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Encyclopedia > Han Zhao
Sixteen Kingdoms.
16 Kingdoms
Cheng Han
Han Zhao
Later Zhao
Former Liang
Later Liang
Western Liang
Northern Liang
Southern Liang
Former Qin
Later Qin
Western Qin
Former Yan
Later Yan
Northern Yan
Southern Yan
Xia
Not included
in the 16 Kingdoms
Ran Wei
Western Shu
Western Yan
Duan
Yuwen
Chouchi
Wei (Dingling)
Dai
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The Han Zhao (simplified Chinese: 汉赵; traditional Chinese: 漢趙; pinyin: Hànzhào; 304-329) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Chinese Jin Dynasty (265-420). It represented two state titles, the Han state (漢, pinyin Hàn) proclaimed in 304 by Liu Yuan and the Former Zhao state (前趙, pinyin Qiánzhào) in 319 by Liu Yao. (The reason it was referred to as Former Zhao was that when its powerful general Shi Le broke away and formed his own state in 319, he named it Zhao as well, and so Shi Le's state was referred to as Later Zhao.) Since they were both ruled by the partially sinicized Xiongnu Liu family, scholars with Chinese backgrounds often combined them into a single Han Zhao state. Numerous western texts referred to the two states separately; others referred to the Han state as the Northern Han (北漢), a nomenclature in diminishing use as the term now referring to the Northern Han in the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. However, the reference to them as separate should be considered clearly erroneous, given that when Liu Yao changed the name of the state from Han to Zhao in 319, he treated the state as having been continuous from the time that Liu Yuan founded it in 304; instead, he was discontinuing the connection to Han Dynasty and reclaiming ancestry from the great Xiongnu chanyu Maodun. The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... The Cheng Han (Simplified Chinese character: 成汉, Traditional Chinese character: 成漢, pinyin Chénghàn) (303 or 304-347) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Later Zhao (Simplified Chinese character: 后赵, Traditional Chinese character: 後趙, Hanyu pinyin Hòuzhào) (319-351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Former Liang (Chinese character: 前凉, Hanyu pinyin Qián Liáng) (320-376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Later Liang (Simplified Chinese character: 后凉, Traditional Chinese character: 後凉, Hanyu pinyin Hòu Liáng) (320-376) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Western Liang (Chinese character: 西凉, Hanyu pinyin Xī Liáng) (400-421) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Northern Liang (Chinese character: 北凉, Hanyu pinyin BÄ•i Liáng) (397-439) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Southern Liang (Chinese character: 南凉, Hanyu pinyin Nánliáng) (397-414) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Former Qin (Chinese character: 前秦, Hanyu pinyin Qiánqín) (351-394) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Later Qin (Simplified Chinese character: 后秦, Traditional Chinese character: 後秦, pinyin Hòuqín) (384-417) was a state of Qiang ethnicity of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... The Western Qin (Simplified Chinese character: 西秦, Traditional Chinese character: 西秦, pinyin Xīqín (385-400, 409-431)) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Former Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 前燕, Traditional Chinese character: 前燕, pinyin Qiányàn) (337-370) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Later Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 后燕, Traditional Chinese character: 後燕, pinyin Hòuyàn) (384-407 or 409) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Northern Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 北燕, Traditional Chinese character: 北燕, pinyin Bĕiyàn) (407 or 409-436) was a state of Han Chinese during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Southern Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 南燕, Traditional Chinese character: 南燕, pinyin Nányàn) (398-410) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Tiefu (Simplified Chinese character: 铁弗, Traditional Chinese character: 鐵弗, pinyin: TiÄ›fú) was a pre-state Xiongnu tribe during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Ran Min (Simplified Chinese character: 冉闵; Chinese character: 冉閔, pinyin: RÇŽn Mǐn) was a Han Chinese military leader during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Qiao Zong (d. ... The Western Yan (Simplified Chinese character: 西燕, Traditional Chinese character: 西燕, pinyin Xīyàn) (384-394) was a state of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Duan (Simplified Chinese character: 段, Traditional Chinese character: 段, pinyin Duàn) was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... The Yuwen (Simplified Chinese character: 宇文, Traditional Chinese character: 宇文, pinyin Yǔwén) was a pre-state tribe of Xianbei and Hun ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Related Topics Di Wu Hu List of past Chinese ethnic groups ... Wei (Chinese: 魏; pinyin: Wèi) was a state of Dingling ethnicity that existed during Chinas Sixteen Kingdoms period -- specifically, from 388 to 392. ... Dai (Chinese character: 代, pinyin: Dài) was a state of the Tuoba clan of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Huan Xuan (桓玄) (369-404), courtesy name Jingdao (敬道), nickname Lingbao (靈寶), formally Emperor Wudao of Chu, was a Jin Dynasty (265-420) warlord who briefly took over the imperial throne from Emperor An of Jin and declared his own state of Chu in 403, but was defeated by an uprising led by... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For other uses, see 304 (disambiguation). ... Events End of the Han Zhao state. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For other uses, see 304 (disambiguation). ... Liu Yuan (劉淵) (d. ... Events Chandragupta I succeeds his father Ghatotkacha as ruler of the Gupta Empire Births Saint Bassiano, first Bishop of Lodi, Italy. ... Liu Yao (劉曜) (d. ... Shi Le (石勒) (274-333), courtesy name Shilong (世龍), formally Emperor Ming of (Later) Zhao ((後)趙明帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Jie state Later Zhao. ... Events Chandragupta I succeeds his father Ghatotkacha as ruler of the Gupta Empire Births Saint Bassiano, first Bishop of Lodi, Italy. ... The Later Zhao (Simplified Chinese character: 后赵, Traditional Chinese character: 後趙, Hanyu pinyin Hòuzhào) (319-351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, is the linguistic assimilation or cultural assimilation of terms and concepts into the language and culture of China. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... 劉 pinyin: Liú Liu is a common Chinese family name. ... This article is about the Northern Han in the Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Liu Yao (劉曜) (d. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Chanyu (Traditional: 單于; Simplified: 单于; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chan-yü; sometimes written Shanyu) was the title used by the rulers of the Xiongnu during the Han Dynasty 206 BC - 220. ...


All rulers of the Han Zhao declared themselves "emperors". Han Zhao rulers were all generally intelligent and articulate, but lacked self-control and showing excessive cruelty on the battle field. Particularly typical of this pattern of behavior was Liu Cong (Emperor Zhaowu), who was clearly able to discern good strategical plans from bad, but indulged himself in wine and women, and his patterns of erratic behavior often resulted in deaths of honest officials. Han Zhao was therefore a state that never fully realized its potential -- it had the right mix of talent among its officials, and its armies were powerful when properly used, but it would never complete the conquests that its emperors envisioned, and eventually fell to its formal general Shi Le.


Although chronologically the Han Zhao was not the first of the Sixteen kingdoms, its armies sacked the Jin dynastic capitals of Luoyang in 311 and Chang'an in 316. Emperor Huai and Emperor Min of the Jin were captured, humiliated and executed. Remnants of the Jin court fled to Jiankang, located eastward of Luoyang and Chang'an, and founded the so-called Eastern Jin Dynasty, under the Sima Rui the Prince of Langye, who later became Emperor Yuan. In 318, Liu Can and the ruling family resided at Pingyang were toppled and executed by the coup d'etat of Jin Zhun who was in turn eliminated by Shi Le and Liu Yao, who, as an imperial prince, claimed the throne and changed the name of the state to Zhao. Han Zhao lasted until 329 when Shi Le defeated Liu Yao at the river Luo. Liu Yao was captured and executed; his sons succumbed to the follow-up military advancement. Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 - Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese) and Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese)/monarchical titles. ... Emperor Min of Jin, Simplified Chinese character 晋愍帝, Traditional Chinese character 晉愍帝, Pinyin. ... Jiankang (建康城 in pinyin: Jiànkāng chéng), formerly known as Jianye (建業 Jiànyè) until Eastern Jin Dynasty (317 - 420), is an ancient city in China, located west of present-day Nanjing, in south Jiangning County (江寧縣 Jiāngníng Xiàn). ... Emperor Yuan of Jin (晋元帝/晉元帝, pinyin Jìn Yuándì, Wade-Giles Chin Yüan-ti) (276-January 3, 323), personal name Sima Rui (司馬睿), courtesy name Jingwen (景文), was an emperor of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) and the first of the Eastern Jin Dynasty. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Liu Can (劉粲) (d. ... Linfen (Traditional Chinese: 臨汾; Simplified Chinese: 临汾) is a prefecture-level city in southern Shanxi province, Peoples Republic of China. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Jin Zhun (靳準) (d. ... Shi Le (石勒) (274-333), courtesy name Shilong (世龍), formally Emperor Ming of (Later) Zhao ((後)趙明帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Jie state Later Zhao. ... Events End of the Han Zhao state. ...


The Condition of the Xiongnu in Northern China and their uprising

By the 280s, a huge number (approximately 400,000) of Xiongnu herdsmen resided in the Ordos Desert and the Bing province, a political division including modern-day areas of the whole Shanxi province, southwestern part of Inner Mongolia and eastern part of Shaanxi province, after Cao Cao moved them there and split them into "five departments" (五部, pinyin Wǔbù) These Xiongnu seemed to substantially change from the nomadic lifestyles of the steppes to stockbreeding and to some extent, agriculture. Centuries: 2nd century - 3rd century - 4th century Decades: 230s - 240s - 250s - 260s - 270s - 280s - 290s - 300s - 310s - 320s - 330s Years: 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 Significant people Diocletian, Roman Emperor Maximian, Roman Emperor Categories: 280s ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Ordos Desert 1912 The Ordos Desert (Chinese: 鄂尔多斯沙漠; Pinyin: ÈěrduōsÄ« Shāmò) is a desert and steppe region lying on a plateau in the south of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Bing may mean: Look up bing in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ...


Sinicization was evident, especially among the elite; Liu Yuan, the hereditary chieftain of the "Left Department" (左部, pinyin Zuǒbù) was educated at Luoyang, capital of the Jin Dynasty, and proficient in Chinese literature, history, military strategies and tactics - expertise of a perfect person in the classical sense. Speculations had recounted that Liu Yuan was once considered the commander of the Jin forces in the conquest of the Kingdom of Wu; consideration was later dropped due to his Xiongnu ethnicity. Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, is the linguistic assimilation or cultural assimilation of terms and concepts into the language and culture of China. ... Liu Yuan (劉淵) (d. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Kingdom of Wu (Chinese: 吳, pinyin: wú) refers to a historical nation and several states in a region of China. ...


Nonetheless, among the Xiongnu elite and herdsmen, including Liu Yuan himself, a keen sense of separate identity from the Chinese was retained. Most herdsmen still kept their horseback raiding and combat skills. Discontent against the Jin dynastic rule and of their subordinate position prompted them to seek an independent or self-governing Xiongnu entity. As one of the elite adequately put it, "since the fall of Han [Dynasty], [Kingdom of] Wei and Jin [Dynasty] have risen one after the other. Although our [Xiongnu] king (Shanyu) had been given a nominal hereditary title, he no longer has a single foothold of sovereign territory." Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... The Kingdom of Wei (ch. ... Chanyu(Shanyu is quite an unacceptable corruption) is the title of the ruler of the Huns [Xiongnu in Chinese]. The literal translation is the greatest in Xiongnu language. ...


Developments in the War of the Eight Princes (also known as the Rebellion of the Eight Kings) finally favored the Xiongnu. Liu Yuan took advantage of a commission from the desperate Prince of Chengdu (Sima Ying), who was just being driven out of his base at Ye (near modern-day Linzhang County ch. 临漳县, Hebei province) to gather 50,000 Xiongnu warriors. Liu Yuan then proceeded to proclaim himself the "King of Han," the same title used centuries ago by Liu Bang (later Emperor Gao of Han and the founder of Han Dynasty) - a deliberate adoption of the long fallen Han Dynasty based on the earlier intermarriages of Xiongnu shanyu and Han princesses to render the Jin and Wei usurpers. Liu fully wished that such legitimist stance would earn him substantial support from the Chinese elite. His motives also explained the extent of his adoption of the ideology and political practices from the same elite. This article appears to contradict itself. ... The War of the Eight Princes or Rebellion of the Eight Kings or Rebellion of the Eight Princes (trad. ... Liu Yuan (刘元, pinyin: Liú Yuán, surname Liu, b. ... Sima Ying (司馬穎) (279-306), courtesy name Zhangdu (章度), was a Jin Dynasty (265-420) imperial prince who served briefly as his brother Emperor Huis regent and crown prince. ... Look up ye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Hebei (Chinese: 河北; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-pei; Postal System Pinyin: Hopeh) is a northern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu, personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only two dynasty founders who emerged from the... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication...


Nevertheless such proclamation was to remain titular - his war effort would eventually outdo his legitimist plan. His Han state attracted the support of some chieftains of other non-Chinese Xianbei and Di and certain bandit forces including those of an ex-slave Shi Le of the Jie ethnicity. However the neighboring Tuoba tribe, the powerful Xianbei nomads in modern-day Inner Mongolia and northern parts of Shanxi province, intruded into the Xiongnu residence of the Han State under their chieftain Tuoba Yilu (拓拔猗盧, pinyin Tuòbá Yīlú). A powerful Xiongnu state would dash Tuoba's hope of migrating into the region. Xianbei belt buckles, 3-4th century CE. The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. ... The Di (氐) were an ethnic group in China. ... Slave redirects here. ... Shi Le (石勒) (274-333), courtesy name Shilong (世龍), formally Emperor Ming of (Later) Zhao ((後)趙明帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Jie state Later Zhao. ... The Jie (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Chieh) were members of a small tribe in the Xiongnu Confederation in the 4th and 5th centuries CE. Their name literally means wethers or castrated male sheep. They were Caucasoid in appearance, with full beards, deep-set eyes and high noses, and were probably related... Tuoba (æ‹“æ‹”; pinyin Tuòbá) or To-pa in Wade-Giles was a clan of the Xianbei people. ... Tuoba Yilu (Chinese: 拓跋猗盧; pinyin: Tuòbá YÄ«lú) (?-316) was the chieftain of the western Tuoba territory from 295-307, supreme chieftain of the Tuoba from 307-316, Duke of Dai from 310-315, first prince of the Tuoba Dai from 315-316. ...


On one hand the Tuoba would hence assist the Jin governor of the Bing region to launch counteroffensive against the Han state. On the other hand Xiongnu cavalry, successful in plundering the countryside, failed to capture the fortified Jinyang (modern-day Taiyuan city, the provincial capital of the Shanxi province), the provincial capital of the Bing region even though the former governor Sima Teng had fled to the North China Plain and left a mess. Liu Kun, the new governor, reorganized the defense and exploited the feud between the Han and the Tuoba to his advantage. His biography is in Jinshu 62. Allegiance between the Jin court and the Tuoba was sealed - five prefectures were rewarded in 310 to Tuoba Yilu, who was also made the Prince of Dai. The areas around Jinyang would remain in Jin hands until the death of Tuoba Yilu in 316 when Jinyang was captured after a disastrous counteroffensive. Liu Kun fled but was later murdered by a Xianbei chieftain Duan Pidi. Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Taiyuan (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tai-yüan lit. ... Shanxi (Chinese: 山西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shansi) is a province in the northern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Dai (Chinese character: 代, pinyin: Dài) was a state of the Tuoba clan of Xianbei ethnicity during the era of Sixteen Kingdoms in China. ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ...


By 309, The Xiongnu armies defeated the Jin armies on the field and pushed all the way up to the gates of Luoyang. For the car known as the 309, see Peugeot 309. ...


Rulers of the Han Zhao

Temple names Posthumous names Family names and given name Duration of reigns Era names and their according range of years
Chinese convention: use family and given names
Han 304-319
Gao Zu (高祖 gaō zǔ) Guangwen, ch. 光文, pinyin guāng wén Liu Yuan, ch. 劉淵, pinyin liú yuān 304-310

Yuanxi (元熙 yuán xī) 304-308
Yongfeng (永鳳 yǒng fèng) 308-309
Herui (河瑞 hé ruì) 309-310 Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Mongolian name Mongolian: Номын Нэр Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Temple names are commonly used when naming most Chinese, Korean (Goryeo and Joseon periods), and Vietnamese (such dynasties as Ly, Tran, and Le) royalty. ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... A Chinese surname, also called a clan name or family name (姓, pinyin: x ng; or 氏, shi), is one of the over seven hundred family names used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups. ... Personal names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. ... An era name was assigned as the name of each year by the leader (emperor or king) of the East Asian countries of China, Korea, Japan, and Vietnam during some portion of their history. ... For other uses, see 304 (disambiguation). ... Events Chandragupta I succeeds his father Ghatotkacha as ruler of the Gupta Empire Births Saint Bassiano, first Bishop of Lodi, Italy. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Liu Yuan (劉淵) (d. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... For other uses, see 304 (disambiguation). ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... For other uses, see 304 (disambiguation). ... Events November 11 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius Augustus, and rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar (junior emperor of Britain and Gaul) Births Deaths Categories: 308 ... Events November 11 - The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius Augustus, and rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar (junior emperor of Britain and Gaul) Births Deaths Categories: 308 ... For the car known as the 309, see Peugeot 309. ... For the car known as the 309, see Peugeot 309. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ...

None None Liu He, ch. 劉和 py. liú hé 7 days in 310 None
Lie Zong (烈宗 liè zōng) Zhaowu, ch. 昭武, py. zhāo wǔ Liu Cong, ch. 劉聰 py. liú cōng 310-318

Guangxing (光興 guāng xīng) 310-311
Jiaping (嘉平 jiā pīng) 311-315
Jianyuan (建元 jiàn yuán) 315-316
Linjia (麟嘉 lín jiā) 316-318
Liu He (劉和) (d. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Events While Constantine was campaigning against the Bructeri, Maximian attempted to make himself emperor at Arles. ... Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 - Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire. ... Events By Place Roman Empire May 5 - Galerius issues his Edict of Toleration, ending persecution of Christians in his part of the Roman Empire. ... Events Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea (approximate date). ... Events Eusebius becomes bishop of Caesarea (approximate date). ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... Events Huns sack Changan, capital of the Chinese Western Jin Dynasty. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ...

None Yin, ch. 隱 py. yǐn Liu Can, ch. 劉粲 py. liú càn a month and days in 318 Hanchang (漢昌 hàn chāng) 318
Former Zhao 319-329
Did not exist Hou Zhu (後主 hòu zhǔ) Liu Yao ch. Liu Yao 劉曜 py. liú yaò 318-329 Guangchu (光初 guāng chū) 318-329
None None Liu Xi ch. Liu Xi 劉熙; py. liú xī; 329 None

Note: Liu Xi was Liu Yao's crown prince who was thrusted into the leadership role when Liu Yao was captured by Later Zhao's emperor Shi Le, but he never took the imperial title. Liu Can (劉粲) (d. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Events Chandragupta I succeeds his father Ghatotkacha as ruler of the Gupta Empire Births Saint Bassiano, first Bishop of Lodi, Italy. ... Events End of the Han Zhao state. ... Liu Yao (劉曜) (d. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Events End of the Han Zhao state. ... Events Gregory the Illuminator appoints his son Aristax as successor in the Patriarchate of Armenia. ... Events End of the Han Zhao state. ... Events End of the Han Zhao state. ... A Crown Prince or Crown Princess is the heir or heiress apparent to the throne in a royal or imperial monarchy. ... The Later Zhao (Simplified Chinese character: 后赵, Traditional Chinese character: 後趙, Hanyu pinyin Hòuzhào) (319-351) was a state of the Sixteen Kingdoms during the Jin Dynasty (265-420) in China. ... Shi Le (石勒) (274-333), courtesy name Shilong (世龍), formally Emperor Ming of (Later) Zhao ((後)趙明帝), was the founding emperor of the Chinese/Jie state Later Zhao. ...


See also

A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, is the linguistic assimilation or cultural assimilation of terms and concepts into the language and culture of China. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Warring States Period (China) (2118 words)
However, because of Zhi Yao's arrogance and disrespect towards the other families, the Wei family and Han family secretly allied with the Zhao family and the three families launched a surprise attack at Jinyang, which was beseiged by Zhi Yao at the time, and annihilated the Zhi.
B.C.E., Zhao was losing the war badly, and one of their major cities — Handan, a city that would eventually become Zhao's capital — was being besieged.
B.C.E., the Battle of Changping was fought between the Qin and the Zhao, resulting in a catastrophic defeat for the latter.
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