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Encyclopedia > Hanged, drawn, and quartered
Seventeenth century print of the execution, by hanging, drawing and quartering, of the members of the Gunpowder plot.

To be hanged, drawn, and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. It is considered by many to be the epitome of "cruel" punishment, and was reserved for the crime of treason, which was deemed more heinous than murder and other capital crimes. It was only applied to male criminals. Women found guilty of treason in England were burnt at the stake, a punishment which was abolished in 1790. Image File history File links Gunpowderhdq2. ... Image File history File links Gunpowderhdq2. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... A penalty is a punishment: a legal sentence, e. ... Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2005 est. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation). ... The statement that the government shall not inflict cruel and unusual punishment for crimes is found in the English Bill of Rights signed in 1689 by William of Orange and Queen Mary II who were then the joint rulers of England following the Glorious Revolution of 1688. ... For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation). ... Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake outside Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling) Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason and for other unpopular acts such as heresy and the putative practice of witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...

Contents

Details of the punishment

Until 1870, the full punishment for the crime was to be "hanged, drawn, and quartered" in that the convict would be: 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...

  1. Dragged on a hurdle (a wooden frame) to the place of execution. (drawn)
  2. Hanged by the neck, but removed before death (hanged).
  3. Disembowelled, and the genitalia and entrails burned before the victim's eyes (often mistaken for drawing).[1]
  4. Beheaded and the body divided into four parts (quartered).

Typically, the resulting five parts (i.e., the four quarters of the body and the head) were gibbeted (put on public display) in different parts of the city, town, or, in famous cases, country, to deter would-be traitors. Gibbeting was abolished in England in 1843. Suicide by hanging. ... Disembowelment is evisceration, or the removing of some or all of vital organs, usually from the abdomen. ... The Beheading of Cosmas and Damian, by Fra Angelico Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Gibbet is a term applied to several different devices used in the capital punishment of criminals and/or the deterrence of potential criminals. ... 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


There is confusion among modern historians about whether "drawing" referred to the dragging to the place of execution or the disembowelling, but since two different words are used in the official documents detailing the trial of William Wallace ("detrahatur" for drawing as a method of transport, and "devaletur" for disembowelment), there is no doubt that the victims of this extraordinarily cruel form of punishment were in fact disembowelled.[2] William Wallace Sir William Wallace(c. ...


Judges delivering sentence at the Old Bailey also seemed to have had some confusion over the term "drawn", and some sentences are summarised as "Drawn, Hanged and Quartered". Nevertheless, the sentence was often recorded quite explicitly. For example, the record of the trial of Thomas Wallcot, John Rouse, William Hone and William Blake for offences against the king, on 12 July, 1683 concludes as follows: The Old Bailey by Mountford (1907) The Central Criminal Court, commonly known as The Old Bailey (a bailey being part of a castle), is a Crown Court (criminal high court) in London, dealing with major criminal cases in the UK. It stands on the site of the mediaeval Newgate Gaol... July 12 is the 193rd day (194th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 172 days remaining. ...

"Then Sentence was passed, as followeth, viz. That they should return to the place from whence they came, from thence be drawn to the Common place of Execution upon Hurdles, and there to be Hanged by the Necks, then cut down alive, their Privy-Members cut off, and Bowels taken out to be burnt before their Faces, their Heads to be severed from their Bodies, and their Bodies divided into four parts, to be disposed of as the King should think fit."[3]

History

Edward I, the instigator of hanging, drawing and quartering, as depicted in a statue in York Minster
Edward I, the instigator of hanging, drawing and quartering, as depicted in a statue in York Minster

It is claimed that this gruesome penalty was first used against William Maurice, who was convicted of piracy in 1241.[4] However it was more famously and verifiably employed by King Edward I ('Longshanks') in his efforts to bring Wales, Scotland and Ireland under English rule. edward i of england - statue in york minster The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... edward i of england - statue in york minster The copyright status of this work is difficult or impossible to determine. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch wiener that was gigantic (1. ... York Minster Close The southwest tower of York Minster Inside York Minster The interior of the tower York Minster is an imposing Gothic cathedral in York, northern England. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch wiener that was gigantic (1. ...


It was inflicted in 1283 on the Welsh prince Dafydd ap Gruffydd in Shrewsbury. Dafydd had been a hostage in the English court in his youth, growing up with Edward and for several years fought alongside Edward against his brother Llywelyn ap Gruffydd, the Prince of Wales. Llywelyn had won recognition of the title, 'Prince of Wales', from Edward's father King Henry III, and both Edward and his father had been imprisoned by Llywelyn's ally, Simon de Montfort, the Earl of Leicester in 1264. Thus Edward's enmity towards Llywelyn ran deep. When Dafydd returned to the side of his brother and attacked the English Hawarden castle, Edward saw this as both a personal betrayal and a military setback and hence his punishment of Dafydd was specifically designed to be harsher than any previous form of capital punishment. The punishment was part of an overarching strategy to eliminate Welsh independence. Edward built an 'iron ring' of castles in Wales and had Dafydd's young sons incarcerated for life in Bristol Castle and daughters sent to a nunnery in England, whilst having his own son, Edward II assume the title Prince of Wales. Dafydd's head joined that of his brother Llywelyn (killed in a skirmish months earlier) on top of the Tower of London, where the skulls were still visible many years later. His quartered body parts were sent to four English towns for display. For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff Official language(s) English, Welsh Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056  Area    - Total 20,779 km² (3rd in... Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ... Statistics Population: 70,059 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SJ495123 Administration District: Shrewsbury and Atcham Shire county: Shropshire Region: West Midlands Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Shropshire Historic county: Shropshire Services Police force: West Mercia Ambulance service: West Midlands Post office and telephone Post town... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffudd or Gruffydd (c. ... The Prince of Wales Feathers. This Heraldic badge of the Heir Apparent is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ... From the Chamber of the United States House of Representatives Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester (1208 – August 4, 1265) was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. ... Bristol Castle refers to the remains of an 11th or 12th century motte and bailey castle, with curtain walls and a great keep dating from 1140. ... Edward II, (April 25, 1284 – September 21, 1327), of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... The Tower of London, seen from the River Thames, with a view of the water gate called Traitors Gate. ...


Two decades later Sir William Wallace was the next to suffer the fate, as a consequence of Edward I's Scottish wars. The precedent had been set and the punishment became the ultimate penalty for treason against the English crown. However it can be argued (and indeed was by Dafydd ap Gruffydd and William Wallace in their trials) that these first two victims of the penalty were not traitors as they fought in defence of Wales and Scotland.[5] William Wallace Sir William Wallace(c. ...


In an attempt to intimidate the Roman Catholic clergy to take the Oath of Supremacy, Henry VIII ordered that John Houghton, the prior of the London Charterhouse, be condemned to be hanged, drawn and quartered, along with two other Carthusians. The Oath of Supremacy, imposed by the Act of Supremacy 1559, provided for any person taking public or church office in England to swear allegiance to the monarch as Supreme Governor of the Church of England. ... For the play, see Henry VIII (play). ... Saint John Houghton was an English Catholic martyr. ... A Carthusian Monastery in Jerez, Spain The Carthusians are a Christian religious order founded by St Bruno in 1084. ...


In the aftermath of the Babington plot to murder Queen Elizabeth I and replace her on the throne with Mary Queen of Scots, the conspirators were condemned to this method of execution in September 1586. On hearing of the appalling agony to which the first seven victims were subjected while being butchered on the scaffold, Elizabeth ordered that the remaining conspirators, who were to be despatched on the following day, should be left hanging until they were dead. Other Elizabethans who were executed in this way include Elizabeth's own physician Dr. Rodrigo Lopez, a Portuguese Jew, who was convicted of conspiring against her in 1594, and the Jesuit Edmund Campion. Walsinghams Decypherer forged this cipher postscript to Marys letter to Babington. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England, Queen of France (in name only), and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ... Mary, Queen of Scots redirects here. ... Rodrigo Lopez (c. ... St. ...


Other notable victims of the punishment include Guy Fawkes and his co-conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot to assassinate James I in 1606. Fawkes, though weakened by torture, cheated the executioners. When he was to be hanged until almost dead, he jumped from the gallows, so his neck broke and he died. A co-conspirator, Robert Keyes, had attempted the same trick, but unfortunately for him the rope broke, so he was tortured fully conscious. Henry Garnet was executed on 3 May 1606 at St Paul's. His crime was to be the confessor of several members of the Gunpowder Plot. Many spectators thought that his sentence was too severe. Antonia Fraser writes: To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... James VI of Scotland/James I of England and Ireland (Charles James Stuart) (June 19, 1566 – March 27, 1625) was King of Scots, King of England, and King of Ireland and was the first to style himself King of Great Britain. ... Henry Garnet or Garnett (1555 - May 3, 1606), English Jesuit, son of Brian Garnett, a schoolmaster at Nottingham, was educated at Winchester and afterwards studied law in London. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in two separate ways. ... A contemporary sketch of the conspirators. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ...

"With a loud cry of 'hold, hold' they stopped the hangman cutting down the body while Garnet was still alive. Others pulled the priest's legs ... which was traditionally done to ensure a speedy death".[6]

During the English Civil War (1639-1651) the first prominent Parliamentarian captured by the Royalists was John Lilburne. Proposals to try him for treason were dropped when the Parliamentary side threatened to retaliate against captured Royalists. Instead Lilburne was freed in an exchange of prisoners. The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to supporters of the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War. ... Prince Rupert of the Rhine Cavaliers was the name used by Parliamentarians for the Royalist supporters of King Charles I during the English Civil War (1642–1651). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Over six days in 1660, at the Restoration of Charles II, nine of those convicted of the regicide of Charles I in 1649 were executed in London in this manner. Three more Regicides suffered the same fate within two years. Additionally, the corpses of John Pym, Oliver Cromwell, John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton were disinterred and hanged, drawn and quartered in posthumous executions for their involvement in the regicide. King Charles II, the first monarch to rule after the English Restoration. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, King of Scots, and King of Ireland from 30 January 1649 (de jure) or 29 May 1660 (de facto) until his death. ... The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland, from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... London (pronounced ) is the capital city of England and the United Kingdom. ... John Pym (1584 – December 8, 1643) was an English parliamentarian, leader of the Long Parliament and a prominent critic of James I and then Charles I. Pym was born in Brymore, Somerset, into minor nobility. ... For the Monty Python song based on the historical figure, see Oliver Cromwell (song) Oliver Cromwell (April 25, 1599 – September 3, 1658) was an English military and political leader, considered by critics to be a dictator, best known for making England a republic and leading the Commonwealth of England. ... John Bradshaw (1602-October 31, 1659) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), English was a general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Posthumous execution is the ritual execution of an already dead body. ...


Oliver Plunkett, Archbishop of Armagh and the Catholic primate of Ireland, was arrested in 1681 and transported to Newgate Prison, London, where he was convicted of treason. He was hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn, the last Catholic to die for his faith in England. He was beatified in 1920 and was canonized in 1975 by Pope Paul VI. His head is preserved for viewing as a relic in St. Peter's Church in Drogheda. Saint Oliver Plunkett St. ... The Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh is a senior Irish cleric of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Catholic Patriarchal (non cardinal) coat of arms Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ... Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Old Newgate Prison, which was replaced in the 18th century. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex which now forms part of Londons City of Westminster. ... In Catholicism, beatification (from Greek μακαριος, makarios) is a recognition accorded by the church of a dead persons accession to Heaven and capacity to intercede on behalf of individuals who pray in their name (intercession of saints). ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... Pope Paul VI (Latin: ), (Italian: Paolo VI), born Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini (September 26, 1897 – August 6, 1978), reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and as sovereign of Vatican City from 1963 to 1978. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 54. ...


Edward Marcus Despard and his six accomplices were sentenced to hanging, drawing and quartering for allegedly plotting to assassinate George III but their sentence was commuted to 'simple hanging and beheading'. Edward Marcus Despard (1751-1803), Irish-born British colonel turned revolutionary, was born in Queens Co. ... George III (George William Frederick) (4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until 1 January 1801, and thereafter King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death. ...


If there was a large rebellion against the Crown, only a few of the ring leaders would be "hanged drawn and quartered", most would either be hanged, sent to penal colonies, or pardoned. The Bloody Assizes of Judge Jeffreys after the Monmouth Rebellion is a notorious post Civil War English example, but in the aftermath of rebellions in Ireland and Scotland punishment was often just as ruthless. A Penal Colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than the prison farm. ... The Bloody Assizes were the series of trials in the aftermath of the Battle of Sedgemoor, which ended the Monmouth Rebellion in England. ... George Jeffreys, 1st Baron Jeffreys (1648-1689), Baron Wem, better known as Hanging Judge Jeffreys, became notorious during the reign of King James II, rising to the position of Lord Chancellor. ... The Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, also known as the Pitchfork Rebellion, was an attempt to overthrow the King of England, James II, who became king when his elder brother, Charles II, died on 6 February 1685. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ...


During the American war of independence (17751783) notable captured colonists such as signers of the Declaration of Independence were subject to being hanged, drawn and quartered as traitors to the King. Those taken in arms (military) would be treated as prisoners of war. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ... 1775 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article refers to a colony in politics and history. ...


By 1817 the three leaders of the Pentrich Rising, convicted of high treason, suffered hanging and beheading only. 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Pentrich is a small village between Belper and Alfreton in Derbyshire. ...


The penultimate time the sentence was carried out in England was against the French spy Francis Henry de la Motte, who was convicted of treason on 23 July 1781. The last time it was carried out was on Saturday 24 August 1782 against Scottish spy David Tyrie in Portsmouth for carrying on a treasonable correspondence with the French (using information passed to him from officials high in the British government). A contemporary account in the the Hampshire Chronicle describes his being hanged for 22 minutes, following which he was beheaded, his heart cut out and burned. He was then emasculated, quartered, and his body parts put into a coffin and buried in the pebbles at the seaside. The same account claims that immediately after his burial, sailors dug the coffin up and cut the body into a thousand pieces, each taking a piece as a souvenir to their shipmates.[7] Little else is known of his life. Francis Henry de la Motte, or François Henri de la Motte, was a French citizen and ex-French army officer executed in London for High Treason on July 27th, 1781. ... July 23 is the 204th day (205th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 161 days remaining. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Portsmouth is a city of about 189,000 people located in the county of Hampshire on the southern coast of Great Britain. ... Emasculation is the removal of the genitalia of a male, notably the penis and/or the testicles, by surgery, violence, or accident (see castration). ... A souvenir stall in London, England A souvenir (from French, for memory) is an object that is treasured for the memories associated with it. ...


In 1820, Arthur Thistlewood and other participants in the Cato Street Conspiracy were condemned to this punishment, though the court record shows that the drawing and quartering was omitted from the completion of the sentence. The sentence was passed on the Irish rebel leader William Smith O'Brien in 1848 but commuted to transportation. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Arthur Thistlewood - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Cato Street Conspiracy was an attempt to murder all the British cabinet ministers in 1820. ... William Smith OBrien (born Dromoland, Ireland, October 17, 1803; died Bangor, Wales, June 18, 1864) was an Irish Nationalist and MP and leader of the Young Ireland movement. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Details of the crime

The crime of treason, or offences against the king (or queen) is often thought of in terms of attempted regicides, such as Guy Fawkes and others mentioned above. However, the crime was interpreted at different periods of English history to include a variety of acts which, at the time, were deemed to threaten the constitutional authority of the monarchy.


For example, on 12 December 1674, William Burnet, was condemned to this punishment for offences against the king: namely that he "had often endeavoured to reconcile divers of his Majesties Protestant subjects to the Romish Church, and had actually perverted several to embrace the Roman Catholique Religion, and assert and maintain the Popes supremacy." In other words, he had come to England and attempted to convert Protestants to Catholicism. In similar vein, John Morgan was also sentenced to this punishment on 30 April 1679, for having received orders from the See of Rome, and coming to England: there being "very good Evidence that proved he was a Priest, and had said Mass". December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[2] - is described in the Oxford Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or Western... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Events January 24 - King Charles II of England disbands Parliament August 7 - The brigantine Le Griffon, which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, is towed to the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first ship to sail the upper Great Lakes. ... The Holy See (Latin: Sancta Sedes, lit. ...


On the same day in 1679, two other people were found guilty of offences against the king, at the Old Bailey. In this case, they had been "Coyning and Counterfeiting". Again, they were sentenced to be Hanged, Drawn, and Quartered. In a similar case on 15 October 1690, Thomas Rogers and Anne Rogers were tried for "Clipping 40 pieces of Silver" (in other words, clipping the edges off silver coins). Thomas Rogers was hanged, drawn and quartered and Anne Rogers was burnt alive. October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years). ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ...


Similar, lesser punishments for treason

Men convicted of the lesser crime of petty treason were dragged to the place of execution and hanged until dead, but not subsequently dismembered. Women convicted of treason or petty treason were burnt at the stake rather than being subjected to this punishment. Petty treason is, in English common law, any betrayal of a superior by a subordinate. ... Burning of two sodomites at the stake outside Zürich, 1482 (Spiezer Schilling) Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason and for other unpopular acts such as heresy and the putative practice of witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common...


Class distinctions in its application

In Britain, this penalty was usually reserved for commoners, including knights. Noble traitors were "merely" beheaded, at first by sword and in later years by axe. The different treatment of lords and commoners was clear after the Cornish Rebellion of 1497: lowly-born Michael An Gof and Thomas Flamank were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn; while their fellow rebellion leader Lord Audley was beheaded at Tower Hill. The Cornish Rebellion of 1497 was a popular uprising in 1497 by the tin miners of Cornwall in the south west of Britain. ... Michael An Gof (also known as Michael Joseph; An Gof is Cornish for blacksmith) and Thomas Flamank (a Bodmin landowners son and London lawyer) led the Cornish Rebellion of 1497, in which rebels marched on London to protest at King Henry VIIs levying of a tax with which... Thomas Flamank was a lawyer from Cornwall who together with Michael An Gof led the Cornish Rebellion against taxes in 1497. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex which now forms part of Londons City of Westminster. ... Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ...


This class distinction was brought out in a House of Commons debate of 1680, with regard to the Warrant of Execution of Lord Stafford, which condemned him to be hanged, drawn and quartered. Sir William Jones is quoted as saying "Death is the substance of the Judgment; the manner of it is but a circumstance.... No man can show me an example of a Nobleman that has been quartered for High-Treason: They have been only beheaded". The House then resolved that "Execution be done upon Lord Stafford, by severing his Head from his Body."[8] The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... William Jones is a common name, especially in Wales, and there have been several well-known individuals of this name, including: // Academics and authors William Jones (historian) (1860–1932) Sir William Jones (mathematician) (~1675–1749), father of Sir William Jones (philologist) Sir William Jones (philologist) (1746–1794) son of Sir...


Religious considerations

Dismemberment of the body after death was seen by many contemporaries as a way of punishing the traitor beyond the grave. In western European Christian countries, it was ordinarily considered contrary to the dignity of the human body to mutilate it. A Parliamentary Act from the reign of Henry VIII stipulated that only the corpses of executed murderers could be used for dissection. Being thus dismembered was viewed as an extra punishment not suitable for others. There are cases on record where murderers would try to plead guilty to another capital offence so that, although they would be hanged, their body would be buried whole and not be dissected. For the play, see Henry VIII (play). ...


Attitudes towards this issue changed very slowly in Britain and were not manifested in law until the passing of the Anatomy Act in 1832. Respect for the dead is still a sensitive issue in Britain as can be seen by the furore over the "Alder Hey organs scandal" when the organs of children were kept without parents' informed consent[9]. The Anatomy Act 1832 was a United Kingdom Act of parliament, that expanded the legal supply of cadavers for medical research and education, in reaction to public fear and revulsion of the illegal trade in corpses. ... 1832 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Alder Hey organs scandal involved the unauthorized removal, retention, and disposal of human tissue, including children’s organs during a period from 1988-1995. ...


Eyewitness accounts

Sign outside the Hung, Drawn and Quartered pub in Tower Hill, London

An account is provided by the diary of Samuel Pepys for Saturday 13 October 1660, in which he describes his attendance at the execution of Major-General Thomas Harrison, who was a Fifth Monarchist. The complete diary entry for the day, given below, illustrates the matter-of-fact way in which the execution is treated by Pepys, who seems to handle it with less emotion than he devotes to the untidiness of his wife: Image File history File links Hdq. ... Image File history File links Hdq. ... Portrait of Samuel Pepys by John Hayls. ... Thomas Harrison (1606 - October 14, 1660) was a Puritan soldier and later a leader of the Fifth monarchy men. ... The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1661 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 1600s. ...

"To my Lord's in the morning, where I met with Captain Cuttance, but my Lord not being up I went out to Charing Cross, to see Major-general Harrison hanged, drawn; and quartered; which was done there, he looking as cheerful as any man could do in that condition. He was presently cut down, and his head and heart shown to the people, at which there was great shouts of joy. It is said, that he said that he was sure to come shortly at the right hand of Christ to judge them that now had judged him; and that his wife do expect his coming again. Thus it was my chance to see the King beheaded at White Hall, and to see the first blood shed in revenge for the blood of the King at Charing Cross. From thence to my Lord's, and took Captain Cuttance and Mr. Sheply to the Sun Tavern, and did give them some oysters. After that I went by water home, where I was angry with my wife for her things lying about, and in my passion kicked the little fine basket, which I bought her in Holland, and broke it, which troubled me after I had done it. Within all the afternoon setting up shelves in my study. At night to bed."[10]

At 26-27 Great Tower Street, Tower Hill, London, there is a pub called "The Hung [sic] Drawn and Quartered". On the wall is the quotation from Samuel Pepys, shown above. The pub is close to the site of several executions, but not to Charing Cross. Portrait of Samuel Pepys by John Hayls. ...


Mention in Fiction

Shakespeare's play Henry V features the discovery of a French plot to kill King Henry V before he sailed to France. Two of the conspirators (Henry, Lord Scroop of Masham, and Richard, Earl of Cambridge) were nobles and were beheaded; Thomas Grey, Knight of Northumberland, was drawn and quartered. William Shakespeare—born April 1564; baptised April 26, 1564; died April 23, 1616 (O.S.), May 3, 1616 (N.S.)—has a reputation as the greatest of all writers in English. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... Henry V, (August 9 or September 16, 1387 – August 31, 1422), King of England (1413-1422), son of Henry IV by Mary de Bohun, was born at Monmouth, Wales, in August or September 1386 or 1387. ... Richard, Earl of Cambridge (c. ...


In Robin Hobb's "realist" fantasy novels "The Farseer Trilogy" and "The Tawny Man Trilogy", villagers accused of being able to talk to animals are hanged, quartered and burned. At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Robin Hobb is the pen name of Margaret Astrid Lindholm Ogden (born 1952 in California). ...


Charles Dickens' A Tale Of Two Cities also refers to Charles Darnay possibly being drawn and quartered as a punishment if he was convicted of treason. Dickens redirects here. ... A Tale of Two PENISS (1859) is a historical novel by Charles Dickens; it is moreover a moral novel strongly concerned with themes of guilt, shame, redemption and patriotism. ... Charles Darnay is a fictional character in the novel A Tale of Two Cities, written by Charles Dickens. ...


The historical execution of the regicide Robert-François Damiens, including quartering using horses, drew prominent late-20th-century attention: Robert-François Damiens Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ...

The 2006 mini-series "Elizabeth I" featured graphic and explicit scenes depicting the drawing and quartering of conspirators against the Queen. The Persecution and Assassination of Jean-Paul Marat as Performed by the Inmates of the Asylum of Charenton Under the Direction of the Marquis de Sade, published in 1963, is a play by Peter Weiss, directed both on stage and screen by Peter Brook. ... Peter Weiss (November 8, 1916 - May 10, 1982) was a German writer, painter and artist. ... Portrait of the Marquis de Sade by Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo (c. ... Michel Foucault (IPA pronunciation: ; English-speakers pronunciation varies) (October 15, 1926 – June 25, 1984) was a French philosopher. ... Discipline and Punish (subtitled The Birth of the Prison) is a book written by the philosopher Michel Foucault. ... Elizabeth I was a series of 2 1 1/2 hour episodes produced by Channel 4 in 2005. ...


French "quartering"

In France, the traditional punishment for regicide (whether attempted or completed) under the ancien régime (known in French as ecartèlement) is often described as "quartering", though it in fact has little to do with the English punishment. The process was as follows: the regicide offender would be first tortured with red-hot pincers, then the hand with which the crime was committed would be burnt with sulphur and molten lead and wax and boiling oil poured into the wounds. The quartering would be accomplished by the attachment of the victim's limbs to horses, who would then tear them away from the body. Finally, the often still-living torso would be burnt. Notable examples include: The broad definition of regicide is the deliberate killing of a king, or the person responsible for it. ... For detailed information on the administrative, social and political system of Early Modern France, see Ancien Régime in France. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by bees (beeswax) and used by them in constructing their honeycombs. ... Boiling oil, in terms of tom, is a quantity of oil heated to high temperatures and then poured on an enemy. ...

  • Jean Châtel, who attempted to assassinate Henry IV
  • François Ravaillac (1578 – 27 May 1610) was the murderer of King Henri IV of France and was punished by being "scalded with burning sulphur, molten lead and boiling oil and resin, his flesh then being torn by pincers ..." before he was drawn and quartered.
  • Robert-François Damiens, who attempted the assassination of Louis XV in 1757 (At least two prominent 20th-century intellectuals described this execution.)
  • Jacques Clément, the murderer of Henri III (He was killed in this act of regicide, and his corpse was subjected to the same "punishment".)

These executions were carried out (along with most others under the ancien régime) in the Place de Grève. Jean Châtel (1575-1594) attempted to assassinate King Henry IV of France on 27 December 1594. ... Henry IV (French: Henri IV; December 13, 1553 – May 14, 1610), was the first monarch of the Bourbon dynasty in France. ... François Ravaillac François Ravaillac (1578 – May 27, 1610) was the killer of Henry IV of France. ... May 27 is the 147th day (148th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 218 days remaining. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Robert-François Damiens Robert-François Damiens (1715-1757) was a Frenchman who attained notoriety by unsuccessfully attempting the assassination of Louis XV of France in 1757. ... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), the Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 until his death. ... 1757 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jacques Clément (1567 - August 1, 1589) was the murderer of the French king Henry III. He was born at Serbonnes, in todays Yonne département, in Burgundy, and became a Dominican friar. ... Henry III (French: Henri III; Polish: Henryk III Walezy; September 19, 1551 - August 2, 1589) was King of Poland (1573-1574) and subsequently King of France (1574-1589). ... The Place de Grève was, before 1803, the name of the plaza now the City Hall Plaza (place de lHôtel de Ville) in Paris, France. ...

Gérard's execution took place on the market square in Delft, the Netherlands. Balthasar Gérard (in Dutch Gerards or Gerardts) (1557-1584) was the assassin of the Dutch independence leader, William the Silent, also known as William I of Orange. ... William I (William the Silent) William I of Orange-Nassau (April 24, 1533 – July 10, 1584), also widely known as William the Silent [Dutch: Willem de Zwijger], was born in the House of Nassau, and became Prince of Orange in 1544. ... For other articles with similar names, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Delft is a city in South Holland (Zuid-Holland), the Netherlands, located halfway between Rotterdam and The Hague (Den Haag). ...


Notes

  1. ^ Extracts from the transcript of the October 1660 trial and execution of 10 regicides At the end of the article there is a description of the executions. They were all hanged drawn and quartered apart from Francis Hacker who was hanged.
  2. ^ George Neilson, Drawing, Hanging and Quartering published in Notes and Queries, 15 August 1891; s7-XII: 129 - 131.
  3. ^ Thomas Wallcot, John Rouse, William Hone, William Blake, offences against the king: treason, 12th July, 1683. The Proceedings of the Old Bailey Ref: t16830712-4. See Proceedings of the Old Bailey
  4. ^ H Thomas Milhorn, Crime: Computer Viruses to Twin Towers, Universal Publishers, 2004. ISBN 1581124899
  5. ^ Brown, Chris. William Wallace. The True Story of Braveheart. Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd, 2005. ISBN 0-7524-3432-2
  6. ^ Antonia Fraser, Faith and Treason: The Story of the Gunpowder Plot, Anchor, 1997. ISBN 0-385-47190-4
  7. ^ Hampshire Chronicle, Monday, 2 September 1782. Transcript available online: see Some Selected Reports from the Hampshire Chronicle
  8. ^ Anchitell Grey, Grey's Debates of the House of Commons: volume 8, London, 1769
  9. ^ Alder Hey organs scandal: the issue explained by David Batty and Jane Perrone Friday April 27, 2001 in The Guardian
  10. ^ Robert Latham and William Matthews (editors) The Diary of Samuel Pepys. Volume I. Introduction and 1660, Bell & Hyman, London, 1970. ISBN 0-7135-1551-1

Notes and Queries (originally subtitled a medium of inter-communication for literary men, artists, antiquaries, genealogists, etc) is a correspondence magazine where scholars and interested amateurs exchange miscellaneous knowledge. ... Lady Antonia Fraser, née Pakenham, (born August 27, 1932) is a British author of history and novels, best known for writing biographies. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... Robert Gordon Latham (1812-1888) was an ethnologist and philologist. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hanging (571 words)
Hanging is one of the forms of capital punishment which has been used as a method of execution throughout history.
One typical sentence was for the perpetrator to be 'hanged, drawn and quartered'.
Early methods of hanging simply involved a slip knot on a rope placed around the victim's neck, with the loose end thrown or tied to a tree branch; the criminal was then drawn up and slowly strangled.
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