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Encyclopedia > Haner language

The Haner language (traditional Chinese: 漢兒言語) was a Chinese language heavily influenced by non-Han Chinese languages, especially Mongolian. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...

Contents

Terms and Concepts

Spoken Haner

The term "Haner language" appears at the Nogeoldae and Bak Tongsa, and refers to the colloquial Han language of Northern China. "Haner" is an informal form of Hanren (Han Chinese people) and its use can be traced back to the Han Dynasty period. During the Northern and Southern Dynasties, it came to refer to the Han people under non-Han domination. Northern China experienced long and frequent conquests by non-Han including the Khitan, the Jurchen and the Mongols. However, Han Chinese language kept its status as the lingua franca. This caused interference by Altaic languages. At the same time, the Haner language exposed colloquial features that have almost always been obscured by the tradition of Classical Chinese, so it is sometimes considered in relation to modern Mandarin. The Nogeoldae (pinyin Laoqida) is a Korean traditional textbook on foreign languages that provides important linguistic data. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... This article is about China. ... The Khitan (or Khitai, Chinese: ; pinyin: Qìdān) were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria in the 11th century and has been classified by Chinese historians as one of the Eastern proto-Mongolic ethnic groups Donghu (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao Dynasty in 907... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, cross-linguistic interference or interference) is the effect of a speaker or writers first language (L1) on the production or perception of his or her second language (L2). ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ...


Written Haner

There is another concept called the "Crude Mongol-(Han) Chinese Translation of Official Documents" (硬譯公牘文體) by Yekemingghadai Irinchin. It is the written language used in imperial edicts, laws and other official documents during the Yuan Dynasty. These documents were written in highly formalized translation from Mongolian so that they cannot be understood with the grammar and vocabulary of Classical Chinese. Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


The Haner language and the Crude Mongol-(Han) Chinese Translation are different concepts. The latter is a written language but the former is a colloquial language or includes both. However, they clearly share many features in grammar and vocabulary. The development of the written language seems to have been based on the Haner language.


Features

There are two methods to study the Haner language: the comparison of the crude translation with original Mongolian, and the analysis of colloquial style books like the Nogeoldae. Although their similarities have been pointed out, there is not yet any detailed comparison between the two forms. Here we mainly deal with the crude translation.


Word order

The crude translation tries to keep the same word order to Mongolian unless it is too confusing or unnatural. This means reverse order in Han Chinese language because Mongolian is a SOV language while Han Chinese language is basically a SVO language. It also adopts some postpositions. In linguistic typology, Subject Object Verb (SOV) is the type of languages in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear (usually) in that order. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ...


Nouns

Mongolian distinguishes singular and plural forms although it is not as strict as in English. In the Haner language, Mongolian plural endings technically correspond to "mei" (每) even if it sounds unnatural in Han Chinese language. For example, Mongolian "čerig-üd" (soldiers) was translated into "junmei" (軍每).


Pronouns

Possessive pronouns are postpositioned in Mongolian. The crude translation sometimes translates it in the original order. For example, "jarlig-man-u" (imperial edict ← our) is "shengzhi andi" (聖旨俺的) in the crude translation. Due to its ambiguity, however, possessive prounouns were often reversed (e.g. 俺的聖旨) or simply dropped.


Case-markers

Although the ordinary Han Chinese language does not mark cases or uses prepositions like 把-, the crude translation frequently used postpositions that correspond to the Mongolian ones.

case Mongolian crude translation
genitive -yin, -u2, -un2 -的 (di), -
dative-locative -dur2, -tur2, -da2, -a2 -根底 (gendi), -裏 (li)
ablative -ača2, -ča2, -dača2 -根底 (gendi), -
accusative -yi, -i -根底 (gendi), -
instrumental -bar2, -iyar2 依着- (yizhao), -裏 (li), 依着-...-裏
comitative -luɤa2 -與 (yu), -和 (he), -共 (gong)

The genitive and comitative case suffixes follow the orinary Han Chinese grammar, but the rest is not. The extensive use of -gendi is one of remarkable features of the crude translation and it can also be found in the colloquial form. There seems a loose distinction between the -gendi and the -li: the -gendi tends to mark dative case whereas the -li marks locative case in general. Note that in the Secret History of the Mongols, -gendi is replaced by the -hang (行). The Secret History of the Mongols is the first literary work of Mongolian culture. ...


Particles

Mongolian verbs can be nominalized in some inflected forms and refer to persons performing/having performed the actions. In the Haner language, the character "di" (的) comes after verbal phrases. Depending on tense, "laidi" (來的) "ledi" (了的) "lailedi" (來了的) "quledi" (去了的) were also used. The plural ending "mei" can be added. For example, "changchuan chirou di mei" (常川喫肉的每) means "persons who habitually eat meat."


Verbs

Auxiliary verbs

The Haner language is most known for its use of "有" at the end of a sentence.


Vocabulary

[edit] Chinese: spoken varieties  
Generally accepted first-level categories:

Cantonese | Gan | Hakka | Mandarin | Min | Wu | Xiang Spoken Chinese Spoken Chinese comprises many regional variants. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... Gàn (赣语) is one of the major divisions of spoken Chinese, a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages, concentrated in and typical of Jiangxi Province. ... Hakka (Simplified Chinese: 客家话, Traditional Chinese: 客家話, Pronunciation in Hakka: Hak-ka-fa/-va, Pinyin: Kèjiāhuà) is a spoken variation of the Chinese language spoken predominantly in southern China by the Hakka ethnic group and descendants in diaspora throughout East and Southeast Asia and around the world. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Min (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; POJ: Bân hong-giân; BUC: Mìng huŏng-ngiòng) is a general term for a group of dialects of the Chinese language spoken in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou... Wu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Xiang (湘語/湘语), also Hunan, Hunanese, or Hsiang, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ...

Often accepted first-level categories:

Hui | Jin | Ping The Hui (徽) dialects are unrelated to the Hui (回) ethnic group of China. ... Jin (simplified: 晋语; traditional: 晉語; pinyin: jìnyǔ), or Jin-yu, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ... Pinghua (平話/平话), also Guangxi Nanning, is a subdivision of spoken Chinese. ...

Unclassified:

Danzhouhua | Shaozhou Tuhua Danzhouhua (hua = language) 儋州話 / 儋州话 is an unclassified Chinese dialect spoken in the area of Danzhou on the island Hainan. ... Shaozhou Tuhua ( 韶州土話 / 韶州土话 ) is an unclassified Chinese language spoken in the border region of the provinces Guangdong, Hunan and Guangxi. ...

Second-level Subcategories of Mandarin: Northeastern | Beijing | Ji-Lu | Jiao-Liao | Zhongyuan | Lan-Yin | Southwestern | Jianghuai
Second-level Subcategories of Min: Min Bei | Min Dong | Min Nan | Min Zhong | Puxian | Qiong Wen | Shaojiang
Ausbausprachen: Standard Mandarin | (Taiwanese Mandarin) | Standard Cantonese | Dungan
Comprehensive list of Chinese dialects     |     Identification of the varieties of Chinese
Historical phonology: Old Chinese | Middle Chinese | Proto-Min | Proto-Mandarin | Haner
Written varieties
Official written varieties: Classical Chinese | Vernacular Chinese
Other varieties: Written Vernacular Cantonese
Mandarin, when used in the broad sense to refer to most of the Chinese dialects spoken over northern and southwestern China, covers many variations. ... Northeastern Mandarin or Northeast Chinese Dialect is a variety of Mandarin Chinese, known collectively as Dongbeihua (Traditional Chinese: 東北話; Simplified Chinese: 东北话; pinyin: DōngbÄ›ihuà; literally Northeast Speech/Language). Northeastern dialect is very similar to the Beijing dialect, upon which Standard Mandarin Chinese (Putonghua) is based. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Ji Lu Mandarin (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: jìlÇ”guānhuà) is a Mandarin dialect spoken in the Chinese provinces of Hebei and Shandong. ... Jiao-Liao Mandarin (胶辽官话)is the version of Mandarin Chinese spoken on the Shandong (aka Jiaodong) and Liaodong Peninsulas in northeast China. ... Zhongyuan Mandarin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) ( Official Language of the Central Plain), spoken in the central part of Shaanxi, Henan, and southern part of Shandong, is a dialect of Chinese. ... Also known as Huguang (湖广), it is the varient of Mandarin Chinese widely spoken south of the Yangtze River, and east of the Tibetan Plateau. ... Min Bei is a subcategory of Min, which is a Chinese language. ... Min Dong Language (or Eastern Min Language, Chinese: 閩東語, SLC: Mỉng Tòyng ngỹ) is the language mainly spoken in the eastern part of Fujian Province (Chinese: 福建, SLC: Huk Kyŏng). ... Mǐn N n (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name B ; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... Min Zhong (Simplified Chinese: 闽中; Traditional Chinese: 閩中; pinyin: Mǐnzhōng) is a subcategory of Min, which is a Chinese language. ... Puxian (Simplified Chinese: 莆仙话 ; Traditional Chinese : 莆仙話 ; Hanyu pinyin : Púxiān huà) is a subcategory of Min Chinese. ... ... An Ausbausprache (also called an ausbau language) is a language which has a standard spelling, a standard grammar and a relatively wide and clear vocabulary (and is thus almost identical with a standard language). ... Map of eastern China and Taiwan, showing the historic distribution of Mandarin Chinese in light brown. ... Taiwanese Mandarin (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai2-wan1 Kuo2-yü3; also 台灣華語, Táiwān HuáyÇ”) is the dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken on Taiwan. ... Standard Cantonese is a variant, and is generally considered the prestige dialect of Cantonese Chinese. ... The Dungan language (Dungan: Хуэйзў йүян Huejzw jyian, Russian: tr. ... Geographic distribution of Sinitic language families within the Peoples Republic of China and the Republic of China The following is a list of Chinese dialects and languages. ... Chinese forms part of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Historical Chinese Phonology deals with reconstructing the sounds of Chinese from the past. ... The Seal script characters for harvest (later year) and person. ... Middle Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 中古漢語; Pinyin: zhōnggÇ” HànyÇ”), or Ancient Chinese as used by linguist Bernhard Karlgren, refers to the Chinese language spoken during Northern and Southern Dynasties and the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties (6th century - 10th century). ... Proto-Mandarin is an ancient language based on an older form of Mandarin before it was Mandarin. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... Written Cantonese refers to the written language used to write colloquial standard Cantonese using Chinese characters. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chinese language - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (6621 words)
Cantonese is unique among non-Mandarin regional languages in having a written colloquial standard, used in Hong Kong and by non-Standard Mandarin speaking Cantonese speakers overseas, with a large number of unofficial characters for words particular to this variety of Chinese.
The Dungan language, considered a dialect of Mandarin, is also nowadays written in Cyrillic, and was formerly written in the Arabic alphabet, although the Dungan people live outside China.
Old Chinese (T:上古漢語S:上古汉语P:Shànggǔ Hànyǔ), sometimes known as "Archaic Chinese," was the language common during the early and middle Zhōu Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC), texts of which include inscriptions on bronze artifacts, the poetry of the Shījīng, the history of the Shūjīng, and portions of the Yìjīng (I Ching).
Haner language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (664 words)
The Haner language (漢兒言語) was a Chinese language heavily influenced by non-Han Chinese languages, especially Mongolian.
The term "Haner language" appears at the Nogeoldae and Bak Tongsa, and refers to the colloquial Han language of Northern China.
At the same time, the Haner language exposed colloquial features that have almost always been obscured by the tradition of Classical Chinese, so it is sometimes considered in relation to modern Mandarin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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