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Encyclopedia > Han Dynasty
漢朝
The Han Dynasty

206 BC – 220 AD
 

 

Han Dynasty in 87 BC
Capital Chang'an
(206 BC9 AD)

Luoyang
(25 AD–220 AD)
Language(s) Chinese
Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
History
 - Establishment 206 BC
 - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC
 - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24
 - Abdication to Cao Wei 220 AD

The Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 漢朝; simplified Chinese: 汉朝; pinyin: Hàn Cháo; Wade-Giles: Han Ch'ao; 206 BC–220 AD) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. The Han Dynasty was ruled by the prominent family known as the Liu (劉) clan. The reign of the Han Dynasty, lasting over 400 years, is commonly considered within China to be one of the greatest periods in the history of China. To this day, the ethnic majority of China still refer to themselves as the "Han people." Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Second Punic War: Scipio Africanus Major destroyed the combined Carthaginian army of Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco in the Battle of Ilipa, thus ending Carthaginian hold in Spain. ... Events By Place Roman Empire The Goths invade Asia Minor and the Balkans. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... Download high resolution version (850x550, 151 KB)Map of Han Dynasty empire 87 BC, showing the capital Changan and the location of all commandery seats. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Second Punic War: Scipio Africanus Major destroyed the combined Carthaginian army of Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco in the Battle of Ilipa, thus ending Carthaginian hold in Spain. ...   This article is about the year 9. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Clothed statues of Matsu / Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Combatants Principality of Han Western Chu Commanders Liu Bang Xiang Yu Strength ~300,000 ~100,000 The Battle of Gaixia (垓下之戰) was a Chinese battle in 202 BC, during the Chu-Han contention between rival rulers of China which followed the collapse of the Qin Dynasty. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 3rd century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC Years: 207 BC 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC - 202 BC - 201 BC 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC Events October... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Later Han Dynasty (後漢) was founded in 947. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... 劉 pinyin: Liú (in traditional form) Liu is a common Chinese family name. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


During the Han Dynasty, China officially became a Confucian state and prospered domestically: agriculture, handicrafts and commerce flourished, and the population reached over 55 million people. Meanwhile, the empire extended its political and cultural influence over Korea, Mongolia, Vietnam, Japan, and Central Asia before it finally collapsed under a combination of domestic and external pressures. A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The first of the two periods of the dynasty was the Former Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 前漢; simplified Chinese: 前汉; pinyin: Qiánhàn) or Western Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 西漢; simplified Chinese: 西汉; pinyin: Xī Hàn) 206 BC–24 AD, seated at Chang'an. The Later Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 後漢; simplified Chinese: 后汉; pinyin: Hòu Hàn) or Eastern Han Dynasty (traditional Chinese: 東漢; simplified Chinese: 东汉; pinyin: Dōng Hàn) 25–220 AD was seated at Luoyang. The western-eastern Han convention is currently used to avoid confusion with the Later Han Dynasty of the Period of the Five Dynasties and the Ten Kingdoms although the former-later nomenclature was used in history texts including Sima Guang's Zizhi Tongjian. Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: Wǔdàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... Sima Guang (Chinese:司马光; Wade-Giles:Szuma Kuang, 1019-1086) was a Chinese historian, scholar and statesman of the Song Dynasty. ... Zizhi Tongjian (traditional Chinese character: 資治通鑑; simplified Chinese character: 资治通鉴; pinyin Zīzhì Tōngjìan, Wade-Giles Tzu-chih tung-chien) is known to be a important Chinese history text of annual chronology. ...


The Han Dynasty was notable also for its military prowess. The empire expanded westward to the Tarim Basin (in modern Xinjiang-Uyghur Autonomous Region), with military expeditions as far west as beyond the Caspian Sea, making possible a relatively safe and secure caravan and merchantile traffic across Central Asia. The paths of caravan traffic came to be known as the "Silk Road" because the route was used to export Chinese silk. Chinese armies also invaded and annexed parts of northern Korea (Wiman Joseon) and northern Vietnam toward the end of the 2nd century BC. Han Dynasty control of peripheral regions was generally insecure, however. To ensure peace with non-Chinese local powers, the Han court developed a mutually beneficial "tributary system." Non-Chinese states were allowed to remain autonomous in exchange for symbolic acceptance of Han overlordship. Tributary ties were confirmed and strengthened through intermarriages at the ruling level and periodic exchanges of gifts and goods. Taklamakan Desert in the Tarim Basin. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... Wiman Joseon (194 BC - 108 BC) was the continuation of Go-Joseon, founded by Wiman. ...

Contents

Emergence

History of China
ANCIENT
3 Sovereigns and 5 Emperors
Xia Dynasty 2100–1600 BC
Shang Dynasty 1600–1046 BC
Zhou Dynasty 1122–256 BC
  Western Zhou
  Eastern Zhou
    Spring and Autumn Period
    Warring States Period
IMPERIAL
Qin Dynasty 221 BC–206 BC
Han Dynasty 206 BC–220 AD
  Western Han
  Xin Dynasty
  Eastern Han
Three Kingdoms 220–280
  Wei, Shu & Wu
Jin Dynasty 265–420
  Western Jin
  Eastern Jin 16 Kingdoms
304–439
Southern & Northern Dynasties 420–589
Sui Dynasty 581–619
Tang Dynasty 618–907
  ( Second Zhou 690–705 )
5 Dynasties &
10 Kingdoms

907–960
Liao Dynasty
907–1125
Song Dynasty
960–1279
  Northern Song W. Xia Dyn.
  Southern Song Jin Dyn.
Yuan Dynasty 1271–1368
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
Qing Dynasty 1644–1911
MODERN
Republic of China 1912–1949
People's Republic
of China
1949–present

   1949-1976
   1976-1989
   1989-2002
   2002-present Image File history File links History_of_China. ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... The Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: San-huang wu-ti) were mythological rulers of China during the period from c. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... Alternative meaning: Zhou Dynasty (690 CE - 705 CE) The Zhou Dynasty (周朝; Wade-Giles: Chou Dynasty) (late 10th century BC to late 9th century BC - 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Warring States redirects here. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The territories of Cao Wei (in yellow), AD 262 Capital Luoyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 220 - 226 Cao Pi  - 226 - 239 Cao Rui  - 239 - 254 Cao Fang  - 254 - 260 Cao Mao  - 260 - 265 Cao Huan Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Cao Pi taking over the throne of the Later... The Kingdom of Shu (蜀 shǔ) (221 – 263) was one of the Three Kingdoms competing for control of China after the fall of the Han Dynasty. ... The territories of Eastern Wu (in green), AD 262 Capital Jianye Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 222 - 252 Sun Quan  - 252 - 258 Sun Liang  - 258 - 264 Sun Xiu  - 264 - 280 Sun Hao Historical era Three Kingdoms  - Establishment 222  - Sun Quan declares himself emperor 229  - Conquest of Wu by Jin... The Jìn Dynasty (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; 265–420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms period and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Wu Zetian (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (625 – December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only woman in the history of China to assume the title of Emperor. ... Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (Traditional Chinese: 五代十國 Simplified Chinese: 五代十国 Hanyu pinyin: WÇ”dàishíguó) (907-960) was a period of political upheaval in China, between the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty. ... The Liao Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Liáo Cháo), 907-1125, also known as the Khitan Empire, was an empire in northern China that ruled over the regions of Manchuria, Mongolia, and parts of northern China proper. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Location of Western Xia in 1142 Capital Xingqing Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1038-1048 Emperor Jingzong  - 1226-1227 Emperor Modi History  - Established 1038  - Surrendered to the Mongol Empire 1227 Population  - peak est. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... The JÄ«n Dynasty (Jurchen: Anchu; Chinese: 金朝; Pinyin: ; 1115-1234), also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan (完顏 Wányán) clan of the Jurchen, the ancestors of the Manchus who established the Qing Dynasty some 500 years later. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... ‹ The template below (History of China - BC) is being considered for deletion. ... The history of the Peoples Republic of China details the history of mainland China since October 1, 1949, when, after a near complete victory by the Communist Party of China (CPC) in the Chinese Civil War, Mao Zedong proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) from atop Tiananmen... Main articles: History of China and History of the Peoples Republic of China The history of the Peoples Republic of China is often divided distinctly by historians into the Mao era and the post-Mao era. The Mao era lasted from the founding of the Peoples Republic... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // After the June 4th Incident, a large number of overseas Chinese students were granted political refuge almost unconditionally by foreign governments. ... // In November 2002 Jiang Zemin stepped down from the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China to make way for a younger fourth generation of leadership led by Hu Jintao. ...

Republic of China
(on Taiwan)
1945-present
National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ...

Dynasties in Chinese History
Economic History of China
Historiography of China
History of Chinese Art
History of Education in China
History of Science and Technology in China
Legal History of China
Linguistic History of China
Military History of China
Naval History of China
Timeline of Chinese History
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Western Han painting on silk was found draped over the coffin in the grave of Lady Dai (c. 168 BC) at Mawangdui near Changsha in Hunan province.

Within the first three months after Qin Dynasty Emperor Qin Shi Huang's death at Shaqiu, widespread revolts by peasants, prisoners, soldiers and descendants of the nobles of the six Warring States sprang up all over China. Chen Sheng and Wu Guang, two in a group of about 900 soldiers assigned to defend against the Xiongnu, were the leaders of the first rebellion. Continuous insurgence finally toppled the Qin dynasty in 206 BC. The leader of the insurgents was Xiang Yu, an outstanding military commander without political expertise, who divided the country into 19 feudal states to his own satisfaction. The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history. ... Chinese art is art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists or performers. ... The Chinese education was accompanied with the birth of Chinese civilization. ... The history of science and technology in China is both long and rich with science and technological contribution. ... The origin of the current law of the Peoples Republic of China can be traced back to the period of the early 1930s, during the establishment of the Chinese Soviet Republic. ... Chinese or the Sinitic language(s) (汉语/漢語, Pinyin: HànyÇ”; 华语/華語, HuáyÇ”; or 中文, Zhōngwén) can be considered a language or language family. ... ... There was archieve dating back very early about the ancient navy of China. ... The following is a timeline of the history of China. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 270 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 1533 pixels, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 270 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 1533 pixels, file size: 143 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The history of silk begins, according to Chinese tradition, in the 27th century BC. The Chinese were able to continue making it exclusively for three millennia without ever divulging the secret process whereby it was made. ... Mawangdui (馬王堆) is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. ... Not to be confused with the unrelated provinces of Hainan, Henan, and Yunnan. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and... Alternative meaning: Warring States Period (Japan) The Warring States Period (traditional Chinese: 戰國時代, simplified Chinese: 战国时代 pinyin Zhànguó Shídài) takes place from sometime in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by Qin in 221 BC. It is nominally considered to be the second part of the Eastern... Chen Sheng Wu Guang Uprising (Chinese: 陳勝吳廣起義, July 209 BC _ December 209 BC) was the first uprising by commoners in Chinese history. ... Chen Sheng Wu Guang Uprising (Chinese: 陳勝吳廣起義, July 209 BC - December 209 BC) was the first uprising by commoners in Chinese history. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ... Second Punic War: Scipio Africanus Major destroyed the combined Carthaginian army of Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco in the Battle of Ilipa, thus ending Carthaginian hold in Spain. ... Xiang Yu (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsiang Yü; 232 BC - 202 BC) was a prominent general during the fall of the Qin Dynasty. ...


The ensuing war among those states signified the 5 years of Chu Han Contention with Liu Bang, the first emperor of the Han Dynasty, as the eventual winner. Initially, "Han" (the principality as created by Xiang Yu's division) consisted merely of modern Sichuan, Chongqing, and southern Shaanxi and was a minor humble principality, but eventually grew into an empire; the Han Dynasty was named after the principality, which was itself named after Hanzhong (traditional Chinese: 漢中; simplified Chinese: 汉中; pinyin: hànzhōng) — modern southern Shaanxi, the region centering the modern city of Hanzhong. The beginning of the Han Dynasty can be dated either from 206 BC when the Qin dynasty crumbled and the Principality of Han was established or 202 BC when Xiang Yu committed suicide. The Chu-Han contention (楚漢相爭 or 楚漢春秋, 206–202 BC) was a post-Qin Dynasty interregnum period in China. ... Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu, personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only two dynasty founders who emerged from the...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: SzÅ­4-chuan1; Postal map spelling: Szechwan and Szechuan) is a province in the central-western China with its capital at Chengdu. ... Chongqing (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Postal map spelling: Chungching, also Chungking) is the largest and most populous of the Peoples Republic of Chinas four provincial-level municipalities, and the only one in the less densely populated western half of China. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ShÇŽnxÄ«; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal map spelling: Shensi) is a north-central province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on the middle reaches of the Yellow River as well as the Qinling Mountains across the... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Hanzhong (Simplified Chinese: 汉中; Traditional Chinese: 漢中; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hanchung) is a city in Shaanxi province, in central China. ...


Taoism and feudal system

A Han Dynasty bronze mirror

The new empire retained much of the Qin administrative structure, but retreated somewhat from centralized rule by establishing vassal principalities in some areas for the sake of political convenience. After the establishment of the Han Dynasty, Emperor Gao (Liu Bang) divided the country into several "feudal states" to satisfy some of his wartime allies, though he planned to get rid of them once he had consolidated his power. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Examples of feudalism#China. ...


After his death, his successors from Emperor Hui to Emperor Jing tried to rule China combining Legalist methods with the Taoist philosophic ideals. During this "pseudo-Taoism era", a stable centralized government over China was established through revival of the agriculture sectors and fragmentations of "feudal states" after the suppression of the Rebellion of the seven states. Emperor Hui of Han (210 BC–188 BC) was the second emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ... Emperor Jing of Han (188 BC–141 BC) was an emperor of China in the Han Dynasty from 156 BC to 141 BC. Era names Zhongyuan (中元 zhōng yúan) 149 BC-143 BC Houyuan (後元 hòu yúan) 143 BC-141 BC Personal information See also Rebellion of the Seven States... Legalism, in the Western sense, is an approach to the analysis of legal questions characterized by abstract logical reasoning focusing on the applicable legal text, such as a constitution, legislation, or case law, rather than on the social, economic, or political context. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... The Rebellion of the Seven States or Revolt of the Seven Kingdoms took place in 154 BC against Chinas Han Dynasty to protest the emperors attempt to further centralize the government. ...


Emperor Wu and Confucianism

A Han Dynasty incense burner with a sliding shutter, 172 BC.

During the "Taoism era", China was able to maintain peace with Xiongnu by paying tribute and marrying princesses to them. During this time, the dynasty's goal was to relieve the society of harsh laws, wars, and conditions from both the Qin Dynasty, external threats from nomads, and early internal conflicts within the Han court. The government reduced taxation and assumed a subservient status to neighboring nomadic tribes. During this era, the government reduced taxation, reducing its role in civilian lives (traditional Chinese: 與民休息; simplified Chinese: 与民休息; pinyin: yǔ mín xiūxi) and initiating a period of stability known as the Rule of Wen and Jing (Chinese: 文景之治; pinyin: Wén-Jǐngzhīzhì), named after the two Emperors of this particular era. However, under Emperor Wu, who reigned over one of the most prosperous periods of the Han Dynasty, the Empire was able to reassert its power. At its height, Han China incorporated present day Qinghai, Gansu, and northern Vietnam into its territories. The state mounted military expeditions into Siberian lands beyond Lake Baikal in the northern extremities and established military bases on the shores of the Caspian Sea at its western extremity. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The Rule of Wen and Jing (文景之治, pinyin: Wén Jǐng ZhÄ« Zhì) (180 BC-141 BC) refers to the reigns of Emperor Wen of Han and his son Emperor Jing of Han, a period known for the benevolence and thriftiness of the emperors, reduction in tax and other burdens... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Baikal redirects here. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


Emperor Wu decided that Taoism was no longer suitable for China and officially declared it a Confucian state; however, like the Emperors of China before him, he combined Legalist methods with the Confucian ideal. This official adoption of Confucianism led not only to a civil service nomination system, but also compulsory knowledge of Confucian classics among candidates for the imperial bureaucracy, a requirement that lasted up to the establishment of the Republic of China in 1911. Confucian scholars gained prominent status as the core of the civil service. Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... The king or wang (王 wang2) was the Chinese head of state from the Zhou to Qin dynasties. ... In Chinese history, Legalism (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fa-chia; literally School of law) was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other three being Confucianism, Taoism and Mohism). ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... The Roman civil service in action. ... China has a wealth of classical literature, both poetry and prose, dating from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (1122 BC - 256 BC) and including the Chinese classics texts, or Chinese canonical texts. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Government

Main article: Government of the Han Dynasty
An Eastern Han Dynasty tomb model of a tower with corbel brackets supporting balconies, 1st-2nd century. Zhang Heng (78–139) described the large imperial park in the suburbs of Chang'an as having tall towers where archers would shoot stringed arrows from the top in order to entertain the Western Han emperors.[1]

The bureaucratic system of the Han Dynasty can be divided into two systems, the central and the local. As for the central bureaucrats in the capital, it was organized into a head cabinet of officials called the Three Lords and Nine Ministers (三公九卿). This cabinet was led by the Chancellor (丞相), who was included as one of the three lords. Officials were graded by rank and salary, were appointed to posts based on the merit of their skills rather than aristocratic clan affiliation, and were subject to dismissal, demotion, and transfer to different administrative regions.[2] The local official during the former Han Dynasty was different from that of the later Han Dynasty. As for the former Han, there were two administered levels, the county (郡) and the xian (縣). In the former Han Dynasty the xian was a subdivision or sub-prefecture of a county. During the Han period, there were about 1,180 of these xian, or sub-prefectures.[3] The entire Han Empire was heavily dependent upon its county governors (郡太守), as they could decide military policy, economic regulations, and legal matters in the county they presided over. According to historians Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais: The Han Dynasty lasted over 400 years, and its governmental system was highly complex. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (898 × 1349 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (898 × 1349 pixel, file size: 658 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Elaborately decorated classical-style stone corbels support balconies on a building in Indianapolis. ... For technical reasons, :) and some similar combinations starting with : redirect here. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Chancellor of China 丞相 (Cheng Xiang) or 宰相 (Zai Xiang), was the highest rank in the imperial government in former China after the emperor (685 BC-6 BC, 189-1380). ... The term prefecture (from the Latin Praefectura) indicates the office, seat, territorial circonscription of a Prefect. ...

They collected taxes, judged lawsuits, commanded troops to suppress uprisings, undertook public works such as flood control, chose their own subordinates, and recommended local men to the central government for appointments.[2]

The main tax exacted on the population during Han times was a poll tax, fixed at a rate of 120 government-issued coins for adults.[2] For adults there was also the addition of mandatory labor service for one month out of the year. Besides the poll tax, there was also the land tax administered by county and commandery officials. This was set by the government at a relatively low rate of one-thirtieth of the collected harvest.[2] A poll tax, head tax, or capitation is a tax of a uniform, fixed amount per individual (as opposed to a percentage of income). ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ...


With a large amount of revenue in stable times, the Han government was able to fund various public works projects and state infrustructure. In the year 3 CE, a formalized nationwide government school system was established under Emperor Ping of Han, with a central school located in the capital Chang'an and local schools in the prefectures and counties.[4] Emperor Ping of Han (9 BC–AD 6) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 1 AD to 6 AD. After Emperor Ai died childless, the throne was passed to his cousin Ping - a child of 9 years old. ...


As a result of the recorded debate The Discourses on Salt and Iron (Chinese: Yan Tie Lun) about state control over non-renewable resources in China, the state decided to impose government monopolies on salt and iron in the 1st century BC.[5] The government monopoly on salt remained a distinctive feature of the Chinese bureaucracy in subsequent dynasties,[6] although it fell out of use at certain times when merchants were allowed to mine it, refine it, and sell it in free trade.[7] This article is about the economic term. ...


Culture, society, and technology

A replica of Eastern Han Dynasty inventor Zhang Heng's seismometer, Houfeng Didong Yi
Western Han lacquerwares and chopsticks

The intellectual, literary, and artistic endeavors revived and flourished during the Han Dynasty. The Han period produced by birth China's most famous historian, Sima Qian (145–90 BC), whose Records of the Grand Historian provides a detailed chronicle from the time of legendary Xia emperor to that of the Emperor Wu (141–87 BC). Technological advances also marked this period. One of the great Chinese inventions, paper, dates from the Han Dynasty, largely attributed to the court eunuch Cai Lun (50 - 121 AD). By the 1st century BC, the Chinese had discovered how to forge the highly durable metal of steel, by melting together wrought iron with cast iron. There were great mathematicians, astronomers, statesmen, and technological inventors such as Zhang Heng (78 - 139 AD), who invented the world's first hydraulic-powered armillary sphere.[8][9] He was also largely responsible for the early development of the shi poetry style in China. Zhang Heng's work in mechanical gear systems influenced countless numbers of inventors and engineers to follow, such as Ma Jun, Yi Xing, Zhang Sixun, Su Song, etc. Zhang Heng's most famous invention was a seismometer with a swinging pendulum that signified the cardinal direction of earthquakes that struck locations hundreds of kilometres away from the positioned device.[8][10][11] There was also continuing development in Chinese philosophy, with figures such as Wang Chong (27 - 97 AD), whose written work represented in part the great intellectual atmosphere of the day. Among his various written achievements, Wang Chong accurately described the water cycle in meteorology.[12] Zhang Heng argued that light emanating from the moon was merely the reflected light that came originally from the sun, and accurately described the reasons for solar eclipse and lunar eclipse as path obstructions of light by the celestial bodies of the earth, sun, and moon.[13] A replica of an ancient Chinese Siesmograph from Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE) This picture was taken in July 2004 from an exhibition at Chabot Space & Science Center in Oakland California. ... A replica of an ancient Chinese Siesmograph from Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220 CE) This picture was taken in July 2004 from an exhibition at Chabot Space & Science Center in Oakland California. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 491 pixelsFull resolution (1428 × 876 pixels, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 491 pixelsFull resolution (1428 × 876 pixels, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Chinese lacquerware box from the Qing Dynasty, Museum für angewandte Kunst, Frankfurt, Germany. ... For other uses, see Chopsticks (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Cài Lún (Wade-Giles: Tsai Lun, 蔡倫) (c. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An astronomer or astrophysicist is a scientist whose area of research is astronomy or astrophysics. ... The term statesman is a respectful term used to refer to diplomats, politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... An inventor is a person who creates new inventions, typically technical devices such as mechanical, electrical or software devices or methods. ... For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... Armillary sphere An armillary sphere (variations known as a spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of the celestial sphere, invented by the ancient Greek Eratosthenes in 255 BC. Its name comes from the Latin armilla (circle, bracelet), since it has a skeleton made of graduated metal circles linking... Shi (è©©) is the Chinese word for poem; it can also be used to mean Chinese poetry other than lyrics, or (most commonly) the classical form of poetry developed in the late Han dynasty and which reached its zenith in the Tang dynasty. ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) Ma Jun (馬鈞, Wade-Giles: Ma Chün; 200 - 265), styled Deheng (徳衡), was a Chinese mechanical engineer and government official during the Three Kingdoms era of China. ... Yi Xing (Yi-xing) (一行) (683 – 727) was a Chinese astronomer and buddhist monk of the Tang Dynasty. ... An artists interpretation of the astronomical clock tower of Su Song (1020-1101) Zhang Sixun (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chang ssu hsün) was a 10th century Chinese astronomer and engineer during the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD). ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... Seismometers is of Greek origin and comes from Seism - the shakes and Meteo - I measure are instruments that measure and record motions of the ground, including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes, nuclear explosions, and other seismic sources. ... For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). ... Cardinal point redirects here. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Wang Chung (27 – 97 C.E.) (Traditional Chinese: 王充; Simplified Chinese: 王充; pinyin: Wáng Chōng) was a Chinese philosopher during the Han Dynasty who developed a rational, secular, naturalistic, and mechanistic account of the world and of human beings. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... // Meteorology (from Greek: μετέωρον, meteoron, high in the sky; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the atmosphere that focuses on weather processes and forecasting. ... Photo taken during the 1999 eclipse. ... Time lapse movie of the 3 March 2007 lunar eclipse A lunar eclipse occurs whenever the Moon passes through some portion of the Earth’s shadow. ...

Han era bronze horse statue with saddle and plume, Freer Gallery of Art.

Military technology in the Han period was advanced by the use of cast iron and steel, which the 1st century engineer Du Shi had made easier by applying the hydraulic power of waterwheels in working the bellows of the blast furnace.[14] The military of the Han Dynasty also engaged in chemical warfare, as written in the Hou Han Shu for the governor of Ling-ling, Yang Xuan, who fought against a peasant revolt near Guiyang in 178 AD: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 1. ... The entrance to the Freer Gallery. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Du Shi (Wade-Giles: Tu Shih, active 1st century AD) was a governmental Prefect of Nanyang in 31 AD and a mechanical engineer of the Eastern Han Dynasty in ancient China. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... An overshot water wheel standing 42 feet high powers the Old Mill at Berry College in Rome, Georgia A water wheel (also waterwheel, Norse mill, Persian wheel or noria) is a hydropower system; a system for extracting power from a flow of water. ... A large bellows creates a mushroom cloud at the Exploratorium in San Francisco, California. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is one of the official Chinese historical works which was compiled by Fan Ye (Traditional Chinese: 范瞱; Simplified Chinese: 范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories and documents as sources. ... position in Guizhou district of Guiyang View of Guiyang Typically known as the Forest City, Guiyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the capital of Guizhou province in the Peoples Republic of China. ...

The bandits were numerous, and Yang's forces very weak, so his men were filled with alarm and despondency. But he organized several dozen horse-drawn vehicles carrying bellows to blow powdered lime strongly forth, he caused incendiary rags to be tied to the tails of a number of horses, and he prepared other vehicles full of bowmen and crossbowmen. The lime chariots went forward first, and as the bellows were plied the smoke was blown forwards according to the wind, then the rags were kindled and the frightened horses rushed forwards throwing the enemy lines into confusion, after which the bowmen and crossbowmen opened fire, the drums and gongs were sounded, and the terrified enemy was utterly destroyed and dispersed.[15]

There were other notable technological advancements during the Han period. This includes the hydraulic-powered trip hammer for agriculture and iron industry,[16] the winnowing machine for agriculture,[17] and the rotary fan and Cardan suspension of Ding Huan (fl. 180 AD).[18] Calcium oxide (CaO), commonly known as lime, quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. ... For the 2008 film of the same name, see Incendiary (film). ... A triphammer is a massive power hammer, usually raised by a cam and then released to fall under the force of gravity. ... Wind winnowing is a method developed by ancient cultures for agricultural purposes. ... See: Rotary engine Rotary International Rotary milking shed rotary intersections This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For other uses, see Fan. ... Gerolamo Cardano. ...


Beginning of the Silk Road

The 138–126 BC travels of Zhang Qian to the West, Mogao Caves, 618–712 AD mural.
A Western Han cylindrical bronze container with lacquer-painted decoration.
Main article: Silk Road
Further information: Protectorate of the Western Regions and Chief Official of the Western Regions

From 138 BC, Emperor Wu also dispatched Zhang Qian twice as his envoy to the Western Regions, and in the process pioneered the route known as the Silk Road from Chang'an (today's Xi'an, Shaanxi Province), through Xinjiang and Central Asia, and on to the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The travel of Zhang Qian to the West. ... The travel of Zhang Qian to the West. ... Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... The Mogao Caves, or Mogao Grottoes (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) form a system of 492 temples 25km (15. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Chief Official of the Western Regions was a Chinese military official in charge of the Western Regions. ... Zhang Qian (張騫) was an imperial envoy in the 2nd century BCE, during the time of the Han Dynasty. ... The Western Regions (西域) is a historical region of Central Asia which corresponds roughly with the modern Chinese province of Xinjiang. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... Xian redirects here. ... Not to be confused with the neighboring province of Shanxi Shaanxi (Simplified Chinese: 陕西; Traditional Chinese: 陝西; pinyin: Shǎnxī; Wade-Giles: Shan-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Shensi, pronounced like Shahn-shee) is a northwestern province of the Peoples Republic of China, and includes portions of the Loess Plateau on... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ...


Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial relations between China and Central as well as Western Asia flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BC, initiating the development of the Silk Road: In writing, a report or document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. ... For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ...

"The largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." (Shiji, trans. Burton Watson).

China also sent missions to Parthia, which were followed up by reciprocal missions from Parthian envoys around 100 BC: The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Parthia at its greatest extent under Mithridates II (123–88 BC) Capital Ctesiphon, Ecbatana Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Parthia, 247 BC]] History  - Established 247 BC  - Disestablished 220 AD Parthian votive relief. ...

"When the Han envoy first visited the kingdom of Anxi (Parthia), the king of Anxi dispatched a party of 20,000 horsemen to meet them on the eastern border of the kingdom... When the Han envoys set out again to return to China, the king of Anxi dispatched envoys of his own to accompany them... The emperor was delighted at this." (Shiji, 123, trans. Burton Watson).
Han Dynasty commanderies and kingdoms, AD 2

By AD 97 the Chinese general Ban Chao had embarked on a military expedition as far west as the landmass encompassed by present-day Ukraine in pursuit of fleeing Xiongnu insurgents, and returned eastward to establish base on the shores of the Caspian Sea with 70,000 men and established direct military contacts with the Parthian Empire, also dispatching an envoy to Rome in the person of Gan Ying. The Chinese characters for Anxi. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical Yellow Emperor until his own time. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Han_commanderies_and_kingdoms_CE_2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Han_commanderies_and_kingdoms_CE_2. ... Ban Chao (Chinese: 班超; Wade-Giles: Pan Chao, 32-102 CE), born in Xianyang, Shaanxi, was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Gan Ying (Chinese:甘英; Wade-Giles:Kan Ying), was a Chinese military ambassador who was sent on a mission to Rome in AD 97 by the Chinese general Ban Chao. ...


Several Roman embassies to China are recounted in Chinese history, starting with a Hou Hanshu (History of the Later Han) account of a Roman convoy set out by emperor Antoninus Pius that reached the Chinese capital Luoyang in 166 and was greeted by Emperor Huan. Good exchanges such as Chinese silk, African ivory, and Roman incense increased the contacts between the East and West. Sino-Roman relations started first on an indirect basis with the opening of the Silk Road during the 2nd century BC. China and Rome progressively inched closer with the embassies of Zhang Qian in 130 BC and the military expeditions of China to Central Asia, until general Ban Chao attempted... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ...


Contacts with the Kushan Empire led to the introduction of Buddhism to China from India in the first century. Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... Buddhism is a variety of teachings described as a religion[1] or way of life. ...


Rise of landholding class

A terracotta horse head from the Late Han Dynasty (2nd century).

To secure funding for his triumphant campaigns against the Xiongnu, Emperor Wu relinquished land control to merchants and the rich, and in effect legalized the privatization of lands. Land taxes were based on the sizes of fields instead of on income. The harvest could not always pay the taxes completely as incomes from selling harvest were often market-driven and a stable amount could not be guaranteed, especially not after harvest-reducing natural disasters. Merchants and prominent families then lured peasants to sell their lands since land accumulation guaranteed living standards of theirs and their descendants' in the agricultural society of China. Lands were hence accumulating into a new class of landholding families. The Han government in turn imposed more taxes on the remaining independent servants in order to make up the tax losses, therefore encouraging more peasants to come under the landholding elite or the landlords. This could be seen through such examples as the written evidence in the Yan Tie Lun (Discourses on Salt and Iron), written about 80 BC, where the Lord Grand Secretary is quoted in this passage in his support of nationalizing the salt and iron industries: Han dynasty horse (1st-2nd century C.E.). Personal photograph. ... Han dynasty horse (1st-2nd century C.E.). Personal photograph. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... This article is about common table salt. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ...

Formerly the overbearing and powerful great families, obtaining control of the profits of the mountains and lakes, mined iron ore and smelted it with great bellows, and evaporated brine for salt. A single family would assemble a multitude, sometimes as many as a thousand men or more, for the most part wandering unattached plebeians (fang liu ren min) who had traveled far from their own villages, abandoning the tombs (of their ancestors). Thus attaching themselves to the great families, they came together in the midst of mountain fastnesses or desolate marshes, bringing about thereby the fruition of business based on selfish intrigue (for profit) and intended to aggrandise the power of particular firms and factions.[19]
A bronze coin of the Han Dynasty—circa 1st century BC.

Ideally the peasants pay the landlords certain periodic (usually annual) amount of income, who in turn provide protection against crimes and other hazards. In fact an increasing number of peasant population in the prosperous Han society and limited amount of lands provided the elite to elevate their standards for any new subordinate peasants. The inadequate education and often complete illiteracy of peasants forced them into a living of providing physical services, which were mostly farming in an agricultural society. The peasants, without other professions for their better living, compromised to the lowered standard and sold their harvest to pay their landlords. In fact they often had to delay the payment or borrow money from their landlords in the aftermath of natural disasters that reduced harvests. To make the situation worse, some Han rulers double-taxed the peasants. Eventually the living conditions of the peasants worsened as they solely depended on the harvest of the land they once owned. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Hand bellows The bellows is a device for delivering pressured air in a controlled quantity to a controlled location. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs was the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Hancoin1large. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Hancoin1large. ...


The landholding elite and landlords, for their part, provided inaccurate information of subordinate peasants and lands to avoid paying taxes; to this very end corruption and incompetence of the Confucian scholar gentry on economics would play a vital part. Han court officials who attempted to strip lands out of the landlords faced such enormous resistance that their policies would never be put in to place. In fact only a member of the landholding families, for instance Wang Mang, was able to put his reforming ideals into effect despite failures of his "turning the clock back" policies. Scholar-bureaucrats or scholar-officials were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance during the Qing Dynasty. ...

A Western Han bronze lamp in a depiction of a fenghuang (phoenix)

The Han government kept records on people's property to assess taxes. Yet government officials and secretaries weren't the only ones documenting property. In the Han period the prototype of contractual language and privately signed contracts appear for those wishing to keep their own private documents on their property for later use in court if necessary.[20] However, creating signed contracts with documented witnesses and scribes was not in common use until the Tang period (618–907), while contractual language did not "permeate Chinese life" until the Yuan Dynasty (1279–1238), according to historians Valerie Hansen and Timothy Brook.[20] Fenghuang sculpture, Nanning city, Guangxi, China. ... A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


Interruption of Han rule

After 200 years, Han rule was interrupted briefly during AD 924 by Wang Mang, a reformer and a member of the landholding families. The economic situation deteriorated at the end of Western Han Dynasty. Wang Mang, believing the Liu family had lost the Mandate of Heaven, took power and turned the clock back with vigorous monetary and land reforms, which damaged the economy even further. This article is about the year 9. ... This article is about the year. ... Wang Mang (王莽, pinyin: Wáng Măng) (45 BC–October 6, 23), courtesy name Jujun (巨君), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded Xin (or Hsin) Dynasty (新朝, meaning new dynasty), ruling AD 8–23. ... Mandate of Heaven (天命 Pīnyīn: Tiānmìng) was a traditional Chinese sovereignty concept of legitimacy used to support the rule of the kings of the Zhou Dynasty and later the Emperors of China. ...


Rise and fall of Eastern Han Dynasty

Main article: End of Han Dynasty
Han dynasty provinces AD 189
Tombs of the Han Dynasty

A distant relative of Liu royalty, Liu Xiu, prevailed after a number of agrarian rebellions had overthrown Wang Mang's Xin Dynasty, and he reestablished the Han Dynasty (commonly referred to as the Eastern Han Dynasty, as his capital was at Luoyang, east of the old Han Dynasty capital at Chang'an) in AD 25. He and his son Emperor Ming of Han and grandson Emperor Zhang of Han were generally considered able emperors whose reigns were the prime of the Eastern Han Dynasty. After Emperor Zhang, however, the dynasty fell into states of corruption and political power struggles among three groups of powerful individuals -- eunuchs, empresses' clans, and Confucian scholar-officials. None of these three parties was able to improve the harsh livelihood of peasants under the landholding families. Land privatizations and accumulations on the hands of the elite affected the societies of the Three Kingdoms and the Southern and Northern Dynasties that the landholding elite held the actual driving and ruling power of the country. Successful ruling entities worked with these families, and consequently their policies favored the elite. Adverse effects of the Nine grade controller system or the Nine rank system were brilliant examples. The End of Han Dynasty (漢朝末年 or 東漢末年, the End of Eastern Han Dynasty) refers to a period roughly coinciding with the reign of Han Dynastys final emperor Emperor Xian (r. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 2. ... Emperor Guangwu (January 15, 5 BC - March 29, 57), born Liu Xiu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). ... Luoyang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in western Henan province, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Changan (disambiguation). ... Emperor Ming of Han, ch. ... Emperor Zhang of Han, ch. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Nine rank system (ch. ... The Nine rank system (ch. ...


Taiping Taoist ideals of equal rights and equal land distribution quickly spread throughout the peasantry. As a result, the peasant insurgents of the Yellow Turban Rebellion swarmed the North China Plain, the main agricultural sector of the country. Power of the Liu royalty then fell into the hands of local governors and warlords, despite suppression of the main upraising of Zhang Jiao and his brothers. Three overlords eventually succeeded in control of the whole of China proper, ushering in the period of the Three Kingdoms. The figurehead Emperor Xian reigned until 220 when Cao Pi forced his abdication. For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... Combatants Yellow Turbans Han Dynasty Commanders Zhang Jiao Zhang Bao Zhang Liang He Jin Huangfu Song Lu Zhi Zhu Jun Dong Zhuo Cao Cao Strength 360,000 Various Casualties Unknown Unknown The Yellow Turban Rebellion, sometimes also translated as the Yellow Scarves Rebellion, (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a... The North China Plain (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also called the Central Plain(s) (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is based on the deposits of the Huang He (Yellow River) and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Zhang Jiao or Zhang Jue (d. ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Cáo Pī (曹丕, 187-June 29, 226[1]), formally Emperor Wen of (Cao) Wei (曹魏文帝), courtesy name Zihuan (子桓), was born in Qiao County, Pei Commandery (modern Bozhou, Anhui). ... Look up abdication in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Gallery of art

Sovereigns of Han Dynasty

Han Dynasty Sovereigns
Posthumous Name Personal Name Period of Reign Era Name Range of years
Convention: "Han" + posthumous name, excepting Liu Gong, Liu Hong, Ruzi Ying, the Prince of Changyi, the Marquess of Beixiang, and the Prince of Hongnong.
Western Han Dynasty 206 BC9 AD
Gao Zu
高帝
Liu Bang
劉邦
206 BC195 BC Did not exist
Hui Di
惠帝
Liu Ying
劉盈
194 BC188 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Shao Di Gong)
少帝
Liu Gong
劉恭
188 BC184 BC Did not exist
Shao Di (Shao Di Hong)
少帝
Liu Hong
劉弘
184 BC180 BC Did not exist
Wen Di
文帝
Liu Heng
劉恆
179 BC157 BC Hòuyuán (後元) 163 BC156 BC
Jing Di
景帝
Liu Qi
劉啟
156 BC141 BC Zhōngyuán (中元)
Hòuyuán (後元)
149 BC143 BC
143 BC141 BC
Wu Di
武帝
Liu Che
劉徹
140 BC87 BC Jiànyuán (建元)

Yuánguāng(元光)
Yuánshuò (元朔)
Yuánshòu (元狩)
Yuándǐng (元鼎)
Yuánfēng (元封)
Tàichū (太初)
Tiānhàn (天漢)
Tàishǐ (太始)
Zhēnghé (征和)
Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A posthumous name (諡號) is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in some cultures after the persons death. ... A Chinese era name (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the era name, reign period, or regnal title used when traditionally numbering years in an emperors reign and naming certain Chinese rulers (see the conventions). ... Second Punic War: Scipio Africanus Major destroyed the combined Carthaginian army of Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco in the Battle of Ilipa, thus ending Carthaginian hold in Spain. ... This article is about the year 9. ... ... Second Punic War: Scipio Africanus Major destroyed the combined Carthaginian army of Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisco in the Battle of Ilipa, thus ending Carthaginian hold in Spain. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 200 BC 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC - 195 BC - 194 BC 193 BC... Emperor Hui of Han (210 BC–188 BC) was the second emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC - 190s BC - 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC Years: 199 BC 198 BC 197 BC 196 BC 195 BC - 194 BC - 193 BC 192 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC - 188 BC - 187 BC 186 BC... Emperor Qianshao (d. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 193 BC 192 BC 191 BC 190 BC 189 BC - 188 BC - 187 BC 186 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC - 184 BC - 183 BC 182 BC... Emperor Houshao (d. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC Years: 189 BC 188 BC 187 BC 186 BC 185 BC - 184 BC - 183 BC 182 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC - 180s BC - 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 185 BC 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC - 180 BC - 179 BC 178 BC... Emperor Wen of Han (202 BC–157 BC) was an emperor of the Han Dynasty in China. ... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC - 170s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 184 BC 183 BC 182 BC 181 BC 180 BC - 179 BC - 178 BC 177 BC 176... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 162 BC 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC 158 BC - 157 BC - 156 BC 155 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 210s BC 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC - 160s BC - 150s BC140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC Years: 168 BC 167 BC 166 BC 165 BC 164 BC - 163 BC - 162 BC 161 BC 160... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC 158 BC 157 BC - 156 BC - 155 BC 154 BC... Emperor Jing of Han (188 BC–141 BC) was an emperor of China in the Han Dynasty from 156 BC to 141 BC. Era names Zhongyuan (中元 zhōng yúan) 149 BC-143 BC Houyuan (後元 hòu yúan) 143 BC-141 BC Personal information See also Rebellion of the Seven States... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 200s BC 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC - 150s BC - 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC Years: 161 BC 160 BC 159 BC 158 BC 157 BC - 156 BC - 155 BC 154 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 146 BC 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC - 141 BC - 140 BC 139 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 154 BC 153 BC 152 BC 151 BC 150 BC - 149 BC - 148 BC 147 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC 145 BC 144 BC - 143 BC - 142 BC 141 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 148 BC 147 BC 146 BC 145 BC 144 BC - 143 BC - 142 BC 141 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 146 BC 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC - 141 BC - 140 BC 139 BC... Emperor Wu of Han (156 BC*–March 29, 87 BC), personal name Liu Che, was the sixth emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling from 141 BC to 87 BC. A military compaigner, Han China reached its greatest expansion under his reign, spanning from Kyrgyzstan in the west, Northern Korea... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC... Lucius Cornelius Cinna is elected consul of Rome, thus returning the rule of Rome back to the democrats. ...

Hòuyuán (後元)
140 BC135 BC

134 BC129 BC
128 BC123 BC
122 BC117 BC
116 BC111 BC
110 BC105 BC
104 BC101 BC
100 BC97 BC
96 BC93 BC
92 BC89 BC
Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC - 140s BC - 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC Years: 145 BC 144 BC 143 BC 142 BC 141 BC - 140 BC - 139 BC 138 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 140 BC 139 BC 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC - 135 BC - 134 BC 133 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC - 130s BC - 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC Years: 139 BC 138 BC 137 BC 136 BC 135 BC - 134 BC - 133 BC 132 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 134 BC 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC - 129 BC - 128 BC 127 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 133 BC 132 BC 131 BC 130 BC 129 BC - 128 BC - 127 BC 126 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 128 BC 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC - 123 BC - 122 BC 121 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC - 120s BC - 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC Years: 127 BC 126 BC 125 BC 124 BC 123 BC - 122 BC - 121 BC 120 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 122 BC 121 BC 120 BC 119 BC 118 BC - 117 BC - 116 BC 115 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 121 BC 120 BC 119 BC 118 BC 117 BC - 116 BC - 115 BC 114 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 116 BC 115 BC 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC - 111 BC - 110 BC 109 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 160s BC 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC - 110s BC - 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC Years: 115 BC 114 BC 113 BC 112 BC 111 BC - 110 BC - 109 BC 108 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 110 BC 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC - 105 BC - 104 BC 103 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 109 BC 108 BC 107 BC 106 BC 105 BC - 104 BC - 103 BC 102 BC... Centuries: 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Decades: 150s BC 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC - 100s BC - 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC Years: 106 BC 105 BC 104 BC 103 BC 102 BC - 101 BC - 100 BC 99 BC... The world in 100 BC. The eastern hemisphere in 100 BC. Consuls: Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Gaius Marius (Mariuss sixth consulship). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 102 BC 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC - 97 BC - 96 BC 95 BC 94... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 101 BC 100 BC 99 BC 98 BC 97 BC - 96 BC - 95 BC 94 BC 93... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 98 BC 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC - 93 BC - 92 BC 91 BC 90... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 140s BC 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC - 90s BC - 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC Years: 97 BC 96 BC 95 BC 94 BC 93 BC - 92 BC - 91 BC 90 BC 89... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 94 BC 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC - 89 BC - 88 BC 87 BC 86...

88 BC87 BC
Zhao Di
昭帝
Liu Fuling
劉弗陵
86 BC74 BC Shǐyuán (始元)

Yuánfèng (元鳳)
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 93 BC 92 BC 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC - 88 BC - 87 BC 86 BC 85... Lucius Cornelius Cinna is elected consul of Rome, thus returning the rule of Rome back to the democrats. ... Emperor Zhao of Han (95 BC–74 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 87 BC to 74 BC. Era names Shiyuan (始元 py. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC - 86 BC - 85 BC 84 BC 83... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC - 74 BC - 73 BC 72 BC 71...

Yuánpíng (元平)
86 BC80 BC

80 BC75 BC
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 91 BC 90 BC 89 BC 88 BC 87 BC - 86 BC - 85 BC 84 BC 83... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 130s BC 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC - 80s BC - 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC Years: 85 BC 84 BC 83 BC 82 BC 81 BC - 80 BC - 79 BC 78 BC 77... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 80 BC 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC - 75 BC - 74 BC 73 BC 72...

74 BC
The Prince of Changyi
昌邑王 or 海昏侯
Liu He
劉賀
74 BC Yuánpíng (元平) 74 BC
Xuan Di
宣帝
Liu Xun
劉詢
73 BC49 BC Běnshǐ (本始)

Dìjié (地節)
Yuánkāng (元康)
Shénjué (神爵)
Wǔfèng (五鳳)
Gānlù (甘露)
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC - 74 BC - 73 BC 72 BC 71... Prince He of Changyi (ch. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC - 74 BC - 73 BC 72 BC 71... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 79 BC 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC - 74 BC - 73 BC 72 BC 71... Emperor Xuan of Han (91 BC–49 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 74 BC to 49 BC. Era names Benshi (本始 py. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior. ...

Huánglóng (黃龍)
73 BC70 BC

69 BC66 BC
65 BC61 BC
61 BC58 BC
57 BC54 BC
53 BC50 BC
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 78 BC 77 BC 76 BC 75 BC 74 BC - 73 BC - 72 BC 71 BC 70... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 120s BC 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC - 70s BC - 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC Years: 75 BC 74 BC 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 74 BC 73 BC 72 BC 71 BC 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66... Events Roman Republic Consuls: Manius Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Volcacius Tullus Catiline accused of conspiring against the Roman Republic with Autronius and the younger Sulla. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 70 BC 69 BC 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 62 BC 61 BC 60 BC 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51 BC 50 BC 49 BC 48 BC 47...

49 BC
Yuan Di
元帝
Liu Shi
劉奭
48 BC33 BC Chūyuán (初元)

Yǒngguāng (永光)
Jiànzhāo (建昭)
Consuls: Lucius Cornelius Lentulus Crus, Gaius Claudius Marcellus Maior. ... Emperor Yuan of Han (75 BC–33 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar, Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC...

Jìngníng (竟寧)
48 BC44 BC

43 BC39 BC
38 BC34 BC
Consuls: Gaius Julius Caesar, Publius Servilius Vatia Isauricus. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC - 39 BC - 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC...

33 BC
Cheng Di
成帝
Liu Ao
劉驁
32 BC7 BC Jiànshǐ (建始)

Hépíng (河平)
Yángshuò (陽朔)
Hóngjiā (鴻嘉)
Yǒngshǐ (永始)
Yuányán (元延n2)
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC... Emperor Cheng of Han (51 BC–7 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 33 BC until 7 BC. Era names Jianshi (建始 py. ... Events Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius become Roman Consuls. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC Events...

Suīhé (綏和)
32 BC28 BC

28 BC25 BC
24 BC21 BC
20 BC17 BC
16 BC13 BC
12 BC9 BC
Events Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius become Roman Consuls. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 26 BC 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC - 20s BC - 10s BC 0s 10s 20s 30s Years: 25 BC 24 BC 23 BC 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 22 BC 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 21 BC 20 BC 19 BC 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 18 BC 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC - 10s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s Years: 17 BC 16 BC 15 BC 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 14 BC 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC Events...

8 BC7 BC
Ai Di
哀帝
Liu Xin
劉欣
6 BC1 BC Jiànpíng (建平)
Yuánshòu (元壽)
6 BC3 BC
2 BC1 BC
Ping Di
平帝
Liu Kan
劉衎
1 BC5 Yuánshǐ (元始) 15
Ruzi Ying
孺子嬰
Liu Ying
劉嬰
68 Jùshè (居攝)
Chūshǐ (初始)
6 – October 8
November 8 – December 8
Xin Dynasty (AD 923)
Xin Dynasty of Wang Mang (王莽) 923 Shǐjiànguó (始建國)

Tiānfēng (天鳳)
Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 13 BC 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC - 8 BC - 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC Births... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 12 BC 11 BC 10 BC 9 BC 8 BC 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC Events... Emperor Ai of Han (51 BC–7 BC) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events Births Possible birthdate of Jesus, April 17. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 // Events Births December 25 - Jesus (died about... Events Births Possible birthdate of Jesus, April 17. ... Events Births Seneca, Roman statesman Servius Sulpicius Galba, Roman emperor Jesus Christ born September 11 Deaths Imperial consort Fu Category: ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 // Events Births December 25 - Jesus (died about... Emperor Ping of Han (9 BC–AD 6) was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty from 1 AD to 6 AD. After Emperor Ai died childless, the throne was passed to his cousin Ping - a child of 9 years old. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 // Events Births December 25 - Jesus (died about... Events Rome acknowledges Cunobelinus, King of the Catuvellauni, as King of Britain. ... This article is about the year 1. ... Events Rome acknowledges Cunobelinus, King of the Catuvellauni, as King of Britain. ... Emperor Ruzi of Han (AD 5–AD 9), commonly known as Ying the Kid (ch. ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 8 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 6 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 8 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 8 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 8 (disambiguation). ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... This article is about the year 9. ... Year 23 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The Xin Dynasty (Chinese: 新朝; Hanyu Pinyin: xÄ«n cháo; meaning New Dynasty; 8-23) was a dynasty (even though, contrary to the usual meaning of a dynasty, it had but one emperor) in Chinese history. ... Wang Mang (王莽, pinyin: Wáng Măng) (45 BC–October 6, 23), courtesy name Jujun (巨君), was a Han Dynasty official who seized the throne from the Liu family and founded Xin (or Hsin) Dynasty (新朝, meaning new dynasty), ruling AD 8–23. ... This article is about the year 9. ... Year 23 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ...

Dìhuáng (地皇)
913

1419
This article is about the year 9. ... This article is about the year 13. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other uses, see number 19. ...

2023
Continuation of Han Dynasty
Geng Shi Di
更始帝
Liu Xuan
劉玄
2325 Gēngshǐ (更始) 2325
Eastern Han Dynasty 25220
Guang Wu Di
光武帝
Liu Xiu
劉秀
2557 Jiànwǔ (建武)
Jiànwǔzhongōyuán (建武中元)
2556
5657
Ming Di
明帝
Liu Zhuang
劉莊
5875 Yǒngpíng (永平) 5875
Zhang Di
章帝
Liu Da
劉炟
7688 Jiànchū (建初)

Yuánhé (元和)
Events Roman Empire Tiberias is built on the Sea of Galilee by Herod Antipas, in honour of Tiberius. ... Year 23 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Emperor Gengshi of Han, ch. ... Year 23 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Han dynasty was restored in China as Liu Xiu proclaimed himself emperor, start of jiangwu era (->56). ... Year 23 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events Han dynasty was restored in China as Liu Xiu proclaimed himself emperor, start of jiangwu era (->56). ... Events Han dynasty was restored in China as Liu Xiu proclaimed himself emperor, start of jiangwu era (->56). ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ... Emperor Guangwu (January 15, 5 BC - March 29, 57), born Liu Xiu, was an emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, restorer of the dynasty in AD 25 and thus founder of the Later Han or Eastern Han (the restored Han Dynasty). ... Events Han dynasty was restored in China as Liu Xiu proclaimed himself emperor, start of jiangwu era (->56). ... For other uses, see number 57. ... Events Han dynasty was restored in China as Liu Xiu proclaimed himself emperor, start of jiangwu era (->56). ... // Events By place Roman Empire War between Rome and Parthia broke out due to the invasion of Armenia by Vologases, who replaced the Roman supported ruler with his brother Tiridates of Parthia Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus becomes a consul in Rome. ... // Events By place Roman Empire War between Rome and Parthia broke out due to the invasion of Armenia by Vologases, who replaced the Roman supported ruler with his brother Tiridates of Parthia Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus becomes a consul in Rome. ... For other uses, see number 57. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 70 71 72 73 74 - 75 - 76 77 78 79 80 Events Last known cuneiform inscription Accession of Han Zhangdi. ... Events The Ficus Ruminales begins to die (see Rumina) Start of Yongping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 20s 30s 40s 50s 60s - 70s - 80s 90s 100s 110s 120s Years: 70 71 72 73 74 - 75 - 76 77 78 79 80 Events Last known cuneiform inscription Accession of Han Zhangdi. ... Emperor Zhang of Han China, ch. ... For other uses, see number 76. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Events Pope Clement I succeeded Pope Anacletus I Han Hedi succeeded Han Zhangdi as emperor of...

Zhānghé (章和)
7684

8487
For other uses, see number 76. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Events Possible date of Battle of Mons Graupius (83 or 84) Pliny the Younger was sevir... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 Events Possible date of Battle of Mons Graupius (83 or 84) Pliny the Younger was sevir... This article is about the year 87. ...

8788
He Di
和帝
Liu Zhao
劉肇
89105 Yǒngyuán (永元)
Yuánxīng (元興)
89105
105
Shang Di
殤帝
Liu Long
劉隆
106 Yánpíng (延平) 9 months in 106
An Di
安帝
Liu Hu
劉祜
106125 Yǒngchū (永初)

Yuánchū (元初)
Yǒngníng (永寧)
Jiànguāng (建光)
This article is about the year 87. ... Centuries: 1st century BC - 1st century - 2nd century Decades: 0s BC - 0s - 10s - 20s - 30s - 40s - 50s - 60s - 70s - 80s - 90s - 100s Years: 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 Events Pope Clement I succeeded Pope Anacletus I Han Hedi succeeded Han Zhangdi as emperor of... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... This article is about the year 89. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... This article is about the year 89. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Events Roman Empire Trajan starts the second expedition against Dacia. ... Emperor Shang of Han China, ch. ... For other uses, see number 106. ... For other uses, see number 106. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... For other uses, see number 106. ... Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ...

Yánguāng (延光)
107113

114120
120121
121122
For other uses, see number 107. ... Events Trajan starts an expedition against Armenia. ... Events First year of Yuanchu era of the Chinese Eastern Han Dynasty. ... For other uses, see number 120. ... For other uses, see number 120. ... 121 is a traditional clan of RA3 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. ... 121 is a traditional clan of RA3 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. ... Events Roman Emperor Hadrian orders that a 72-mile wall be built in northern Britain. ...

122125
Shao Di, the Marquess of Beixiang
少帝 or 北鄉侯
Liu Yi
劉懿
125 Yánguāng (延光) 125
Shun Di
順帝
Liu Bao
劉保
125144 Yǒngjiàn (永建)

Yángjiā (陽嘉)
Yǒnghé (永和)
Hàn'ān (漢安)
Events Roman Emperor Hadrian orders that a 72-mile wall be built in northern Britain. ... Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ... The Marquess of Beixiang, (trad. ... Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ... Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ... Construction of the Antonine Wall is completed. ...

Jiànkāng (建康)
126132

132135
136141
142144
Events Asia First year of the Yongjian era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... This article is about the year 132. ... This article is about the year 132. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Events Pope Hyginus succeeds Pope Telesphorus First year of Yonghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Eleutherius to Patriarch Felix Births Deaths Category: ... Events Construction of the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina in Rome. ... Events Construction of the Antonine Wall began in Scotland. ... Construction of the Antonine Wall is completed. ...

144
Chong Di
沖帝
Liu Bing
劉炳
144145 Yōngxī (永嘉) 145
Zhi Di
質帝
Liu Zuan
劉纘
145146 Běnchū (本初) 146
Huan Di
桓帝
Liu Zhi
劉志
146168 Jiànhé (建和)

Hépíng (和平)
Yuánjiā (元嘉)
Yǒngxīng (永興)
Yǒngshòu (永壽)
Yánxī (延熹)
Construction of the Antonine Wall is completed. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Construction of the Antonine Wall is completed. ... For other uses, see number 145. ... For other uses, see number 145. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... For other uses, see number 145. ... Events Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births April 11 - Septimius Severus, Roman emperor Deaths Han Zhidi, emperor of Chinese Han Dynasty, poisoned Categories: 146 ... Events Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births April 11 - Septimius Severus, Roman emperor Deaths Han Zhidi, emperor of Chinese Han Dynasty, poisoned Categories: 146 ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Events Change of era name from Yongxi (1st year) to Benchu era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of emperor from Han Zhidi to Han Huandi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births April 11 - Septimius Severus, Roman emperor Deaths Han Zhidi, emperor of Chinese Han Dynasty, poisoned Categories: 146 ... // Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ...

Yǒngkāng (永康)
147149

150
151153
153154
155158
158167
Events First year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 147 ... Events Last (3rd) year of Jianhe of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 149 ... The Roman army consists of 400,000 men. ... Events Mytilene and Smyrna are destroyed by an earthquake. ... For other uses, see number 153. ... For other uses, see number 153. ... Events Anicetus becomes pope (approximate date) Anicetus meets with Polycarp of Smyrna to discuss the Computus. ... Events Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius starts a new war against the Parthians Pope Anicetus succeeds Pope Pius I First year of Yongshou era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Dio Cassius, Roman historian Cao Cao, future ruler of the Kingdom of Wei Deaths July 11 - Pope Pius I Saint Polycarp... Events Change of era name from Yongshou to Yangxi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 158 ... Events Change of era name from Yongshou to Yangxi of the Chinese Han Dynasty Births Deaths Categories: 158 ... Events Germanic tribe Marcomanni waged war against the Romans at Aquileia Change of era name from Yanxi to Yongkang of the Chinese Han Dynasty King Chogo of Baekje waged war against Silla in Korean peninsula. ...

167
Ling Di
靈帝
Liu Hong
劉宏
168189 Jiànníng (建寧)

Xīpíng (熹平)
Guānghé (光和)
Events Germanic tribe Marcomanni waged war against the Romans at Aquileia Change of era name from Yanxi to Yongkang of the Chinese Han Dynasty King Chogo of Baekje waged war against Silla in Korean peninsula. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... // Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ...

Zhōngpíng (中平)
168172

172178
178184
// Events Change of Han Huandi to Han Lingdi of Han Dynasty; first year of Jianning era. ... Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Events Last (5th) year of Jianning era and start of Xiping era of the Chinese Han Dynasty. ... Commodus and Marcus Aurelius travel to the Danube to engage the Marcomanni. ... Commodus and Marcus Aurelius travel to the Danube to engage the Marcomanni. ... Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ...

184189
Shao Di, the Prince of Hongnong
少帝 or 弘農王
Liu Bian
劉辯
189 Guīngxī (光熹)
Zhàoníng (昭寧)
189
189
Xian Di
獻帝
Liu Xie (liú xié)
劉協
189220 Yǒnghàn (永漢)

(中平}
Chūpíng (初平)
Xīngpíng (興平)
Jiàn'ān (建安)
Events The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out in China. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Format of naming convention in English is under discussion at Wikipedia talk:Naming conventions (Chinese). ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ...

Yánkāng (延康)
189

189
190193
194195
196220
Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Events Pope Victor I succeeds Pope Eleuterus The Prince of Hongnong succeeds Han Lingdi as Chinese emperor of Han Dynasty Dong Zhuo has the Prince of Hongnong poisoned and installs Han Xiandi as emperor. ... Events A part of Rome burns, and emperor Commodus orders the city to be rebuilt under the name Colonia Commodiana First year of Chuping era of Chinese Han Dynasty Births 190 is a number Deaths Athenagoras of Athens, Christian apologist Categories: 190 ... Events June 1 – Roman Emperor Didius Julianus is assassinated in his palace. ... Events Roman Empire Pescennius Niger, competitor of Septimius Severus for the Roman Empire, is defeated in three successive battles at Battle of Cyzicus, Battle of Nicaea and Battle of Issus, and killed outside Antioch by Severus troops. ... Events Roman Emperor Septimius Severus had the Senate deify Commodus while trying to gain favor with the family of Marcus Aurelius. ... Events First year of Jianan era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Clodius Albinus, rival for Roman Emperor, leaves the province of Britain with all of the islands troops, and makes Gaul his headquarters. ... Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ...

220

Events Han Xiandi abdicates his throne to Cao Pi, symbolizing the end of the Han Dynasty and the beginning of the Three Kingdoms period in China. ...

See also

Combatants Principality of Han Western Chu Commanders Liu Bang Xiang Yu Strength ~300,000 ~100,000 The Battle of Gaixia (垓下之戰) was a Chinese battle in 202 BC, during the Chu-Han contention between rival rulers of China which followed the collapse of the Qin Dynasty. ... Combatants Jushi Han Dynasty Commanders Wugui Zheng Ji Sima Xi Strength Unknown 1,500 Han garrison with 10,000 Tarim Basin allies The Battle of Jushi was a battle between the Han Dynasty and the Xiongnu over the Turpan Basin in 67 BC. The battle was a success for the... The Chu-Han contention (Chinese: , 206–202 BC) was a post-Qin Dynasty interregnum period in China. ... Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China. ... Wangs of Han Dynasty can be divided as two categories: Yixing Wang (Kings) and Tongxing Wang (Princes). ... For the volcano in Indonesia, see Emperor of China (volcano). ... The History of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... This article provides a list of the largest empires in world history. ... Mawangdui (馬王堆) is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Bulling, 312.
  2. ^ a b c d Ebrey, 49.
  3. ^ Fairbank, 106.
  4. ^ Yuan, 193.
  5. ^ Menzies, 721.
  6. ^ Menzies, 721–722.
  7. ^ Ebrey et al. (2006), 164.
  8. ^ a b Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 30.
  9. ^ Morton, 70.
  10. ^ Wright, 66.
  11. ^ Huang, 64.
  12. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 468.
  13. ^ Needham, Volume 3, 414.
  14. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 370
  15. ^ Needham, Volume 5, Part 7, 167.
  16. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 184.
  17. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 118.
  18. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 233.
  19. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 2, 22.
  20. ^ a b Brook, 59.

References

  • Brook, Timothy. (1998). The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-22154-0
  • Bulling, A. "A Landscape Representation of the Western Han Period," Artibus Asiae (Volume 25, Number 4, 1962): 293–317.
  • Ebrey, Walthall, and Palais (2006). East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. ISBN 0-618-13384-4.
  • Fairbank, John King and Merle Goldman (1992). China: A New History; Second Enlarged Edition (2006). Cambridge: MA; London: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01828-1
  • Huang, Ray (1997). China: A Macro History. New York: An East Gate Book, M. E. SHARPE Inc.
  • Menzies, Nicholas K. "Strategic Space: Exclusion and Inclusion in Wildland Policies in Late Imperial China," Modern Asian Studies (Volume 26, Number 4, 1992): 719–733.
  • Morton, W. Scott and Charlton M. Lewis (2005). China: It's History and Culture. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 2. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 7. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • Wright, David Curtis (2001) The History of China. Westport: Greenwood Press.
  • Yuan, Zheng. "Local Government Schools in Sung China: A Reassessment," History of Education Quarterly (Volume 34, Number 2; Summer 1994): 193–213.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Han Dynasty
  • Han Dynasty by Minnesota State University
  • Han Dynasty art with video commentary, Minneapolis Institute of Arts
Preceded by
Qin Dynasty
Dynasties in Chinese history
206 BC – AD 220
Succeeded by
Three Kingdoms

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history. ... The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ...


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Han (1128 words)
Economic expansion, changing relationships with the people of the steppes, strengthening of the palace at the expense of the civil service, weakening of the state's hold on the peasantry, and the rise of the families of the rich and the gentry were all factors that led to the adoption of Confucian ideals..
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Han Dynasty, Chinese dynasty (206 bc-ad 220), founded by Liu Bang (later Gao Zu) a humble soldier of fortune who became duke of Pei, later prince of Han, and subsequently (206 bc) emperor of China.
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