 1541) was a young courtier in Henry VIIIs time. ... For the numerous educational institutions, see Thomas More College. ... Treasons Act 1534 (citation ) was an Act passed by English Parliament during the reign of King Henry VIII of England in 1534. ...


In the aftermath of the Babington plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I and replace her on the throne with Mary Queen of Scots, the conspirators were condemned to this method of execution in September 1586. On hearing of the appalling agony to which the first seven executees were subjected while being butchered on the scaffold, Elizabeth ordered that the remaining conspirators, who were to be dispatched on the following day, should be left hanging until they were dead. Other Elizabethans who were executed in this way include Elizabeth's own physician, Dr. Rodrigo Lopez, a Portuguese Jew who was convicted of conspiring against her in 1594, and the Jesuit Edmund Campion. Walsinghams Decypherer forged this cipher postscript to Marys letter to Babington. ... This article is about Elizabeth I of England. ... Mary I (popularly known as Mary, Queen of Scots: French: ); (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587) was Queen of Scots (the monarch of the Kingdom of Scotland) from December 14, 1542, to July 24, 1567. ... Rodrigo Lopez (c. ... Portrait of Edmund Campion St. ...


Stuarts

Wax figure of Guy Fawkes after his hanging. Madame Tussauds, London.

Other notable deaths from the punishment include Guy Fawkes and his co-conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I in 1606. Fawkes, though weakened by torture, cheated the executioners. When he was to be hanged until almost dead, he jumped from the gallows, so his neck broke and he died. A co-conspirator, Robert Keyes, had attempted the same trick, but the rope broke, so he was drawn fully conscious. Henry Garnet was executed on 3 May 1606 at St. Paul's. His crime was to be the confessor of several members of the Gunpowder Plot. Many spectators thought that his sentence was too severe. Antonia Fraser writes: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 697 KB) Statue of Guy Fawkes and his conspirators at Madame Tussauds museum, London. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 697 KB) Statue of Guy Fawkes and his conspirators at Madame Tussauds museum, London. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... “Tussauds” redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... <imagemap>: no valid link was found at the end of line 11 The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was a failed attempt by a group of provincial English Catholics to kill King James I of England, his family, and most of the Protestant aristocracy in a single attack by blowing up... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 - May 3, 1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ...

"With a loud cry of 'hold, hold' they stopped the hangman cutting down the body while Garnet was still alive. Others pulled the priest's legs ... which was traditionally done to ensure a speedy death".[7]

Under the Commonwealth, while convicted traitors were seemingly spared this gruesome execution, St John Southworth, being a priest, was prosecuted under the Elizabethan anti-priest legislation which prescribed the sentence of hanging, drawing and quartering. He was hanged but spared the drawing and quartering. John Southworth (also called Saint John Southworth, 1592, Lancashire, England - June 28, 1654, Tyburn, London) was an English Catholic martyr. ...


Over six days in October of 1660, after the Restoration of Charles II, nine of those convicted of the regicide of Charles I in 1649 were executed in London in this manner. Those executed were: Thomas Harrison, John Jones, Adrian Scroope, John Carew, Thomas Scot, Gregory Clement, Daniel Axtel, Hugh Peters, and John Cooke. Three more regicides suffered the same fate within two years: John Okey, John Barkstead and Miles Corbet. Additionally, the corpses of John Pym, Oliver Cromwell, John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton were disinterred and hanged, drawn and quartered in posthumous executions for their involvement in the regicide. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Thomas Harrison (1606 - October 14, 1660) was a Puritan soldier and later a leader of the Fifth monarchy men. ... John Jones was one of the regicides of King Charles I. A brother-in-law of Oliver Cromwell, Jones was from North Wales and is often surnamed Jones Maesygarnedd after the location of his Denbighshire estate. ... Colonel Adrian Scrope (Circa 1601 - October 17, 1660) was the thirty seventh of the fifty nine Commisoners who signed the Death Warrent of King Charles I in January of 1649 after the English Civil War. ... John Carew was one of the regicides of King Charles I. He was a prominent member of the Fifth Monarchy Men who saw the overthrow of Charles I as a divine sign of the second coming of Jesus and the establishment of the millennium a thousand years of Christs... Thomas Scot was one of the regicides of King Charles I. Early Life Thomas Scot had been a lawyer in Buckinghamshire who grew to prominence as the treasurer of the region’s County Committee between 1644 to 1646 . ... Gregory Clement (1594–1660) was an English Member of Parliament and one of the regicides of King Charles I. Clement was the son of John Clement, a merchant and one time Mayor of Plymouth. ... Colonel Daniel Axtell was Captain of the Parliamentary Guard at the trial of King Charles I at Westminster Hall in 1649. ... Hugh Peters [or Peter] (June, 1598 - October 16, 1660), English Independent divine, son of Thomas Dyckwoode, alias Peters, descended from a family which had quitted the Netherlands to escape religious persecution, and of Martha, daughter of John Treffry of Treffry in Cornwall, was baptized on the 29th of June 1598... John Cooke (1608 –1660) (sometimes spelled John Cook) was the Solicitor General and the leading prosecutor at the trial of Charles I. He was the son of a Leicestershire farmer, educated at Wadham College Oxford, and at Grays Inn. ... John Okey (1606–1662) was an English soldier, member of Parliament and one of the regicides of King Charles I. In January 1649, as a commissioner of the High Court of Justice at the trial of King Charles, he was 6th of the 59 signatories on the death warrant of... John Barkstead was an English Major-General and Regicide, (d. ... Miles Corbet (1595-1662) was a puritan MP for Yarmouth, England, and played a part in the regicide of Charles I, as the 59th (and last) of the signatories of the Kings death warrant. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... For other uses, see Oliver Cromwell (disambiguation). ... John Bradshaw (1602-October 31, 1659) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Posthumous execution is the ritual execution of an already dead body. ...


In 1676, Joshua Tefft was executed by this method at Smith's Castle in Wickford, Rhode Island. He was an English colonist who fought on the side of the Narragansett during the Great Swamp Fight battle of King Philip's War. He may be the only person ever hanged, drawn and quartered in United States history. Metacomet, leader of the Narragansett, was himself beheaded and quartered, but not hanged, after his death. Tribal flag // The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... Attack King Philips War, sometimes called Metacoms War or Metacoms Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. ... Metacomet (died August 12, 1676), also known as King Philip or Metacom, was a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philips War. ...


Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh and the Catholic primate of Ireland, was arrested in 1681 and transported to Newgate Prison, London, where he was convicted of treason. He was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, the last Catholic to be executed for his faith in England. He was beatified in 1920 and was canonized in 1975 by Pope Paul VI. His head is preserved for viewing as a relic in St. Peter's Church in Drogheda, while the rest of his body rests in Downside Abbey, near Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Somerset. St. ... The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh is a senior Irish cleric of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Newgate, the old city gate and prison. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch. ... In Catholicism, beatification (from Greek &#956;&#945;&#954;&#945;&#961;&#953;&#959;&#962;, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O088754 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 1 m Population (2006)  - Proper  - Environs    28,973[1]  6,117[1] Website: www. ... Saint Gregorys Abbey, commonly known as Downside Abbey, is a Benedictine monastery of the English Benedictine Congregation. ... Stratton-on-the-Fosse is a village located on the edge of the Mendip Hills in Somerset, England. ... This article is about the county of Somerset in England. ...


If there was a large rebellion against the Crown, only a few of the ringleaders would be "hanged, drawn and quartered"; most would either be hanged, sent to penal colonies, or pardoned. The Bloody Assizes of Judge Jeffreys after the Monmouth Rebellion is a notorious post Civil War English example, but in the aftermath of rebellions in Ireland and Scotland punishment was often just as ruthless. A penis colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a prison farm. ... The Bloody Assizes were the series of trials in the aftermath of the Battle of Sedgemoor, which ended the Monmouth Rebellion in England. ... George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys (1648-1689), Baron Wem, better known as Hanging Judge Jeffreys, became notorious during the reign of King James II, rising to the position of Lord Chancellor. ... The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ...


From the eighteenth century

During the American War of Independence (1775 – 1783), notable captured colonists, such as signers of the American Declaration of Independence, were theoretically subject to being hanged, drawn and quartered as traitors to the King. Those taken in arms (military) were treated as prisoners of war.[citation needed] This article is about military actions only. ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ...


The penultimate time the sentence was carried out in England was against the French spy François Henri de la Motte, who was convicted of treason on 23 July 1781. The last time it was carried out was on 24 August 1782 against Scottish spy David Tyrie in Portsmouth for carrying on a treasonable correspondence with the French (using information passed to him from officials high in the British government). A contemporary account in the the Hampshire Chronicle describes his being hanged for 22 minutes, following which he was beheaded and his heart cut out and burned. He was then emasculated, quartered, and his body parts put into a coffin and buried in the pebbles at the seaside. The same account claims that, immediately after his burial, sailors dug the coffin up and cut the body into a thousand pieces, each taking a piece as a souvenir to their shipmates.[8] Little else is known of his life. Francis Henry de la Motte, or François Henri de la Motte, was a French citizen and ex-French army officer executed in London for High Treason on July 27, 1781. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Portsmouth (disambiguation). ... Emasculation is the removal of the genitalia of a male, notably the penis and/or the testicles, by surgery, violence, or accident (see castration). ... Look up souvenir in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Edward Marcus Despard and his six accomplices were sentenced to hanging, drawing and quartering for allegedly plotting to assassinate George III but their sentence was commuted to simple hanging and beheading. Edward Marcus Despard (1751-1803), Irish-born British colonel turned revolutionary, was born in Queens Co. ... “George III” redirects here. ...


In 1817, the three leaders of the Pentrich Rising, convicted of high treason, suffered hanging and beheading only. Pentrich is a small village between Belper and Alfreton in Derbyshire. ...


In 1820, Arthur Thistlewood and other participants in the Cato Street Conspiracy were condemned to this punishment, though the court record shows that the drawing and quartering was omitted from the completion of the sentence. The sentence was passed on the Irish rebel leader William Smith O'Brien in 1848 but commuted to transportation. Arthur Thistlewood - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Cato Street Conspiracy was an attempt to murder all the British cabinet ministers in 1820. ... William Smith OBrien (born Dromoland, Ireland, October 17, 1803; died Bangor, Wales, June 18, 1864) was an Irish Nationalist and MP and leader of the Young Ireland movement. ...


In Lower Canada (now Quebec ), David McLane was hanged, drawn and quartered on 21 July 1797 for treason. Ignace Vailliancourt was "hanged, dissected and anatomized" on 7 March 1803 for murder.[9] During the War of 1812, in May 1814 at Ancaster, Upper Canada (now Ontario), Attorney General John Beverley Robinson[10] orchestrated a show trial to discourage any tendencies to join with the American side in the war because many residents of Upper Canada were immigrants from the American Colonies or closely related to Americans. The judges indicted 71 traitors and sentenced 17 to be hanged, drawn and quartered. They finally pardoned nine, hanged eight and quartered none.[11] Map of Lower Canada (green) Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence (1791-1841). ... , Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... Flag Map of Upper Canada (orange) Capital Newark 1792 - 1797 York(later renamed Toronto in 1834) 1797 - 1841 Language(s) English Religion Anglican Government Constitutional monarchy Sovereign  - 1791-1820 George III  - 1837-1841 Victoria Lieutenant-Governor See list of Lieutenant-Governors Legislature Parliament of Upper Canada  - Upper house Legislative Council... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


Details of the crime

The crime of treason, or offences against the crown is often thought of in terms of attempted regicides, such as Guy Fawkes and others mentioned above. However, the crime was interpreted at different periods of English history to include a variety of acts which, at the time, were deemed to threaten the constitutional authority of the monarchy. Under English (and later, British) law, high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Sovereign amounting to an intention to undermine their authority or the actual attempt to do so. ...


For example, on 12 December 1674, William Burnet was condemned to this punishment for offences against the king: namely that he "had often endeavoured to reconcile divers of his Majesties Protestant subjects to the Romish Church, and had actually perverted several to embrace the Roman Catholique Religion, and assert and maintain the Popes supremacy." In other words, he had come to England and attempted to convert Protestants to Catholicism. In a similar vein, John Morgan was also sentenced to this punishment on 30 April 1679, for having received orders from the See of Rome, and coming to England: there being "very good Evidence that proved he was a Priest, and had said Mass". is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... “Catholic Church” redirects here. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... While all episcopal sees can be referred to as holy sees, the term Holy See is normally used in international relations (as well as in the canon law of the Catholic Church) to refer to the central government of the Catholic Church, headed by the Bishop of Rome, commonly called...


On the same day in 1679, two other people were found guilty of offences against the king, at the Old Bailey. In this case, they had been "Coyning and Counterfeiting". Again, they were sentenced to be Hanged, Drawn, and Quartered. In a similar case on 15 October 1690, Thomas Rogers and Anne Rogers were tried for "Clipping 40 pieces of Silver" (in other words, clipping the edges off silver coins). Thomas Rogers was hanged, drawn and quartered and Anne Rogers was burnt alive. is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ...


Similar, lesser punishments for treason

Men convicted of the lesser crime of petty treason were dragged to the place of execution and hanged until dead, but not subsequently dismembered.[citation needed] Women convicted of treason or petty treason were burnt at the stake. Petty treason is, in English common law, any betrayal of a superior by a subordinate. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Class distinctions in its application

In Britain, this penalty was usually reserved for commoners, including knights. Noble traitors were 'merely' beheaded, at first by sword and in later years by axe. The different treatment of lords and commoners was clear after the Cornish Rebellion of 1497: lowly-born Michael An Gof and Thomas Flamank were hanged, drawn, and quartered at Tyburn; while their fellow rebellion leader Lord Audley was beheaded at Tower Hill. The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising in 1497 by the tin miners of Cornwall in the south west of Britain. ... Michael Joseph (better known as Michael An Gof, where An Gof is Cornish for blacksmith; died 24 June 1497) and Thomas Flamank (a Bodmin landowners son and London lawyer) were the leaders of the Cornish Rebellion of 1497. ... Thomas Flamank was a lawyer from Cornwall who together with Michael An Gof led the Cornish Rebellion against taxes in 1497. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch. ... Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ...


This class distinction was brought out in a House of Commons debate of 1680, with regard to the Warrant of Execution of Lord Stafford, which had condemned him to be hanged, drawn, and quartered. Sir William Jones is quoted as saying "Death is the substance of the Judgment; the manner of it is but a circumstance.... No man can show me an example of a Nobleman that has been quartered for High-Treason: They have been only beheaded". The House then resolved that "Execution be done upon Lord Stafford, by severing his Head from his Body."[12] Type Lower House Speaker of the House of Commons Leader of the House of Commons Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Harriet Harman, QC, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader of the House of Commons Theresa May, PC, (Conservative) since December 6, 2005 Members 646 Political groups... William Jones is a common name, especially in Wales, and there have been several well-known individuals of this name, including: // Academics and authors William Jones (historian) (1860–1932) Sir William Jones (mathematician) (~1675–1749), father of Sir William Jones (philologist) Sir William Jones (philologist) (1746–1794) son of Sir...


Religious considerations

Dismemberment of the body after death was seen by many contemporaries as a way of punishing the traitor beyond the grave. In western European Christian countries, it was ordinarily considered contrary to the dignity of the human body to mutilate it. A Parliamentary Act from the reign of Henry VIII stipulated that only the corpses of executed murderers could be used for dissection. Being thus dismembered was viewed as an extra punishment not suitable for others. There are cases on record where murderers would try to plead guilty to another capital offence so that, although they would be hanged, their body would be buried whole and not be dissected. “Henry VIII” redirects here. ...


Attitudes towards this issue changed very slowly in Britain and were not manifested in law until the passing of the Anatomy Act in 1832. Respect for the dead is still a sensitive issue in Britain as can be seen by the furor over the "Alder Hey organs scandal" when the organs of children were kept without parents' informed consent.[13] The Anatomy Act 1832 (2 & 3 Will. ... The Alder Hey organs scandal involved the unauthorized removal, retention, and disposal of human tissue, including children’s organs during a period from 1988-1995. ...


Eyewitness accounts

Sign outside the Hung, Drawn and Quartered pub in Tower Hill, London

An account is provided by the diary of Samuel Pepys for Saturday 13 October 1660, in which he describes his attendance at the execution of Major-General Thomas Harrison for regicide. The complete diary entry for the day, given below, illustrates the matter-of-fact way in which the execution is treated by Pepys: Image File history File links Hdq. ... Image File history File links Hdq. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Thomas Harrison (1606 - October 14, 1660) was a Puritan soldier and later a leader of the Fifth monarchy men. ...

To my Lord's in the morning, where I met with Captain Cuttance, but my Lord not being up I went out to Charing Cross, to see Major-general Harrison hanged, drawn, and quartered; which was done there, he looking as cheerful as any man could do in that condition. He was presently cut down, and his head and heart shown to the people, at which there was great shouts of joy. It is said, that he said that he was sure to come shortly at the right hand of Christ to judge them that now had judged him; and that his wife do expect his coming again. Thus it was my chance to see the King beheaded at White Hall, and to see the first blood shed in revenge for the blood of the King at Charing Cross. From thence to my Lord's, and took Captain Cuttance and Mr. Sheply to the Sun Tavern, and did give them some oysters. After that I went by water home, where I was angry with my wife for her things lying about, and in my passion kicked the little fine basket, which I bought her in Holland, and broke it, which troubled me after I had done it. Within all the afternoon setting up shelves in my study. At night to bed.[14]

At 26-27 Great Tower Street, Tower Hill, London, there is a pub called "The Hung [sic] Drawn and Quartered". On the wall is the quotation from Samuel Pepys, shown above. The pub is close to the site of several executions, but not to Charing Cross. Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... The Victorian Eleanor Cross at Charing Cross The name Charing Cross, now given to a district of central London in the City of Westminster, comes from the original hamlet of Charing, where King Edward I placed a memorial to his wife, Eleanor of Castile. ...


Mentions in fiction

Shakespeare's play Henry V features the discovery of the Southampton plot to kill King Henry V before he sailed to France. Two of the conspirators (Henry, Lord Scroop of Masham, and Richard, Earl of Cambridge) were nobles and were beheaded; Thomas Grey, Knight of Northumberland, was drawn and quartered. Shakespeare redirects here. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V, also known as The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... Henry V of England (16 September 1387 – 31 August 1422) was one of the great warrior kings of the Middle Ages. ... Richard, Earl of Cambridge (c. ... Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton (Alnwick Castle, November 30, 1384– August 3, 1415, Southampton), was the son of Sir Thomas Grey of Heaton and Joan Mowbray. ...


In Robin Hobb's "realist" fantasy novels The Farseer Trilogy and The Tawny Man Trilogy, villagers accused of being able to talk to animals are hanged, quartered, and burned. At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Robin Hobb is the pen name of Margaret Astrid Lindholm Ogden (born 1952 in California). ...


Charles Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities also refers to Charles Darnay possibly being drawn and quartered as a punishment if he was convicted of treason. “Dickens” redirects here. ... A Tale of Two Cities (1859) is a historical novel by Charles Dickens. ... Charles Darnay or St. ...


The historical execution of the regicide Robert-François Damiens, including quartering using horses, drew prominent late-20th-century attention: Robert-François Damiens Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ...

In Jimmy Carter's 2003 novel The Hornet's Nest. rebellious American colonists are arrested by the Crown and tried for and convicted of treason. They are sentenced to be hanged, drawn, and quartered, but the sentence is never carried out. The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade, published in 1963, is a play by Peter Weiss, directed both on stage and screen by Peter Brook. ... Peter Weiss (November 8, 1916 - May 10, 1982) was a German writer, painter and artist. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher and historian. ... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


The 2006 mini-series Elizabeth I featured graphic scenes depicting the drawing and quartering of conspirators against the Queen. Image:Helen duke. ...


In Paul Auster's novel, Oracle Night, the narrator says, "I felt I deserved to be be drawn and quartered for my crimes." (p. 183, Picador edition 2003)


French quartering

In France, the traditional punishment for regicide (whether attempted or completed) under the ancien régime (known in French as écartèlement) is often described as "quartering", though it in fact has little to do with the English punishment. The process was as follows: the regicide offender would be first tortured with red-hot pincers, then the hand with which the crime was committed would be burnt with sulphur and molten lead and wax and boiling oil poured into the wounds. The quartering would be accomplished by the attachment of the condemned's limbs to horses, who would then tear them away from the body. Finally, the often still-living torso would be burnt. Notable examples include: For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... Ancien Régime, a French term meaning Former Regime, but rendered in English as Old Rule, Old Order, or simply Old Regime, refers primarily to the aristocratic social and political system established in France under the Valois and Bourbon dynasties. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Boiling oil, in terms of tom, is a quantity of oil heated to high temperatures and then poured on an enemy. ...

  • Jean Châtel, who attempted to assassinate Henry IV
  • François Ravaillac (1578 – 27 May 1610) was the murderer of King Henri IV of France and was punished by being "scalded with burning sulphur, molten lead and boiling oil and resin, his flesh then being torn by pincers ..." before he was drawn and quartered.
  • Robert-François Damiens, who attempted the assassination of Louis XV in 1757 (At least two prominent 20th-century intellectuals described this execution.)
  • Jacques Clément, the murderer of Henri III. (He was killed in this act of regicide, and his corpse was subjected to the same "punishment".)

These executions were carried out (along with most others under the ancien régime) in the Place de Grève. Jean Châtel (1575-1594) attempted to assassinate King Henry IV of France on 27 December 1594. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... François Ravaillac brandishing his dagger, in a 17th-century engraving François Ravaillac (1578[1] – May 27, 1610) was a French factotum in the courts of Angoulême and sometime tutor, a religious Catholic zealot who murdered his king, Henry IV of France, an act known as regicide. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Robert-François Damiens Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ... Louis XV, called the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé) (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1715 until his death. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jacques Clément (1567 - August 1, 1589) was the murderer of the French king Henry III. He was born at Serbonnes, in todays Yonne département, in Burgundy, and became a Dominican friar. ... Henry III (French: Henri III; Polish: Henryk III Walezy; September 19, 1551 - August 2, 1589) was King of Poland (1573-1574) and subsequently King of France (1574-1589). ... Posthumous execution is the ritual execution of an already dead body. ... The Place de Grève was, before 1803, the name of the plaza now the City Hall Plaza (place de lHôtel de Ville) in Paris, France. ...

Gérard's execution took place on the market square in Delft, the Netherlands. Balthasar Gérard (in Dutch Gerards or Gerardts) (1557-1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William the Silent, also known as William I of Orange. ... William I (William the Silent). ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 24. ...


See also

Capital punishment in the United Kingdom Capital punishment in the United Kingdom, now abolished has a long history, from before the United Kingdom existed. ...


Notes

  1. ^ In Wilkerson v. Utah (1878, pertaining to methods of capital punishment), the United States Supreme Court commented that drawing and quartering, public dissecting, burning alive and disemboweling would constitute cruel and unusual punishment while determining that death by firing squad was as legitimate as the common method of that time, hanging
  2. ^ Extracts from the transcript of the October 1660 trial and execution of 10 regicides At the end of the article there is a description of the executions. They were all hanged, drawn and quartered apart from Francis Hacker who was hanged.
  3. ^ George Neilson, Drawing, Hanging and Quartering published in Notes and Queries, 15 August 1891; s7-XII: 129 - 131.
  4. ^ Thomas Wallcot, John Rouse, William Hone, William Blake, offences against the King: treason, 12th July, 1683. The Proceedings of the Old Bailey Ref: t16830712-4. See Proceedings of the Old Bailey
  5. ^ H Thomas Milhorn, Crime: Computer Viruses to Twin Towers, Universal Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1-58112-489-9
  6. ^ Brown, Chris. William Wallace. The True Story of Braveheart. Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd, 2005. ISBN 0-7524-3432-2
  7. ^ Antonia Fraser, Faith and Treason: The Story of the Gunpowder Plot, Anchor, 1997. ISBN 0-385-47190-4
  8. ^ Hampshire Chronicle, Monday, 2 September 1782. Transcript available online: see Some Selected Reports from the Hampshire Chronicle
  9. ^ [1]
  10. ^ [2]
  11. ^ citation needed, web reference has been removed, available in cache 01 June 2007 as http://209.85.165.104/search?q=cache:725tAA4zbZQJ:www.uppercanadahistory.ca/pp/pp6.html+canada+%22hanged,+drawn+and+quartered%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1&gl=ca
  12. ^ Anchitell Grey, Grey's Debates of the House of Commons: volume 8, London, 1769
  13. ^ Alder Hey organs scandal: the issue explained by David Batty and Jane Perrone Friday April 27, 2001 in The Guardian
  14. ^ Robert Latham and William Matthews (editors) The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Volume I. Introduction and 1660, Bell & Hyman, London, 1970. ISBN 0-7135-1551-1

1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... Drawing and quartering was part of the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Notes and Queries (originally subtitled a medium of inter-communication for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealogists, etc) is a correspondence magazine where scholars and interested amateurs exchange miscellaneous knowledge. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1782 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Robert Latham could refer to: Robert Gordon Latham (1812–1888) English ethnologist and philologist. ...

External links

  • William Wallace's execution
  • Proceedings of the Old Bailey
  • A comprehensive site about capital punishment in the UK

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Hanging (571 words)
Hanging is one of the forms of capital punishment which has been used as a method of execution throughout history.
One typical sentence was for the perpetrator to be 'hanged, drawn and quartered'.
Early methods of hanging simply involved a slip knot on a rope placed around the victim's neck, with the loose end thrown or tied to a tree branch; the criminal was then drawn up and slowly strangled.
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