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Encyclopedia > Han Chinese
Han
(漢族 or 汉族)
Zhang HengSun Yat-senConfucius
Bruce LeeXiao Hong • Soong Ching-ling
Total population

1,310,158,851
19.73% of global human population
(estimate) For other uses, see Zhang Heng (disambiguation). ... Sun Yat-sen (Traditional Chinese: 孫中山; Pinyin: Sūn Zhōngshān; Simplified Chinese: 孙中山; Pinyin: Sūn Yìxiān) (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary and political leader often referred to as the Father of Modern China. ... Confucius (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu-tzu), lit. ... Bruce Lee (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese-American martial artist, philosopher, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as the most influential martial artist of the 20th century and a... Xiao Hong Xiao Hong (June 2, 1911 – January 22, 1942), originally named Zhang Naiying, and with the pen names Xiao Hong and Qiao Yin, was a Chinese writer. ... Soong Ching-ling, or Madame Sun Yat-sen, the one who loved China Soong Ching-ling (Simplified Chinese: 宋庆龄; Traditional Chinese: 宋慶齡; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Sung Ching-ling) (January 27, 1893 - May 29, 1981) was one of the Soong sisters—three sisters whose husbands were amongst Chinas most...

Regions with significant populations
Majority populations
 People's Republic of China 1,207,541,842 [1]
--   Hong Kong 6,593,410 [2]
--   Macau 433,641 [3]
 Republic of China (Taiwan) 22,575,365 [4]
 Singapore 2,684,936 [5]
Minority populations
       Indonesia 7,566,200 [6]
       Thailand 7,053,240 [7]
       Malaysia 6,590,500 [8]
       United States 3,376,031 [9]
       Canada 1,612,173 [10]
       Peru 1,300,000 [11]
       Vietnam 1,263,570 [12]
       Philippines 1,146,250 [13]
       Burma 1,101,314 [14]
       Russia 998,000 [15]
       Australia 614,694 [16]
       Japan 519,561 [17]
       United Kingdom 500,000 [18]
       Cambodia 343,855 [19]
       France 230,515 [20]
       India 189,470 [21]
       Laos 185,765 [22]
       Brazil 151,649 [23]
       Italy 145,000 [24]
       Netherlands 144,928 [25]
       South Korea 137,790 [26]
       New Zealand 147,570 [27]
       Panama 135,000 [28]
Languages
Chinese languages
Religion
Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism and Taoism. Small Christian, Muslim and Xiantian minorities. Background of Confucianism and Chinese folk religion.[1][2][3]

Han Chinese (simplified Chinese: 汉族 or 汉人; traditional Chinese: 漢族 or 漢人; pinyin: hànzú or hànrén) are an ethnic group native to China and, by most modern definitions, the largest single ethnic group in the world. Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hong_Kong. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Macau. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Republic_of_China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Singapore. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Indonesia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Peru. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Vietnam. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Myanmar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cambodia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Laos. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brazil. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Panama. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin from Mt. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The Way of Former Heaven (or Hsien-tien tao or Xian Tian Tao , 先天道) or Xiantianism encompasses five religious groups of Chinese origin. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Clothed statues of Matsu/Mazu (Chinese goddess of the Sea) Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor veneration and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ...


Han Chinese constitute about 92 percent of the population of the People's Republic of China and about 19 percent of the entire global human population. There is substantial genetic, linguistic, cultural and social diversity between the various subgroups of the Han, mainly due to thousands of years of immigration and assimilation of various regional ethnicities and tribes within China. The Han Chinese are a subset of the Chinese nation (Zhonghua minzu). An alternate name that many Chinese peoples use to refer to themselves is "Descendants of the Dragon" (Chinese: 龍的傳人 or 龙的传人). Many Han and other Chinese also call themselves "Descendants of the Yan Di (Yan Emperor) and Huang Di (Yellow Emperor)" Map of countries by population — China and India, the only two countries to have a population greater than one billion, together possess more than a third of the worlds population. ... In Mandarin: minxi (ethnic lineages) or zuqun (ethnic groups). ... Zhonghua minzu (Chinese: 中華民族; Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínzú), literally Chinese ethnic group, refers to the modern notion of a Chinese nationality transcending ethnic divisions, with a central identity to China as a whole. ... The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following: A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) or the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... Japanese name Hiragana: KyÅ«jitai: Shinjitai: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: The Chinese dragon is visualized as a long, scaled, snake-like creature with five claws. ... Shennong (Traditional Chinese: 神農; Simplified Chinese: 神农; pinyin: Shénnóng), sometimes known as the Yan Emperor (炎帝), is a legendary emperor and culture hero of Chinese mythology who is believed to have lived some 5,000 years ago and who taught the ancients the practices of agriculture. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor (黄帝 Hu ng D ) is a Chinese mythical character, a culture hero said in legend to be the ancestor of all Chinese people. ...

Contents

Terms and etymology

Map of ethnolinguistic groups in China (Han is in brown).

The name Han comes from the Han Dynasty, which succeeded the short-lived Qin Dynasty that united China. The word Han is also the name of a river in central China (Han River), near which the founders of the Han dynasty were once based. Han, as a word in ancient China, especially in Classical Literary Chinese, can also mean the Milky Way, or as people in ancient China call it, the "Heavenly River" (天汉,"维天有汉"). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1172x1032, 134 KB)From the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1172x1032, 134 KB)From the Perry-Castañeda Library Map Collection: http://www. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... The Han River (漢江; pinyin: Han Jiang) in China, was often referred to as Hanshui (漢水) in antiquity. ... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... For other uses, see Milky Way (disambiguation). ...


It was during the Qin Dynasty and the Han Dynasty that the various tribes of China began to feel that they belonged to the same ethnic group, relative to other ethnic groups around them. In addition, the Han Dynasty is considered a high point in Chinese civilization, in that it was able to expand its power and influence as far as Central and Northeast Asia, and came to rival the Roman Empire in both population and territory. Central New York City. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east, and from southern Russia in the north to... East Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


In the English language, the Hans are often (and in the view of many Chinese incorrectly) referred to as simply "Chinese".[4] Whether or not the use of the term Chinese correctly or incorrectly refers only to Han Chinese often is the subject of heated debate, since the restriction of the term Chinese to Han Chinese can be viewed as calling into question the legitimacy of Chinese rule over non-Han areas. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Among some southern Han Chinese, a different term exists within various languages like Cantonese, Hakka and MinnanTángrén (唐人, literally "the people of Tang"). This term derives from a later Chinese dynasty, the Tang Dynasty, which is regarded as another zenith of Chinese civilization. The term survives in one of the Chinese names for Chinatown: 唐人街 (pinyin: Tángrénjiē); literally meaning "Street of the people of Tang". This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... For other uses, see Hakka (disambiguation). ... Mǐn Nán (Chinese: 閩南語), also spelt as Minnan or Min-nan; native name Bân-lâm-gú; literally means Southern Min or Southern Fujian and refers to the local language/dialect of southern Fujian province, China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Another term commonly used by Overseas Chinese is Huaren (simplified Chinese: 华人; traditional Chinese: 華人; pinyin: huárén), derived from Zhonghua (simplified Chinese: 中华; traditional Chinese: 中華; pinyin: zhōnghuá), a literary name for China. The usual translation is "ethnic Chinese". The term refers to "Chinese" as a cultural and ethnic affiliation and is inclusive of both Chinese in China and persons of Chinese descent residing abroad. Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The different usages and names of China in world languages are generally consistent with how knowledge of Chinas existence first reached each culture. ...


Distribution

The vast majority of Han Chinese — over 1.2 billion — live in the People's Republic of China (PRC), where they constitute about 92% of its population. Within the People's Republic of China, Han Chinese are the majority in every province, municipality, and autonomous region except for the autonomous regions of Xinjiang (41% as of 2000) and Tibet (6% as of 2000). Han Chinese also constitute the majority in both of the Special Administrative Regions of the PRC, about 95% of the population of Hong Kong and about 96% of the population of Macau. Due to Chinas large population and area, the political divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient times. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... This article is about the administrative region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... A Special administrative region (SAR) is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Over 22 million Han Chinese live in the Republic of China (Taiwan), where they constitute 98% of the population. Within Taiwan, Han Chinese also constitute the majority in all counties and municipalities. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ...


Overseas distribution

Main article: Overseas Chinese

Of about 40 million overseas Chinese worldwide, nearly 30 million live in Southeast Asia. Discounting Taiwan, Singapore has the largest majority overseas Chinese population, with about 2.7 million Chinese forming over 75% of the population. (Though Taiwan is much larger than Singapore in terms of land area and Chinese population, it has limited recognition as a country). Large Chinese populations also live in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, and the Philippines. Elsewhere in the world, 3 million people of Chinese descent live in the United States where they constitute about 1% of the population, over 1 million in Canada (3.7%), and over 600,000 in Australia (3.5%). Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... Taiwan Strait area The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan hinges on whether Taiwan, including the Pescadores (Penghu), should remain the effective territory of the Republic of China (ROC), become unified with the territories now governed by the Peoples Republic of China (PRC), or become the Republic of...


History

Main article: History of China

China Territories occupied by different dynasties as well as modern political states throughout the history of China. ...

Prehistory and the Huaxia

The history of the Han Chinese ethnic group is closely tied to that of China. Han Chinese trace their ancestry back to the Huaxia people, who lived along the Yellow River in northern China. The famous Chinese historian Sima Qian's Records of the Grand Historian dates the reign of the Yellow Emperor, the legendary ancestor of the Han Chinese, to 2698 BCE to 2599 BCE. Although study of this period of history is complicated by lack of historical records, discovery of archaeological sites have identified a succession of Neolithic cultures along the Yellow River. Along the central reaches of the Yellow River were the Jiahu culture (7000 BCE to 6600 BCE), Yangshao culture (5000 BCE to 3000 BCE) and Longshan culture (3000 BCE to 2000 BCE). Along the lower reaches of the river were the Qingliangang culture (5400 BCE to 4000 BCE), the Dawenkou culture (4300 BCE to 2500 BCE), the Longshan culture (2500 BCE to 2000 BCE), and the Yueshi culture. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... The Records of the Grand Historian or the Records of the Grand Historian of China (Chinese: 史記; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Shih-chi; literally Historical Records), written from 109 BCE to 91 BCE, was the magnum opus of Sima Qian, in which he recounted Chinese history from the time of the mythical... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... 9000 years old Jiahu playable Flutes. ... Yangshao culture (仰韶文化) was a Neolithic culture that existed extensively along the central Yellow River in China. ... Longshan culture (龍山文化) was a late Neolithic culture centered around the central and lower Yellow River in China. ... Gui (鬹) from Dawenkou Culture The Dawenkou culture (大汶口文化) is a name given by archaeologists to a group of Neolithic communities who lived primarily in Shandong, but also appeared in Anhui, Henan and Jiangsu, China. ... Longshan culture (龍山文化) was a late Neolithic culture centered around the central and lower Yellow River in China. ...


Chinese records give no clear answers as to how or from where this people came to live in the region. In the 19th century, there were numerous conjectures and speculations published as to their previous or original location, ranging anywhere from Ancient Egypt to India to Mongolia. Around the turn of the 20th century, a French author, Terrien de Lacouperie, proposed a theory tracing them to a tribe supposedly found in Elamite inscriptions as "Bak-sing" or "Bak" being southeast of the Caspian Sea. Although most specific elements of this theory were soon discredited as being based upon several outright misreadings and other less-than-compelling evidence (such as equating the Yellow Emperor, Hwang-ti with the Mesopotamian god Nahhunte), several scholars continued to maintain into the 1920s that an Akkadian origin for the Han Chinese was still the most likely. Lacouperie's erroneous books were also translated into Japanese as well as widely promoted in China, often by Japanese interests, with the result that such "Western Origins" theories became thoroughly discredited after World War Two. The most that can be said with certainty today is that Chinese annals are silent on the question. The pyramids are among the most recognizable symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... Akkadian language city of Akkad or Agad Akkadian Empire Sargon of Akkad the Amarna letters and Amarna Letters EA 296(Yahtiru) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Early history

The first dynasty to be described in Chinese historical records is the Xia Dynasty, a legendary period for which scant archaeological evidence exists. They were overthrown by peoples from the east, who founded the Shang Dynasty (1600 – 1046 BCE). The earliest archaeological examples of Chinese writing date back to this period, from characters inscribed on oracle bone divination, but the well-developed oracle characters hint at a much earlier origin of writing in China. The Shang were eventually overthrown by the people of Zhou, which had emerged as a state along the Yellow River sometime during the 2nd millennium BC. For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... For the Sixteen Kingdoms Period state, see Xia (Sixteen Kingdoms). ... Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Replica of an oracle bone -- turtle shell Oracle bones (Chinese: 甲骨; pinyin: jiÇŽgÇ”piàn) are pieces of bone or turtle shell used in royal divination from the mid Shang to early Zhou dynasties in ancient China, and often bearing written inscriptions in what is called oracle bone script. ...


The Zhou Dynasty was the successor to the Shang. Sharing the language and culture of the Shang people, they extended their reach to encompass much of the area north of the Yangtze River. Through conquest and colonization, much of this area came under the influence of sinicization and the proto-Han Chinese culture extended south. However, the power of the Zhou kings fragmented, and many independent states emerged. This period is traditionally divided into two parts, the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. This period was an era of major cultural and philosophical development known as the Hundred Schools of Thought. Among the most important surviving philosophies from this era are the teachings of Confucianism and Taoism. This article is about the ancient Chinese dynasty. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, is the linguistic assimilation or cultural assimilation of terms and concepts into the language and culture of China. ... The Spring and Autumn Period (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) was a period in Chinese history, which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty (from the second half of the 8th century BC to the first half of the 5th century). ... Warring States redirects here. ... The Hundred Schools of Thought (諸子百家 Pinyin: zhÅ« zǐ bÇŽi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 BCE to 222 BCE. Coinciding with the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, and also known as the Golden Age of Chinese thought... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ...


Imperial history

Main article: Qin Dynasty

The era of the Warring States came to an end with the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty after it conquered all other rival states. Its leader, Qin Shi Huang, declared himself the first emperor, using a newly created title, thus setting the precedent for the next two millennia. He established a new centralized and bureaucratic state to replace the old feudal system, creating many of the institutions of imperial China, and unified the country economically and culturally by decreeing a unified standard of weights, measures, currency, and writing. Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (259 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE),[1] personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty), and...

Main article: Han Dynasty

However, the reign of the first imperial dynasty was to be short-lived. Due to the first emperor's autocratic rule, and his massive construction projects such as the Great Wall which fomented rebellion into the populace, the dynasty fell soon after his death. The Han Dynasty (206 BC - 220 AD) emerged from the succession struggle and succeeded in establishing a much longer lasting dynasty. It continued many of the institutions created by Qin Shi Huang but adopted a more moderate rule. Under the Han Dynasty, arts and culture flourished, while the dynasty expanded militarily in all directions. This period is considered one of the greatest periods of the history of China, and the Han Chinese take their name from this dynasty. Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication...

The fall of the Han Dynasty was followed by an age of fragmentation and several centuries of disunity amid warfare by rival kingdoms. During this time, areas of northern China were overrun by various non-Chinese nomadic peoples which came to establish kingdoms of their own, the most successful of which was Northern Wei established by the Xianbei. Starting from this period, the native population of China proper began to be referred to as Hanren, or the "People of Han", to distinguish from the nomads from the steppe; "Han" refers to the old dynasty. Warfare and invasion led to one of the first great migrations in Han population history, as the population fled south to the Yangtze and beyond, shifting the Chinese demographic center south and speeding up Sinicization of the far south. At the same time, in the north, most of the nomads in northern China came to be Sinicized as they ruled over large Chinese populations and adopted elements of Chinese culture and Chinese administration. Of note, the Xianbei rulers of the Northern Wei ordered a policy of systematic Sinicization, adopting Han surnames, institutions, and culture. The Three Kingdoms period (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a period in the history of China, part of an era of disunity called the Six Dynasties. ... The Sixteen Kingdoms, or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereignities in the China proper and neighboring areas from AD 304 to 439 after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420) to South China and before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. ... This article is about China. ... The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Northern Wei Dynasty (北魏 386-534) is most noted for the unification of northern China in 440, it was also heavily involved in funding the arts and many antiques and art works from this period have survived. ... Xianbei belt buckles, 3-4th century CE. The Xianbei (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsien-pei) were a significant nomadic people residing in Manchuria and eastern Mongolia, or Xianbei Shan. ... The Yangtze River or Chang Jiang (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), or Drichu in Tibetan (Tibetan: འབ; Wylie: bri chu) is the longest river in Asia and the third longest in the world, after the Nile in Africa, and the Amazon in South America. ... Sinicization, Sinicisation or Sinification, is the linguistic assimilation or cultural assimilation of terms and concepts into the language and culture of China. ... In 496, Emperor Xiaowen of the Chinese/Xianbei dynasty Northern Wei ordered a change of Xianbei family names to Han names, as part of his Sinicization campaign for his Xianbei people. ...


The Sui (581 - 618) and Tang Dynasties (618 - 907) saw the continuation of the complete Sinicization of the south coast of what is now China proper, including what are now the provinces of Fujian and Guangdong. The later part of the Tang Dynasty, as well as the Five Dynasties period that followed, saw continual warfare in north and central China; the relative stability of the south coast made it an attractive destination for refugees.   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...

The next few centuries saw successive invasions of non-Han Chinese peoples from the north, such as the Khitans and Jurchens. In 1279 the Mongols (Yuan Dynasty) conquered all of China, becoming the first non-Han Chinese ethnicity to do so. The Mongols divided society into four classes, with themselves occupying the top class and Han Chinese into the bottom two classes. For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Khitan may refer to: Khitan people Khitan language Khitan script Category: ... The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ...


In 1368 Han Chinese rebels drove out the Mongols and, after some infighting, established the Ming Dynasty (1368 - 1644). Settlement of Han Chinese into peripheral regions continued during this period, with Yunnan in the southwest receiving a large number of migrants. Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For the tea from this region, see Yunnan tea. ...


In 1644, the Manchus (Qing Dynasty) invaded from Manchuria. Remnant Ming forces led by Koxinga fled to Taiwan, where they eventually capitulated by Qing forces in 1683. Taiwan, previously inhabited mostly by non-Han Chinese aborigines, was Sinicized via large-scale migration accompanied with assimilation during this period, despite efforts by the Manchus to prevent this, as they found it difficult to maintain control over the island. At the same time the Manchus discouraged (with only limited success) Han Chinese migration to Manchuria, because the Manchus perceived it as the home base of their dynasty. During the late Qing Dynasty however, restrictions were dropped in the face of Russian and Japanese expansionism, and Han migration to Manchuria boomed. (During previous dynasties, Han Chinese settlement in Manchuria was limited to the southern part, in what is now the province of Liaoning; during and after the late Qing Dynasty, however, Han Chinese settled and became the majority in nearly all of Manchuria.) Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Koxinga (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Gúoxìngyé; Tongyong Pinyin: Gúosìngyé; Taiwanese; Kok-sèng-iâ/Kok-sìⁿ-iâ) is the popular name of Zheng Chenggong (Traditional Chinese: 鄭成功; Hanyu Pinyin: Zhèng Chénggōng; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhèng Chénggong; Wade-Giles: Cheng Cheng-kung; Pe... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Liáoníng) is a northeastern province of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


In the 19th century, Chinese migrants went in large numbers to other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, Australia, and North America. See Overseas Chinese. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... North American redirects here. ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


Recent history

The Qing Dynasty was replaced by the Republic of China in 1912. In 1931 Japan detached Manchuria and created the puppet state of Manchukuo. Manchukuo attempted to appeal to Manchu nationalism, but by then the majority of its population was Han Chinese. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag Anthem National Anthem of Manchukuo Map of Manchukuo Capital Hsinking Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1932 - 1934 Datong (Chief Executive) (Aisingioro Puyi)  - 1934 - 1945 Kangde-Emperor (Aisingioro Puyi) Prime Minister  - 1932 - 1935 Zheng Xiaoxu  - 1935 - 1945 Zhang Jinghui Historical era World War II  - Established 1932  - Disestablished 1945 Manchukuo (, State of...


In 1949 the People's Republic of China was established while the Republic of China fled to Taiwan. About one million refugees fled with it, further augmenting the population of Taiwan. Meanwhile, the People's Republic of China organized migration into peripheral areas. In Xinjiang region in the northwest, the Han Chinese population rose from under ten percent in the 1950s to over forty percent today. Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ...


Chinese migration overseas has also continued into the 20th and 21st centuries. The approach of the handover of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 prompted large waves of Hong Kong Chinese migration to North America, Australia, and elsewhere. Chinese presences have also been established in Europe as well as Russia, especially the Russian Far East. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of China

Han China is one of the world's oldest and most complex civilizations. Chinese culture dates back thousands of years. Some Han Chinese believe they share common ancestors, mythically ascribed to the patriarchs Yellow Emperor and Yan Emperor, some thousands of years ago. Hence, some Chinese refer to themselves as "Descendants of the Yan and/or Yellow Emperor" (Traditional Chinese: 炎黃子孫; Simplified Chinese: 炎黄子孙), a phrase which has reverberative connotations in a divisive political climate, as in that between mainland China and Taiwan. For contemporary culture after 1949, see Culture of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Central New York City. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ... The Yan Emperor (Chinese: ; literally Flame Emperor) lived in China about 4,000 years ago. ... Traditional Chinese (Traditional Chinese: 正體字/繁體字, Simplified Chinese: 正体字/繁体字) refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... ...


Throughout the history of China, Chinese culture has been heavily influenced by Confucianism. Credited with shaping much of Chinese thought, Confucianism was the official philosophy throughout most of Imperial China's history, and mastery of Confucian texts provided the primary criterion for entry into the imperial bureaucracy. China Territories occupied by different dynasties as well as modern political states throughout the history of China. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... The Imperial examinations (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) in Imperial China determined who among the population would be permitted to enter the states bureaucracy. ...


Language

Main article: Chinese language

Han Chinese speak various forms of the Chinese language; one of the names of the language group is Hanyu (traditional Chinese: 漢語; simplified Chinese: 汉语), literally the "Han language". Similarly, Chinese characters, used to write the language, are called Hanzi (traditional Chinese: 漢字; simplified Chinese: 汉字), or "Han characters". Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ...


Despite the existence of many dialects of Chinese spoken languages, one factor in Han ethnic unity is the Chinese written language, which has a unified standard form, regardless of local variations. This unity is credited to the Qin dynasty which unified the various forms of writing that existed in China at that time. For thousands of years, Literary Chinese was used as the standard written format, which used vocabulary and grammar significantly different from the various forms of spoken Chinese. Since the twentieth century, written Chinese has been usually vernacular Chinese, which is largely based upon dialects of Mandarin, and not the local dialect of the writer (with the exception of the use of written Cantonese). Thus, although the residents of different regions would not necessarily understand each other's speech, they would be able to understand each other's writing. Spoken Chinese The Chinese spoken language(s) comprise(s) many regional variants. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded by the... Classical Chinese or Literary Chinese is a traditional style of written Chinese based on the grammar and vocabulary of very old forms of Chinese , making it very different from any modern spoken form of Chinese. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... Vernacular Chinese (pinyin: báihuà; Wade-Giles: paihua) is a style or register of the written Chinese language essentially modeled after the spoken language and associated with Standard Mandarin. ... This article is on all of the Northern and Southwestern Chinese dialects. ... Written Cantonese refers to the written language used to write colloquial standard Cantonese using Chinese characters. ...


Names

Main article: Chinese name

Chinese names are typically two or three syllables in length, with the surname preceding the given name. Surnames are typically one character in length, though a few uncommon surnames are two or more syllables long, while given names are one or two syllables long. There are 4,000 to 6,000 surnames in China, about 1,000 surnames are most popularly used. Personal names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. ... A Chinese surname, family name (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) or clan name (氏; pinyin: shì), is one of the hundreds or thousands of family names that have been historically used by Han Chinese and Sinicized Chinese ethnic groups in mainland China, Taiwan, and among overseas Chinese communities. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Dress

Main article: Han Chinese clothing
A Song Dynasty Chinese painting (韩熙载夜宴图) showing musicians dressed in Hanfu, 12th century remake of a 10th century original by Gu Hongzhong.

Today, Han Chinese usually wear Western-style clothing. Few wear traditional Han Chinese clothing on a regular basis. It is, however, preserved in religious and ceremonial costumes. For example, Taoist priests dress in fashion typical of scholars of the Han Dynasty. The ceremonial dress in Japan, such as those of Shinto priests, are largely in line with ceremonial dress in China during the Tang Dynasty. Now, the most popular traditional Chinese clothing worn by many Chinese females in important occasions such as wedding banquets and Chinese New Year is called the qipao. However, this attire comes not from the Han Chinese but from a modified dress-code of the Manchus, the ethnic group that ruled China between the seventeenth (1644) and the early twentieth century. The emperor Tang Gaozu in his yuanlingshan and putou hat Han Chinese clothing or Hanfu (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: hànfú; Wade-Giles: han4fu2), also known as Hanzhuang (漢裝) or Huafu (華服) (the layperson almost always use the term guzhuang (古裝) which means ancient clothing) refers to the historical clothing of... For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ... Han Chinese clothing, or Hanfu (TC: 漢服; SC: 汉服; pinyin: hànfú;; literally Clothing of the Han people) refers to the pre-17th century traditional clothing of the Han Chinese, the predominant ethnic group of China. ... Gu Hongzhong (ca 937-975 C.E) was a Chinese painter during the Five Dynasties period of Chinese history. ... Occident redirects here. ... The emperor Tang Gaozu in his yuanlingshan and putou hat Han Chinese clothing or Hanfu (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: hànfú; Wade-Giles: han4fu2), also known as Hanzhuang (漢裝) or Huafu (華服) (the layperson almost always use the term guzhuang (古裝) which means ancient clothing) refers to the historical clothing of... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... Shinto ) is the native religion of Japan and was once its state religion. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... // Events February to August - Explorer Abel Tasmans second expedition for the Dutch East India Company maps the north coast of Australia. ...


Housing

Chinese Han people traditionally commonly lived with the whole family in large houses that were rectangular in shape. This house is called a 四合院 (traditional and simplified characters) or sì hé yuàn (Hanyu Pinyin). These houses had four rooms in the front, the guest room, kitchen, lavatory, and servants' quarters. Across the large double doors was a wing for the elderly in the family. This wing consisted of three rooms, a central room where the four tablets, heaven, earth, ancestor, and teacher, were worshipped. There the two rooms attached to the left and right were bedrooms for the grandparents. The east wing of the house was inhabited by the eldest son and his family, while the west wing sheltered the second son and his family. Each wing had a veranda, some had a "sunroom" made from a surrounding fabric supported by a wooden or bamboo frame. Every wing is also built around a central courtyard used for study, exercise, or nature viewing.[5] A kitchen is a room used for food preparation and sometimes entertainment. ... Flush toilet A toilet is a plumbing fixture devised for the disposal of bodily wastes, including urine, feces, methane, semen and vomit. ... At 18th century Holkham Hall: service and secondary wings (foreground) clearly flank the mansion and were intended to be viewed as part of the overall facade Servants quarters are that part of a building, traditionally in a private house, which contain the domestic offices and staff accommodation. ... A bedroom is a room used primarily for sleep, rest or sexual activities. ... A verandah is a large balcony on the level of a ground floor. ... For other uses, see Bamboo (disambiguation). ...


Literature

Main article: Chinese literature

Chinese has a rich history of classical literature dating back several thousand years. Important early works include classics texts such as Analects of Confucius, the I Ching, Tao Te Ching, and the Art of War. Some of the most important Han Chinese poets in the pre-modern era include Li Bai, Du Fu, and Su Dongpo. The most important novels in Chinese literature, or the Four Great Classical Novels, are: Dream of the Red Chamber, Water Margin, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, and Journey to the West. Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... Chinese classic texts or Chinese canonical texts are the classical literature in Chinese culture that are considered to be the best or the most valuable. ... Engraving of Confucius. ... Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ... The Tao Te Ching (道德經, Pinyin: D Jīng, thus sometimes rendered in recent works as Dao De Jing; archaic pre-Wade-Giles rendering: Tao Teh Ching; roughly translated as The Book of the Way and its Virtue (see dedicated chapter below on translating the title)) is an ancient Chinese scripture... For other uses, see The Art of War (disambiguation). ... Li Po redirects here. ... Du Fu (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tu Fu, 712–770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang Dynasty. ... Su Shi (蘇軾) (1037-1101) was a writer, poet, artist, calligrapher and statesman of the Song Dynasty, one of the major poets of the Song era. ... The Four Great Classical Novels, or Four Major Classical Novels (Chinese: ) of Chinese literature, are the four novels commonly counted by scholars to be the greatest and most influential in classical Chinese fiction. ... “The Story of the Stone” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Guo Shiguang be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Romance of the Three Kingdoms (disambiguation). ... The four heroes of the story, left to right: SÅ«n Wùkōng, Xuánzàng, ZhÅ« Bājiè, and Shā Wùjìng. ...


Contribution to humanity

Han Chinese have played a major role in the development of the arts, sciences, philosophy, and mathematics throughout history. In ancient times, the scientific accomplishments of China included seismological detectors, matches, paper, cannon, flare, continuous flame throwers, fire arrow, paper-printed money, chain drive, escapement, pendulum, silk, multistage rocket, landmine, quilling-wheel, odometer, sluice gate, the canal lock, flash lock, rudder, pontoon bridge, gimbal, South Pointing Chariot, water-tight compartment, blast furnace, porcelain, belt drive, dry docks, sliding calipers, the double-action piston pump, cardon suspension, cast iron, metal stirrups, civil service examination system, paddle wheels, the iron plow, the multi-tube seed drill, the wheelbarrow, rotary winnowing fan, collapsible umbrella, toothbrush, trip hammer, trebuchet, kites, Su Song water-driven astronomical clock tower, grand canal, horse collar, chain pump, pound lock, the suspension bridge, the parachute, natural gas as fuel, the magnetic compass, the raised-relief map, the propeller, innoculation, the crossbow, gunpowder and printing. Paper, printing, the compass, and gunpowder are celebrated in Chinese culture as the Four Great Inventions of ancient China. Chinese astronomers were also among the first to record observations of a supernova. Science and technology in China is currently experiencing rapid growth. ... The Arts is a broad subdivision of culture, comprised of many expressive disciplines. ... For the scientific journal named Science, see Science (journal). ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see History (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... Roller chain and sprocket Mack AC delivery truck at the Petersen Automotive Museum with chain drive visible Chain drive was a popular power transmission system from the earliest days of the automobile. ... A simple escapement. ... For other uses, see Pendulum (disambiguation). ... For other uses of this word, see Silk (disambiguation). ... U.S. Army soldier removes fuse from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq. ... Quilling is the art of creating decorative designs from thin strips of curled paper. ... Sluice gates near Henley, on the River Thames A small wooden sluice in Magome, Japan, used to power a waterwheel. ... Stern-mounted steering oar of an Egyptian riverboat depicted in the Tomb of Menna (c. ... Pontoon bridge across the James River at Richmond, Virginia, 1865. ... A gimbal is a mechanical device that allows the rotation of an object in multiple dimensions. ... South Pointing Chariot (replica) The South Pointing Chariot (Zhi Nan Che 指南車) is widely regarded as the most complex geared mechanism of the ancient Chinese civilization, and was continually used throughout the medieval period as well. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... The Roman civil service in action. ... An umbrella or parasol (sometimes colloquially, gamp, brolly, or bumbershoot) is a canopy designed to protect against precipitation or sunlight. ... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... A triphammer is a massive power hammer, usually raised by a cam and then released to fall under the force of gravity. ... For the typeface, see Trebuchet MS. Trebuchet at Château des Baux, France A trebuchet is a siege engine employed in the Middle Ages either to smash masonry walls or to throw projectiles over them. ... Su Song 蘇頌 (1020 – 1101), style Zirong 子容, was a Chinese engineer. ... The chain pump is a type of water pump where an endless chain has positioned on it a series of circular discs. ... A pound lock is type of canal lock which is used almost exclusively today. ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge where the main load-bearing elements are hung from suspension cables. ... -1... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the navigational tool. ... A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three dimensional representation, usually of terrain. ... For other uses, see Propeller (disambiguation). ... Inoculation was a method of minimising the harm done by infection with smallpox. ... This article is about the weapon. ... A modern black powder substitute for muzzleloading rifles in FFG size Gunpowder (also called black powder) is a pyrotechnic composition, an explosive mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate (also known as saltpetre or saltpeter) that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot solids and gases which can be used as... For other uses, see Print. ... The five major steps in ancient Chinese papermaking, as outlined by Cai Lun in 105 AD The Four Great Inventions of ancient China (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: , meaning four great inventions) are, according to Chinese tradition and the British scholar and biochemist Joseph Needham: The Compass[1] Gunpowder Papermaking... For other uses, see Supernova (disambiguation). ...


Chinese art, Chinese cuisine, Chinese philosophy, and Chinese literature all have thousands of years of development, while numerous Chinese sites, such as the Great Wall of China and the Terracotta Army, are World Heritage Sites. Since the start of the program in 2001, aspects of Chinese culture have been listed by UNESCO as Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Chinese Jade ornament with flower design, Jin Dynasty (1115-1234 AD), Shanghai Museum. ... Chinese cuisine (Chinese: 中國菜) originated from different regions of China and has become widespread in many other parts of the world — from East Asia to North America, Australasia and Western Europe. ... Yin Yang symbol and Ba gua paved in a clearing outside of Nanning City, Guangxi province, China. ... Chinese literature spans back thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the matured fictional novel arising in the medieval period to entertain the masses of literate Chinese. ... The Great Wall of China (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally Long wall) or (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)[1]) is a series of stone and earthen fortifications in China, built, rebuilt, and maintained between the 5th century BC and the 16th... The Terracotta WARRIORS (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: bīngmǎ yǒng; literally soldier and horse funerary statues) are the Terracotta Warriors and Horses of Shi Huang Di the First Emperor of China. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Org type Specialized Agency Acronyms UNESCO Head Director General of UNESCO Koïchiro Matsuura Japan Status Active Established 1945 Website www. ... Map showing the distribution of Masterpieces of Oral and Intangible Heritage by State Parties as of 2005. ...


Throughout much of history, successive Chinese Dynasties have exerted influence on their neighbors in the areas of art, music, religion, food, dress, philosophy, language, government, and culture. In modern times, Han Chinese form the largest ethnic group in China, while an overseas Chinese diaspora numbering in the tens of millions has settled in and contributed to countries throughout the world. China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Languages various Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ...


In modern times, Han Chinese have continued to contribute to the maths and sciences. Among them are Nobel Prize recipients Steven Chu, Samuel C. C. Ting, Chen Ning Yang, Tsung-Dao Lee, Yuan T. Lee, Daniel C. Tsui, Gao Xingjian, Fields Medal recipients Terence Tao and Shing-Tung Yau, and Turing Award recipient Andrew Yao. Tsien Hsue-shen was a prominent scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, while Chien-Shiung Wu contributed to the Manhattan Project. Others include Charles K. Kao, a pioneer in fiber optics technology, and Doctor David Ho, one of the first scientists to propose that AIDS was caused by a virus, thus subsequently developing combination antiretroviral therapy to combat it. Dr. Ho was named TIME magazine's 1996 Man of the Year. The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Steven Chu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), born 1948 in St. ... Samuel Chao Chung Ting (丁肇中 pinyin: Dīng Zhàozhōng; Wade-Giles: Ting¹ Chao⁴-chung¹) (born January 27, 1936) is a Michigan-born Chinese American physicist who received the Nobel Prize in 1976 for the discovery of the subatomic J particle with Burton Richter. ... Zhen-Ning Franklin Yang (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (born 22 September[1], 1922) is a Chinese American physicist who worked on statistical mechanics and symmetry principles. ... Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee, 李政道 Pinyin: Lǐ Zhèngdào) (born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese American physicist, well known for parity violation, Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars. ... Yuan Tseh Lee (Chinese: 李遠哲 Pinyin: Lǐ YuÇŽnzhé, Wade-Giles: Li³ Yüan³-che²) (born November 19, 1936) is a famous chemist. ... Daniel Chee Tsui 崔琦 (pinyin: Cuī Qí)(born February 28, 1939, Henan Province, China) is a Chinese American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics. ... Gao Xingjian (pron. ... The obverse of the Fields Medal The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians not over 40 years of age at each International Congress of the International Mathematical Union, a meeting that takes place every four years. ... Terence Chi-Shen Tao (陶哲軒) (born July 17, 1975, Adelaide, South Australia) is an Australian mathematician working primarily on harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, combinatorics, analytic number theory and representation theory. ... Shing-Tung Yau (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; born April 4, 1949) is a prominent mathematician working in differential geometry, and involved in the theory of Calabi-Yau manifolds. ... The A.M. Turing Award is given annually by the Association for Computing Machinery to a person selected for contributions of a technical nature made to the computing community. ... Andrew Chi-Chih Yao (Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) (born December 24, 1946) is a prominent computer scientist and computational theorist. ... Tsien Hsue-shen Tsien Hsue-shen (Simplified Chinese: , Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Qián XuésÄ“n; born December 11, 1911) is a scientist who was a major figure in the missile and space programs of both the United States and Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... For the singer/songwriter, see Jon Peter Lewis. ... Chien-Shiung Wu (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Wú Jiànxíong; May 13, 1912–February 16, 1997) was a Chinese American physicist with an expertise in radioactivity. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Charles Kuen Kao, Ph. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Dr. David Ho David Da-i Ho (何大一, pinyin: Hé DàyÄ«) (born November 3, 1952) is a Taiwanese American AIDS researcher famous for pioneering the use of protease inhibitors in treating HIV-infected patients with his team. ...


Religion

In Han China, although Confucian ideals were popular in the beginning, towards the end of the dynasty Buddhism became a more widely recognised religion. In later Empires, Buddhism would remain supreme, until the Song Empire, when Taoism became widespread, and the first Muslim and Jewish minorities emerged. Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Alternative meaning: Song Dynasty (420-479) The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝) was a ruling dynasty in China from 960-1279. ... Taoism (pronounced or ; also spelled Daoism) refers to a variety of related philosophical and religious traditions and concepts. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


"Han" as a fluid concept

The definition of the Han identity has varied throughout history. Prior to the 20th century, some Chinese-speaking ethnic groups like the Hakka and the Tanka were not universally accepted as Han Chinese, while some non-Chinese speaking peoples, like the Zhuang, were sometimes considered Han.[6] Today, Hui Chinese are considered a separate ethnic group, but aside from their practice of Islam, little distinguishes them from the Han; two Han from different regions might differ more in language, customs, and culture than a neighboring Han and Hui. During the Qing Dynasty, Han Chinese who had entered the Eight Banners military system were considered Manchu, while Chinese nationalists seeking to overthrow the monarchy stressed Han Chinese identity in contrast to the Manchu rulers. Upon its founding, the Republic of China recognized five major ethnic groups: the Han, Hui, Mongols, Manchus, and Tibetans, while the People's Republic of China now recognizes fifty-six ethnic groups. For other uses, see Hakka (disambiguation). ... noobs Categories: Hainan | Hong Kong | Macau | Ethnic groups of Vietnam ... The Zhuang (Simplified Chinese: 壮族; Traditional Chinese: 壯族; Hanyu Pinyin: ; own name: Bouчcueŋь/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (徽) dialects. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Eight Banners (In Manchu: jakūn gūsa, In Chinese: 八旗 baqí) were administrative divisions into which all Manchu families were placed. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Mǎnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... The following is a list of ethnic groups in China. ...


Whether the idea of Han Chinese is recent or not is a debated topic in China studies. Scholars such as Ho Ping-Ti argue that the concept of a Han ethnicity is an ancient one, dating from the Han Dynasty itself. By contrast, scholars such as Evelyn Rawski have argued that the concept of Han Chinese is a relatively recent one, and was only invented in the late 19th and early 20th century by scholars such as Liang Qichao who were influenced by European concepts of race and ethnicity.[7] Portrait of Liang Qichao (Tung Wah News, 17 April 1901) Liang Qichao (Chinese: 梁啟超, Liáng Qǐchāo; Courtesy: Zhuoru, 卓如; Pseudonym: Rengong, 任公) (February 23, 1873–January 19, 1929) was a Chinese scholar, journalist, philosopher and reformist during the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911) who inspired Chinese scholars with his writings and...


Han diversity

Main article: Subgroups of the Han Chinese

In addition to a diversity of spoken language, there are also regional differences in culture among Han Chinese. For example, China's cuisine varies from Sichuan's famously spicy food to Guangdong's Dim Sum and fresh seafood. However, some sense of cultural or- at least political- unity still exists between these two groups because of common cultural, behavioural, linguistic, and religious practices. This article is about the Chinese province. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ... Dim sum (Chinese: 點心; Cantonese IPA: dɪm2sɐm1; Pinyin: diǎnxīn; Wade-Giles: tien-hsin; literally dot heart or order heart, meaning order to ones hearts content; also commonly translated as touch the heart, dotted heart, or snack), a Cantonese term, is usually a light meal or brunch, eaten sometime...


According to recent scientific studies,[8][9] there are significant genetic differences throughout China. Due to several waves of immigration from Northern China to Southern China in China's history, there are strong genetic similarities in the Y chromosome between Southern and Northern Chinese males. However, the mitochondrial DNA of Han Chinese increases in diversity as one looks from Northern to Southern China, which suggests that many male migrants from northern China married with women from local peoples after arriving in Guangdong, Fujian, and other regions of Southern China. As this mixing process continued and more Han people migrated south, the people in Southern China became Sinicized and identified themselves as Han. Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... Alternative meaning: In geology, North China (continent) and South China (continent) were two ancient landmasses that correspond to modern northern and southern China. ... The human Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes, it contains the genes that cause testis development, thus determining maleness. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Not to be confused with the former Kwantung Leased Territory in north-eastern China. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Sinicization, or less commonly Sinification, is to make things Chinese. ...


Historical documentation indicates that the Han were descended from the ancient Huaxia tribes of northern China. During the past two millennia, the Han culture (that is, the language and its associated culture) extended into southern China, a region inhabited by the southern natives, including those speaking Dai, Austro-Asiatic and Hmong-Mien languages. As Huaxia culture spread from its heartland in the Yellow River basin, it absorbed many distinct ethnic groups which then came to be identified as Han Chinese, as these groups adopted Han language (or variations of it) and customs. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Tai-Kadai languages are a language family found in Southeast Asia and southern China. ... Austro-Asiatic languages The Austro-Asiatic languages are a large language family of Southeast Asia, and also scattered throughout India and Bangladesh. ... The Hmong-Mien or Miao-Yao languages are a small language family of southern China and Southeast Asia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... For other Yellow Rivers, see Yellow River (disambiguation). ...


For example, during the Shang Dynasty, people of the Wu area, in the Yangtze River Delta, were considered a different tribe. They spoke a language that was almost certainly distinct from that of the Shang,[citation needed] and were described as being scantily dressed and tattooed. By the Tang Dynasty, however, this area had become part of the Han Chinese heartland, and is today the most densely populated and strongest performing economic region in China, the site of China's largest city Shanghai. The people in the Wu area today speak the Wu dialects, which are part of the Chinese language family but are mutually unintelligible with other Chinese languages/dialects, and do not see themselves as a separate ethnic group. The Wu area is one example of many involving the absorption of different cultural groups in contributing toward the diversity of culture and language throughout the Han Chinese ethnic group. Remnants of advanced, stratified societies dating back to the Shang period have been found in the Yellow River Valley. ... Wu (吳) is a region in the Jiangnan area (the south of Yangtze River), surrounding Suzhou, in Jiangsu province and Zhejiang province of China. ... Yangtze River Delta The Yangtze River Delta (Chinese 长江三角洲/長江三角洲 chángjiāng sānjiÇŽozhōu) or Yangtze Delta, generally comprises the triangular-shaped territory of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ... Wu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is one of the major divisions of the Chinese language. ... Chinese (written) language (pinyin: zhōngw n) written in Chinese characters The Chinese language (汉语/漢語, 华语/華語, or 中文; Pinyin: H nyǔ, Hu yǔ, or Zhōngw n) is a member of the Sino-Tibetan family of languages. ...


Controversies

There have been many controversies regarding the Han Chinese ethnic identity itself. Many of these controversies stem from the complex interactions of many distinct peoples (as explained in previous sections). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...


A major controversy is the very loose definition of 'Han Chinese'. There is no well-known text that rigorously defines the term. Also problematic is the fact that some of the alleged sub-groups such as the Cantonese, Hokkien and Taiwanese peoples are only distantly related to the historical ancestors of modern Han Chinese and are more closely related to other ethnic groups (as proved in genetic studies such as the one found at [29]). A notable example would be the Cantonese people being closely related to ethnic Vietnamese but not being recognised as a distinct non-Han Chinese ethnic group. In contrast, the Han Chinese and Hui people (excluding the 'Hui' population in Hainan which is not related to Hui people elsewhere) are closely related in a genetic sense and shares cultural similarities but the Hui people are not considered a sub-group of Han Chinese.


Many of the theories of the origins of the Han Chinese such as that of the 'Yellow Emperor' have been shown to be false. As demonstrated in [30], these myths are contrary to scientific findings.


See also

The term Chinese people may refer to any of the following: A person who resides in and holds citizenship of the Peoples Republic of China (including Hong Kong and Macau) or the Republic of China (Taiwan). ... A portrait of Confucius, by Tang Dynasty artist Wu Daozi (680-740). ... The May Fourth Movement in 1919 marked a turning point in the history of Chinese nationalism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sinocentric World: The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). ... China proper refers to the historical heartlands of China in the context of that paradigm which contrasts these heartlands with frontier regions of Outer China (including sections of Inner Asia and other regions). ... A Hongkonger or Hong Konger is someone who resides or originates from Hong Kong. ...

References

  1. ^ Travel China Guide - Han Chinese
  2. ^ Windows on Asia - Chinese Religions
  3. ^ China - Travel China Guide - Religions and Beliefs
  4. ^ Definition of "Han" in the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000.
  5. ^ Montgomery County Public Schools Foreign Language Department (08/2006). "Si-he-yuan".: 1 - 8, Montgomery County Public Schools. 
  6. ^ Kaup, Katherine Palmer, Creating the Zhuang: Ethnic Politics in China, Lynne Rienner Publishers, Jan 1, 2000, ISBN 1-55587-886-5
  7. ^ Clayton D. Brown Research on Chinese History: Ethnology, Archaeology, and Han Identity
  8. ^ Table from "Genetic evidence supports demic diffusion of Han culture". Nature (journal, 16 September 2004 issue)
  9. ^ Table from " A spatial analysis of genetic structure of human populations in China reveals distinct difference between maternal and paternal lineages". European Journal of Human Genetics (journal, 23 January 2008 issue)

External links

  • Defining Han Identity in Chinese Ethnology and Archaeology Research website on Han identity by Ph.D. candidate
  • How the Han Chinese became the world's biggest tribe - Yahoo News/AFP Sept 15, 2004
The following is a list of ethnic groups in China. ... The Achang (阿昌族), also known as the Ngacang (their own name) or Maingtha (Burmese name) are an ethnic group. ... Bamileke languages (ISO 639 alpha-3, bai) Bye - k thx bai Baccalaureus in Arte Ingeniaria Band Aid (band) BAI - Soviet early armoured car, predecessor of BA-6 Bai, a Chinese ethnic group, and their Bai language Banco Africano de Investimentos, in Angola BAI the official name of ferry company Brittany... The Blang village of Manpo, Xishuangbanna. ... The Bonan (also Baoan) people (保安族; pinyin: bÇŽoān zú) are an ethnic group living in Gansu and Qinghai provinces in northwestern China. ... Buyei minority Shitou village, west Guizhou The Buyei (also spelled Puyi, Bouyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, IPA: [], or Puzhong, Burao, Puman; Chinese: 布依族; Pinyin: BùyÄ«zú) are an ethnic group living in southern China. ... The Dai (or the Thai peoples of China) is the officially recognized name of an ethnic group living in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture and the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture (both in southern Yunnan Province of China), and also in Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and Myanmar. ... The Daur people (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the former name Dahur is considered derogatory) are an ethnic group. ... The Deang (德昂族 : Déáng Zú) (also spelled Deang) people are an ethnic group. ... The Derung people (also spelled Drung or Dulong; own name in IPA: [tɯɹɯŋ]; Chinese: 独龙族, Pinyin: Dúlóngzú) are an ethnic group. ... Dong Minority Bridge, Chenyang, Guangxi, China. ... The Dongxiang people (autonym: Sarta or Santa (撒尔塔); Simplified Chinese: 东乡族 Traditional Chinese︰東鄉族; Pinyin: Dōngxiāngzú) are one of 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Evenks or Evenki (obsolete: Tungus or Tunguz, autonym: Эвэнки, Evenki) are a nomadic Tungusic people of Northern Asia. ... Total population 2006: 458,000 (CIP 2006) 2004: 454,600 (CIP 2004) Homelands in Taiwan Mountainous terrain running in five ranges from the northern to the southern tip of the island Narrow eastern plains Orchid Island (Lán YÇ”) Languages 14 living Formosan languages. ... The Gelao people (own name: Klau, Chinese: 仡佬族 Gēlǎozú) are an ethnic group. ... Typical daily attire of ethnic Hani in China. ... The Nanai people (self name нани; tr. ... The Hui (回) ethnic group is unrelated to the Hui (å¾½) dialects. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The Jingpo or Kachin people (Chinese: 景颇族 Jǐngpōzú; own names: Jingpo, Tsaiva, Lechi) are an ethnic group who largely inhabit northern Myanmar (Kachin State). ... The Jino (also spelled Jinuo) people (Chinese: 基诺族 JÄ«nuòzú; own name: tÉ•yno or kino) are an ethnic group. ... Language(s) Kazakh, Russian (and/or languages in country of residence) Religion(s) Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар IPA: ; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Lahu girls The Lahu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own names: Ladhulsi or Kawzhawd; Vietnamese: La Hủ) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ... Languages Lhoba, Tibetan Religions Animism Tibetan Buddhist (primarily in Tibet) An entry was temporarily removed here. ... Li (黎; pinyin Lí:李) or Hlai is a minority Chinese ethnic group. ... It has been suggested that Lisu Church be merged into this article or section. ... The Manchu people (Manchu: Manju; simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: MÇŽnzú, Mongolian: Манж) are a Tungusic people who originated in Manchuria (todays Northeastern China). ... The Maonan (self name: Anan meaning local people) people are an ethnic group. ... The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... The Monpa (Chinese: 门巴族, ménbàzú, Tibetan: མོན་པ།) are an ethnic group of Tibetan descent in the Indian territory of Arunachal Pradesh, with a population of 50,000, centered in the districts of Tawang and West Kameng. ... Ethnic Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族) are citizens of the Peoples Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols. ... The Mulao (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; own name: Mulam) people are an ethnic group. ... The Nakhi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group inhabiting the foothills of the Himalayas in the northwestern part of Yunnan Province, as well as the southwestern part of Sichuan Province in China. ... The Nu people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Nùzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Oroqen people(鄂伦春族) are an ethnic group in northern China. ... The Pumi people (Chinese: 普米族 Pǔmǐzú, own name: /phʐẽmi/) are an ethnic group. ... The Qiang people (羌族; Pinyin: qiāng zú) are an ethnic group. ... The Salar people (Chinese: 撒拉族, Pinyin: Sālāzú) are one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The She (畲) people are an ethnic group. ... The Shui people (Chinese: ; pinyin: Shuǐzú) are an ethnic group living in the Guangxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan areas of southwestern China. ... Tajiks in China (Chinese: 塔吉克族, Pinyin: ) are one of the 56 nationalities officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Chinese Tatars (塔塔尔族 TÇŽtÇŽÄ›rzú) form one of the 56 ethnic groups officially recognized by the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... The Tu (土) people are an ethnic group. ... The Tujia (土家族) are an ethnic group numbering about 8 million, living in the Wuling Mountains of Chinas Hunan and Hubei provinces. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Uyghur language. ... The Va nationality (also spelled Wa; Chinese: 佤族 WÇŽzú; own names: Va, Ava, Parauk, i. ... The Xibe ( Sibe; Chinese, 錫伯 XÄ«bó) are an ethnic group living mostly in northeast China and Xinjiang. ... This article is about the Yao ethnic group in Asia. ... The Yi people (own name in the Liangshan dialect: ꆈꌠ, official transcription: Nuosu, IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ; the older name Lolo is now considered derogatory in China, though used officially in Vietnam as Lô Lô and in Thailand as Lolo) are a modern ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand. ... The Yugur people are an ethnic group. ... The Zhuang people (Traditional Chinese: 壯族, Simplified Chinese: 壮族, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhuàngzú; own name: Bouчcueŋь/Bouxcuengh) are an ethnic group of people who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China. ... Undistinguished ethnic groups in China (未识别民族: Wèi Shíbié Mínzú; sometimes translated as Undistinguished nationalities) are ethnic groups in the Peoples Republic of China that have not been officially recognised as individual ethnic groups. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Imperial Era: III (1318 words)
Chinese and Mongol travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering, while bringing back to the Middle Kingdom new scientific discoveries and architectural innovations.
Although the Manchus were not Han Chinese and were strongly resisted, especially in the south, they had assimilated a great deal of Chinese culture before conquering China Proper.
Han Chinese were prohibited from migrating into the Manchu homeland, and Manchus were forbidden to engage in trade or manual labor.
Han Chinese (228 words)
Han Chinese (漢 or 汉 in pinyin: han4) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China which constitutes over 92% of the population.
Among Han Chinese, there is a wide diversity of distinct cultural and linguistic groups, such as the Hakka.
Within Chinese nationalist theory, China is composed of a many ethnic groups, and promoting the interest and culture of Han Chinese at the expense of the other ethnic groups is known as Han chauvinism which has a pejorative meaning.
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