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Encyclopedia > Hanapepe massacre

On September 9, 1924, toward the end of a long, drawn-out strike of Filipino sugar workers on Kauai, Hawaii, local police shot dead sixteen strikers in what came to be known later as the Hanapepe Massacre. As reproachful as it may appear in retrospect, the incident did not arouse contemporary public censure nor bring into question the legitimacy of the coercive agents or their actions. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... In general use, sugar is taken to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a disaccharide which is a white crystalline solid. ... Kauai from space (NASA image) Kaua‘i (usually called Kauai outside the Hawaiian Islands) is the oldest and fourth largest of the main Hawaiian Islands, having an area of 1,446 km² . Known also as the Garden Isle, Kaua‘i lies 105 miles (170 kilometers) across the Kaua‘i Channel... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Monarch Akahi Nui Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ...


By the 1920s, the sugar plantation owners in Hawaii had become disillusioned with both Japanese and Filipino workers. They spent the next few years trying to get the U.S. Congress to relax the Chinese Exclusion Act so that they could bring in new Chinese workers. Congress, in a period when racism was more open than today, prevented the importation of Chinese labor. In general use, sugar is taken to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a disaccharide which is a white crystalline solid. ... // Forestry plantations A plantation of Douglas-fir in Washington, USA; note the trees of uniform size and planted in straight lines, and the lack of diversity in the ground flora In forestry, plantations of trees are typically grown as an even-aged monoculture for timber production, as opposed to a... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Monarch Akahi Nui Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The Chinese Exclusion Act may be: Another name for the Chinese Immigration Act of 1923 in Canada, coined by the Chinese-Canadian community. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... A black man drinks out of a water fountain designated for black people in 1939 at a streetcar terminal. ...


Unfortunately, organized labor in the 1920s' U.S. mainland was also infected with racism and supported the Congress in this action. For a while it looked as though militant unionism on the sugarplantations was dead. To ensure the complete subjugation of Labor, the Hawaiian Territorial Legislature passed laws against "criminal syndicalism, anarchistic publications and picketing." For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... A black man drinks out of a water fountain designated for black people in 1939 at a streetcar terminal. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... In general use, sugar is taken to mean sucrose, also called table sugar or saccharose, a disaccharide which is a white crystalline solid. ... On August 12, 1898, the flag of the Kingdom of Hawai‘i over ‘Iolani Palace was lowered to raise the United States flag to signify annexation. ...


This repression with penalties up to 10 years in prison did not stifle the discontent of the workers. Particularly the Filipinos, who were rapidly becoming the dominant plantation labor force, had long, deep seated grievances. As the latest immigrants they were the most discriminated against, and held in the most contempt. Although the planters had claimed there was a labor shortage and they were actively recruiting workers from the Philippines, they screened out and turned back any arrivals that could read or write. They wanted only illiterate workers. Of 600 men who had arrived in the islands voluntarily, they sent back 100. But these measures did not prevent discontent from spreading.


In 1922, Filipino labor activist Pablo Manlapit was active among them and had organized a new Filipino Higher Wage Movement which claimed 13,000 members. In April, 1924, a strike was called on the island of Kauai. The chief demands were for $2 a day in wages and reduction of the workday to 8 hours. It looked like history was repeating itself. The plantation owners used repression, armed forces, the National Guard, and strike breakers who were paid a higher wage than the strikers demanded. Again workers were turned out of their homes. The propaganda machine whipped up racism. Spying and infiltration of the strikers ranks was acknowledged by Jack Butler, executive head of the Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association. 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as involvement in action to bring about change, be it social, political, environmental, or other change. ... Pablo Manlapit (born January 17, 1891, Philippines; died April 15, 1969, Philippines) was a migrant laborer, lawyer, labor organizer and activist in Hawaii and the Philippines. ... April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kauai from space (NASA image) Kaua‘i (usually called Kauai outside the Hawaiian Islands) is the oldest and fourth largest of the main Hawaiian Islands, having an area of 1,446 km² . Known also as the Garden Isle, Kaua‘i lies 105 miles (170 kilometers) across the Kaua‘i Channel... // Forestry plantations A plantation of Douglas-fir in Washington, USA; note the trees of uniform size and planted in straight lines, and the lack of diversity in the ground flora In forestry, plantations of trees are typically grown as an even-aged monoculture for timber production, as opposed to a... North Korean propaganda showing a soldier destroying the United States Capitol building. ... A black man drinks out of a water fountain designated for black people in 1939 at a streetcar terminal. ...


Arrests of strike leaders was used to destroy the workers' solidarity. People were bribed to testify against them. On September 9, 1924 outraged strikers seized two strike breakers at Hanapepe, Kauai and prevented them from going to work. The police, armed with clubs and guns came to the "rescue" at the union headquarters. In stark constrast, the Filipino strikers had only homemade weapons and knives to defend themselves. September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Hanapepe is a census-designated place located in Kauai County, Hawaii. ... Kauai from space (NASA image) Kaua‘i (usually called Kauai outside the Hawaiian Islands) is the oldest and fourth largest of the main Hawaiian Islands, having an area of 1,446 km² . Known also as the Garden Isle, Kaua‘i lies 105 miles (170 kilometers) across the Kaua‘i Channel...


The Associated Press flashed the story of what followed across the United States in the following words: Honolulu. - Twenty persons dead, unnumbered injured lying in hospital, officers under orders to shoot strikers as they approached, distracted widows with children tracking from jails to hospitals and morgues in search of missing strikers - this was the aftermath of a clash between cane strikers and workers on the McBryde plantation, Tuesday at Hanapepe, island of Kauai. The dead included sixteen Filipinos and four policemen. Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ...


In the aftermath, 101 Filipinos were arrested, and 76 were brought to trial and 60 were given four year jail sentences. Pablo Manlapit was charged with subornation of perjury and was sentenced to two to ten years in prison. The Hawaii Hochi charged that he had been manipulated into prison, a victim of framed up evidence, perjured testimony, racial prejudice and class hatred. Shortly thereafter, he was paroled on condition that he leave Hawaii. After eight months, the strike disintegrated, illustrating once again that racial unionism in Hawaii was doomed to failure. Pablo Manlapit (born January 17, 1891, Philippines; died April 15, 1969, Philippines) was a migrant laborer, lawyer, labor organizer and activist in Hawaii and the Philippines. ... Perjury is lying or making verifiably false statements under oath in a court of law. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Monarch Akahi Nui Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Monarch Akahi Nui Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ...


The Federationist, the official publication of the American Federation of Labor, reported that in 1924, the ten leading sugar companies listed on the New York Stock Exchange paid dividends averaging 17 percent. From 1913 to 1923, the eleven leading sugar companies paid cash dividends of 172.45 percent, and in addition, most of them issued large stock dividends. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... New York Stock Exchange (June 2003) The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is the largest stock exchange in the world, although its trading volume was exceeded by that of NASDAQ (historic comparison graph {pdf}) during the 1990s. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


After the 1924 strike, the labor movement in Hawaii dwindled but it never died. Discontent among the workers seethed but seldom surfaced. Pablo Manlapit, who was imprisoned and then exiled returned to the islands in 1932 and started a new organization, this time hoping to include other ethnic groups. But the time was not ripe in the depression years. There were small nuisance strikes in 1933 that made no headway and involved mostly Filipinos. 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The labor movement (or labour movement) is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments. ... State nickname: The Aloha State Other U.S. States Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Monarch Akahi Nui Governor Linda Lingle (R) Senators Daniel Inouye (D) Daniel Akaka (D) Official language(s) Hawaiian and English Area 28,337 km² (43rd)  - Land 16,649 km²  - Water 11,672 km² (41. ... Pablo Manlapit (born January 17, 1891, Philippines; died April 15, 1969, Philippines) was a migrant laborer, lawyer, labor organizer and activist in Hawaii and the Philippines. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
History of Labor in Hawai'i (8452 words)
They were met by a force of over seventy police officers who tear gassed, hosed and finally fired their riot guns into the crowd, hospitalizing fifty of the demonstrators.
On June 12, 1941, the first written contract on the waterfront was achieved by the ILWU, the future of labor organizing appeared bright until December and the bombing of Pearl Harbor through the territory into a state of martial law for the next four years.
William J. Puette, The Hilo Massacre: Hawaii's Bloody Monday, August 1st, 1938 (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i, Center for Labor Education and Research, 1988).
Hawai'i Labor History Biographies (2253 words)
He helped organize a Filipino Labor Union in Hawai'i and was the central figure in the strikes in 1920 and 1924 that drew thousands of plantation workers.
So strong was his influence among his countrymen that he was implicated in the violent September 1924 strike on Kauai -- later known as the Hanapepe Massacre -- even though he wasn't there.
This incident became known as the Hilo Massacre.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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