FACTOID # 13: New York has America's lowest percentage of residents who are veterans.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Hamster" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hamster
Hamster
Fossil range: Middle Miocene - Recent

A domesticated variety of Syrian or Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Suborder: Myomorpha
Superfamily: Muroidea
Family: Cricetidae
Subfamily: Cricetinae
Fischer de Waldheim, 1817
Genera

Mesocricetus
Phodopus
Cricetus
Cricetulus
Allocricetulus
Cansumys
Tscherskia Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Image File history File links Peach. ... Binomial name Waterhouse, 1839 The Syrian Hamster or Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is the best known member of the rodent subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... Suborder Myomorpha contains nearly a quarter of all mammal species. ... Families see text Muroidea is a large superfamily of rodents. ... Subfamilies Arvicolinae Cricetinae Neotominae Sigmodontinae Tylomyinae Valid name: Muridae Illiger, 1815 [1] Cricetidae is a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. ... Johann Fischer von Waldheim Johann Gotthelf Fischer von Waldheim (Grigorij Ivanovitsch Fischer von Waldheim in Russian) (October 13, 1771 – October 18, 1853) was a German anatomist, entomologist and paleontologist. ... Species Mesocricetus auratus Mesocricetus brandti Mesocricetus newtoni Mesocricetus raddei Mesocricetus is a genus of Old World hamsters. ... Species Phodopus campbelli Phodopus roborovski Phodopus sungorus The dwarf hamsters represent a group of small hamsters in the genus Phdopus. ... Species Cricetus auratus Cricetus is a genus of Old World hamsters, differing from other hamsters in its ability to ingest tough Grasses. ... Binomial name Cricetulus triton (De Winton, 1899) The Ratlike Hamster or greater long-tailed hamster (Cricetulus triton) is a major crop-eating rodent that resides in Northern China. ... Allocricetulus is a genus of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Cansumys is a genus of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Binomial name Tscherskia triton (De Winton, 1899) The Greater Long-tailed Hamster (Tscherskia triton) is a major crop-eating rodent that resides in Northern China. ...

Hamsters are rodents belonging to the subfamily Cricetinae. The subfamily contains about 18 species, classified in six or seven genera. Because they are easy to breed in captivity, hamsters are often used as lab animals and kept as pets in more economically developed countries. Recently hamsters have become established as popular small family pets. Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ... ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal testing (disambiguation). ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ...


Hamsters are crepuscular. In the wild, they burrow underground in the daylight to avoid being caught by predators. They are most active around dusk and dawn, which has led many people to mistake them for being nocturnal. In the wild they will eat any wheat, nuts and small bits of fruit and vegetables that they might find lying around on the ground, occasionally eating small insects such as small crickets or mealworms. The name hamster is derived from the German word hamstern which means to hoard. They have elongated fur-lined pouches on both sides of their heads which extend to their shoulders, which they stuff full of food to be brought back to the colony or to be eaten later. Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ...


Their diet contains a variety of foods both in the wild and when kept as a pets including dried food, berries and nuts, hard boiled or scrambled eggs, chicken and turkey. Fresh fruits and vegetables are also an integral part of their diet. Behavior can vary depending on their environment, genetics, and interaction with people.[1] This article is about animals kept for companionship. ...

Contents

Characteristics

Hamsters are stout-bodied, with tails much shorter than body length and have small furry ears, short stocky legs, and wide feet. Their thick fur, which can be long or short, can be black, grey, white, brown, buff, yellow, "sapphire" or red depending on the species, or a mix of any of those colors. Underparts vary in color from white to shades of gray and black. The Djhungarian hamster (Phodopus campbelli) and the striped dwarf hamster (Cricetulus barabensis) have a dark stripe down the middle of the back. Dwarf desert hamsters (genus Phodopus) are the smallest, with bodies 5 to 10 cm (about 2 to 4 inches) long; the largest is the Common hamster (Cricetus cricetus), measuring up to 34 cm long, not including a short tail of up to 4 cm. The tail is often difficult to see; usually it is not very long, and on a long haired hamster it is barely visible. Binomial name Phodopus campbelli Campbells dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli)(phos/phodos (Gr), a burn, a blister – pous (Gr) the foot; the tubercles on the soles of the feet form a blister-like mass) is a species of dwarf hamsters living in Siberia and Dzungaria. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1773) The Chinese Striped Hamster (Cricetulus barabensis), also known as the Striped Dwarf Hamster, is a species of hamster. ... Species Phodopus campbelli Phodopus roborovski Phodopus sungorus The dwarf hamsters represent a group of small hamsters in the genus Phdopus. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The European Hamster, Cricetus cricetus, also known as the Black-bellied Hamster, is a species of hamster native to Europe. ...


Habitat

Hamsters' northern range extends from central Europe through Siberia, Mongolia, and northern China to Korea. The southern portion of their range stretches from Syria to India. Throughout dry, open country they inhabit desert borders, vegetated sand dunes, shrubby and rocky foothills and plateaus, river valleys, and mountain steppes; some live among cultivated crops. Geographic distribution varies greatly between species. The common hamster, for example, is found from central Europe to western Siberia and northwestern China, but the golden hamster has been found only near a small town in northwestern Syria.[2] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about arid terrain. ...


Diet

Hamsters are omnivorous. Their diet consists mostly of grains (such as whole grain oats and corn) but also includes fresh fruit, roots such as carrots, green parts of plants. Hamsters carry food in their spacious cheek pouches to cache in the burrow. Hamsters in the Middle East have been known to hunt in packs to find insects for food.[2]


Pet stores sell a variety of treats that are suitable for hamsters. However, it is important not to give a hamster too many of these, especially ones that are high in fat or sugar, because they may lead to the hamster getting diabetes. It is always best to give hamsters (especially pet hamsters) fresh vegetables over fresh fruit, as fruit is also high in sugar. If you give hamsters fruit it is always best to do so as a treat and in extremely small amounts.


Most people try to feed their hamster a lot of things from everyday food in their kitchen. Although the previously mentioned items are safe for hamsters to eat, not every hamster will enjoy the taste of all of those foods. It is also important to thoroughly wash fruits, vegetables and greens before feeding, as they can have traces of pesticides. Some foods to avoid giving hamsters are kidney beans, onion, garlic, large amounts of citrus fruit, and potato sprouts. Some hamsters also shouldn't eat iceberg lettuce, as it causes diarrhea. Dark leafy greens are preferred, such as kale and spinach. Celery, green beans, carrots on occasion are great also. They don't require a huge diet.


Behavior

Syrian hamsters are generally solitary and will fight to the death if put together, whereas Dwarf hamsters can get along with others of the same species. They are primarily considered crepuscular and at one point were considered nocturnal as they are sometimes active all night. They are excellent diggers, constructing burrows with one or more entrances and with galleries that are connected to chambers for nesting, food storage, and other activities. They also like appropriate tunnels made by other mammals; the striped hairy-footed hamster (Phodopus sungorus), for instance, uses paths and burrows of the pika. None hibernate during winter, but some (mostly Syrian hamsters) experience periods of torpor lasting from a few days to several weeks. This probably means that conditions are too cold for them. Hamsters are known to stockpile large amounts of food, because of natural instinct from the wild. Because of this behavior it is alright if you leave a hamster alone for a few days if you need to go somewhere. Once you tame a Syrian hamster, they remain so for a very long time. However, once you tame a dwarf hamster, you must keep playing with it. If left alone for a maximum two weeks, it will become untame again.[2] Adult Firefly or Lightning Bug – a Crepuscular Beetle Photuris lucicrescens Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during the twilight. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1773) Subspecies Phodopus sungorus sungorus (see text) Winter White Russian hamsters are a species of Hamster in the genus Phodopus. ... Type Species Ochotona minor Link, 1795 (= Lepus dauuricus Pallas, 1776) Species See text The name pika (archaically spelled pica) is used for any member of the Ochotonidae, a family within the order of lagomorphs, which also includes the Leporidae (rabbits and hares). ... This article refers to the process of hibernation in biology. ... Torpor is a (usually short-term) state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually characterized by a reduced body temperature and rate of metabolism. ...


Reproduction

Hamsters become fertile at different ages dependent on their species, but this can be from one month to three months of age. Male hamsters remain fertile for the rest of their lives, though females do not. Females are in heat approximately every four days.


Breeding season is from April to October, with two to five litters of 1 to 13 young being born after a gestation period of 16 to 22 days.[2] Gestation lasts 16 to 18 days for Syrian hamsters, 18 to 21 days for the Russian hamsters, 21 to 23 days for Chinese hamsters and 23 to 30 for Roborovski Hamsters. The average litter for Syrians is about 7, but can be as great as 24, which is the maximum number of pups that can be contained in the uterus. Campbell's Dwarf Hamsters tend to have 4 to 8 in a litter but can have up to 14. Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamsters tend to have slightly smaller litters, as do Chinese and Roborovski hamsters. Binomial name Waterhouse, 1839 The Syrian Hamster or Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is the best known member of the rodent subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters. ... Binomial name Milne-Edwards, 1867 The Chinese Hamster is a species of hamster, scientific names Cricetulus griseus, which originates in the deserts of northern China and Mongolia. ... Binomial name (Satunin, 1903) Roborovskis (Phodopus roborovskii) are the smallest and fastest of all hamsters which are commonly kept as pets. ... Binomial name (Thomas, 1905) Campbells Russian dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) is a species of dwarf hamster. ... Binomial name (Pallas, 1773) Subspecies Phodopus sungorus sungorus (see text) Winter White Russian hamsters are a species of Hamster in the genus Phodopus. ...


Hamsters are born hairless and blind in a nest which the mother will have prepared in advance. She uses shredded material such as leaves in the wild but prefers cotton or toilet paper in captivity. After one week they begin to explore outside the nest. They are completely weaned after three weeks, or four for Roborovski Hamsters. Most breeders will sell the hamsters to shops when the hamsters are anywhere from two to eight months old.


Classification

Taxonomists currently disagree about the most appropriate placement of the subfamily Cricetinae within the superfamily Muroidea. Some place it in a family Cricetidae that also includes voles, lemmings, and New World rats and mice; others group all these into a large family called Muridae. Their evolutionary history is recorded by 15 extinct fossil genera and extends back 11.2 million to 16.4 million years to the Middle Miocene Epoch in Europe and North Africa; in Asia it extends 6 million to 11 million years. Four of the seven living genera include extinct species. One extinct hamster of Cricetus, for example, lived in North Africa during the Middle Miocene, but the only extant member of that genus is the common hamster of Eurasia. Genera see text This article is about the animal. ... Families see text Muroidea is a large superfamily of rodents. ... Subfamilies Arvicolinae Cricetinae Neotominae Sigmodontinae Tylomyinae Valid name: Muridae Illiger, 1815 [1] Cricetidae is a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. ... For other uses, see Vole (disambiguation). ... This article is about the rodent. ... Subfamilies Neotominae Sigmodontinae Tylomyinae The New World rats and mice are a group of related rodents found in North and South America. ... Subfamilies Deomyinae Gerbillinae Lophiomyinae Leimacomyinae Murinae Muridae is the largest family of mammals. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Species Cricetus auratus Cricetus is a genus of Old World hamsters, differing from other hamsters in its ability to ingest tough Grasses. ...

  • Subfamily Cricetinae
    • Genus Allocricetulus
      • Species A. curtatus - Mongolian Hamster
      • Species A. eversmanni - Kazakh Hamster, also called Eversmann's Hamster
    • Genus Cansumys
      • Species C. canus - Gansu Hamster
    • Genus Cricetulus
      • Species C. alticola - Ladak Hamster
      • Species C. barabensis, including "C. pseudogriseus" and "C. obscurus" - Chinese Striped Hamster, also called Chinese Hamster; Striped Dwarf Hamster
      • Species C. griseus - Chinese Hamster
      • Species C. kamensis - Tibetan Hamster
      • Species C. longicaudatus - Long-tailed Hamster
      • Species C. migratorius - Armenian Hamster, also called Migratory Grey Hamster; Grey Hamster; Grey Dwarf Hamster; Migratory Hamster
      • Species C. sokolovi - Sokolov's Hamster
    • Genus Cricetus
      • Species C. cricetus - European Hamster, also called Common Hamster or Black-Bellied Field Hamster
    • Genus Mesocricetus - Golden Hamsters
      • Species M. auratus - Syrian Hamster, also called the Golden Hamster or "Teddy Bear" hamster
      • Species M. brandti - Turkish hamster, also called Brandt's Hamster; Azerbaijani Hamster
      • Species M. newtoni - Romanian Hamster
      • Species M. raddei - Ciscaucasian Hamster
    • Genus Phodopus - Dwarf Hamsters
      • Species P. campbelli - Campbell's Russian Dwarf Hamster
      • Species P. roborovskii - Roborovski Hamster, the smallest and fastest of the hamster species
      • Species P. sungorus - Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamster
    • Genus Tscherskia
      • Species T. triton - Greater Long-tailed Hamster, also called Korean Hamster

Allocricetulus is a genus of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Binomial name (G. M. Allen, 1925) The Mongolian Hamster (Allocricetulus curtatus) is a species of rodent in the Cricetidae family. ... Binomial name (Brandt, 1859) Eversmanns Hamster (Allocricetulus eversmanni) is a species of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Cansumys is a genus of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Binomial name Allen, 1928 The Gansu Hamster (Cansumys canus) is a species of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Binomial name Cricetulus triton (De Winton, 1899) The Ratlike Hamster or greater long-tailed hamster (Cricetulus triton) is a major crop-eating rodent that resides in Northern China. ... Binomial name Thomas, 1917 The Tibetan Dwarf Hamster (Cricetulus alticola) is a species of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Binomial name Cricetulus griseus The Chinese Hamster is a species of hamster, scientific name Cricetulus griseus, which originate in the deserts of Southern China and Mongolia. ... Binomial name Milne-Edwards, 1867 The Chinese Hamster is a species of hamster, scientific names Cricetulus griseus, which originates in the deserts of northern China and Mongolia. ... Binomial name Satunin1903 The Kam Dwarf Hamster (Cricetulus kamensis) is a species of rodent in the Muridae family. ... ... Binomial name Pallas, 1773 The Gray Dwarf Hamster or Grey Hamster (Cricetulus migratorius) is a species of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Species Cricetus auratus Cricetus is a genus of Old World hamsters, differing from other hamsters in its ability to ingest tough Grasses. ... Binomial name Cricetus cricetus Linnaeus, 1758 The European Hamster, Cricetus cricetus, also known as the Black-bellied Hamster, is a species of hamster native to Europe. ... Species Mesocricetus auratus Mesocricetus brandti Mesocricetus newtoni Mesocricetus raddei Mesocricetus is a genus of Old World hamsters. ... Binomial name Waterhouse, 1839 The Syrian Hamster or Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is the best known member of the rodent subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters. ... Binomial name Mesocricetus brandti (Nehring, 1898) The Turkish hamster Mesocricetus brandti is a species of hamster closely related to the golden hamster. ... Johann Friedrich von Brandt (May 25, 1802 - July 15, 1879) was a German naturalist. ... Binomial name (Nehring, 1898) The Romanian Hamster (Mesocricetus newtoni) is a species of rodent in the Muridae family. ... Binomial name (Nehring, 1894) The Ciscaucasian Hamster (Mesocricetus raddei) is a species of rodent in the Cricetidae family. ... Species Phodopus campbelli Phodopus roborovski Phodopus sungorus The dwarf hamsters represent a group of small hamsters in the genus Phdopus. ... Binomial name Phodopus campbelli The Dwarf Campbells Russian Hamster is commonly called the Russian, Siberian, or Djungarian (Dzungarian) hamster, also often known simply as the Pouched Tuvan, since the species was originally encountered in that country. ... Binomial name (Satunin, 1903) Roborovskis (Phodopus roborovskii) are the smallest and fastest of all hamsters which are commonly kept as pets. ... Binomial name Phodopus sungorus Phodopus sungorus sungorus (see text) Winter White Russian hamsters are a species of hamster in the genus Phodopus. ... Binomial name Tscherskia triton (De Winton, 1899) The Greater Long-tailed Hamster (Tscherskia triton) is a major crop-eating rodent that resides in Northern China. ... Binomial name Tscherskia triton (De Winton, 1899) The Greater Long-tailed Hamster (Tscherskia triton) is a major crop-eating rodent that resides in Northern China. ...

Pet ownership

A Russian dwarf hamster
A Roborovski Dwarf Hamster
A Sable short-haired Syrian Hamster
A brown and white Syrian Hamster grooming itself after a dust bath. Hamsters can not be given water baths, it can stress them out and cause wet tail, and it also increases the risk of them catching pneumonia.

The best-known species of hamster is the Syrian or Golden Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), which is the type of hamster most commonly kept as a pet. It is also sometimes called a "fancy" hamster. Pet stores also have taken to calling them "honey bears," "panda bears," "black bears," "European black bears," "polar bears," "teddy bears," and "Dalmatian", depending on their coloration. There are also several variations, including long-haired varieties that grow hair several centimeters long and often require special care. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1103 KB)This file was originally on Wikipedia as http://en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2576x1932, 1103 KB)This file was originally on Wikipedia as http://en. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Binomial name Waterhouse, 1839 The Syrian Hamster or Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is the best known member of the rodent subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters. ... This article is about animals kept for companionship. ...


Other hamsters that are kept as pets are the four species of "dwarf hamster". Campbell's Dwarf Hamster (Phodopus campbelli) is the most common of the four — they are also sometimes called "Russian Dwarfs"; however, many hamsters are from Russia, and so this ambiguous name does not distinguish them from other species appropriately. The coat of the Winter White Russian Dwarf Hamster (Phodopus sungorus) turns white during winter (when the hours of daylight decrease). The Roborovski Hamster (Phodopus roborovskii) is extremely small and fast. The Chinese Hamster (Cricetulus griseus), although not technically a true "dwarf hamster", is the only hamster with a prehensile tail (about 4cm long) - most hamsters have very short, non-prehensile tails. Species Phodopus campbelli Phodopus roborovskii Phodopus sungorus The dwarf hamsters represent a group of small hamsters in the genus Phodopus. ... Binomial name (Thomas, 1905) Campbells Russian dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) is a species of dwarf hamster. ... Binomial name Phodopus campbelli Campbells dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli)(phos/phodos (Gr), a burn, a blister – pous (Gr) the foot; the tubercles on the soles of the feet form a blister-like mass) is a species of dwarf hamsters living in Siberia and Dzungaria. ... Binomial name Phodopus sungorus Phodopus sungorus sungorus (see text) Winter White Russian hamsters are a species of hamster in the genus Phodopus. ... Binomial name (Satunin, 1903) Roborovskis (Phodopus roborovskii) are the smallest and fastest of all hamsters which are commonly kept as pets. ... Binomial name Milne-Edwards, 1867 The Chinese Hamster is a species of hamster, scientific names Cricetulus griseus, which originates in the deserts of northern China and Mongolia. ... Prehensility is the quality of an organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. ...


Many breeders also show their hamsters and so breed towards producing a good healthy show hamster with a view to keeping one or two themselves so quality and temperament are of vital importance when planning the breeding. Although breeders of show hamsters specialise in breeding show hamsters, there are also owners who have bred their pet hamsters. These may be the result of a planned or unplanned pregnancy but the hamsters have usually been cared for well and handled regularly, so make very suitable pets. Buying a hamster directly from a breeder means that there is the opportunity to see the parents and know the dates of birth. This article is about animals kept for companionship. ...


In Australia it is illegal to keep hamsters as pets as 'escapees' could breed in the wild and become 'feral' pest animals.


Housing

Hamsters can be kept both in cages and in vivaria, both of which are available in pet stores. Cages are easier to carry; their bars can be used for climbing. On the other hand, glass boxes keep hamsters from throwing litter out of their cages, provide a better view into the hamster's home, and create a quieter and more sheltered interior. Two glass terrariums with plants. ...


Despite the hamster’s small size, appropriate housing should always have a floor space of at least two square feet and a strong top because hamsters are surprisingly good climbers. Glass boxes must not be higher than their width to allow for a sufficient air circulation. Although smaller in size, dwarf hamsters often need more spacious housing than their larger relatives, at least 80cm by 40cm (2 feet by 4 feet) due to their high activity levels.


In the case of self-built dwellings, care should be taken to avoid materials that are dangerous to the animals. Plywood and wood from conifers is not suitable, because hamsters gnaw at their houses and both glue and resin are poisonous to them. Using standard water-soluble white wood glue to join pieces of solid wood, such as birch or beech wood, creates a safe environment for the hamster, although it may still chew through the wood. A purchased cage can be equipped with several intermediate levels, connected using stairs. Towers of Hanoi constructed from plywood. ... Orders & Families Cordaitales † Pinales   Pinaceae - Pine family   Araucariaceae - Araucaria family   Podocarpaceae - Yellow-wood family   Sciadopityaceae - Umbrella-pine family   Cupressaceae - Cypress family   Cephalotaxaceae - Plum-yew family   Taxaceae - Yew family Vojnovskyales † Voltziales † The conifers, division Pinophyta, are one of 13 or 14 division level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae. ... For the band, see Adhesive (band). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Many species; see text and classification Birch is the name of any tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae. ... For other uses, see Beech (disambiguation). ...


Hamsters do best in a well-lit room of constant, moderate temperature (18 to 26°C, 64 to 80°F), in a place out of strong sunlight that could cause dangerous overheating. Dwarf hamsters like it a bit cooler. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


The floor of a hamster's residence is generally covered with a layer of litter. Litter made from recycled paper or wood lacking aromatic oils (such as aspen) is healthiest - gnawing and eating cat litter can be deadly, and cedar, pine, or other softwood-based litters may contain phenols that can irritate a hamster's respiratory system, liver, and skin. There is also commercial bedding available, such as Carefresh and Megazorb. For other uses, see Aspen (disambiguation). ... In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-O H) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ...

Exercise and entertainment

A hamster in a solid hamster wheel

Like all pets, hamsters need exercise and entertainment to maintain their physical and mental health. "Exercise wheels" allow hamsters to run full speed, and are a common fixture in pet hamsters' enclosures. Avoid using wheels with individual rungs or bars but rather select those with a solid base for comfortable running. This is because a hamster may trip and its legs may get caught on the rungs of the wheel while using it. It is also important that the wheel is big enough for the full adult size of the hamster, so a Syrian would require a wheel at least 8 inches in diameter. Olive oil (which is harmless to a hamster if ingested) can be used to lubricate the axle of the exercise wheel to reduce friction and cut down on turning noises when in use, vegetable oil can also be used in the same manner. Other common objects are plastic balls or cars that the hamster can be placed in so that they can be supervised while exploring outside their cage. Lack of exercises for a hamster may cause it to suffer from paralysis, and the affected hamster will have a hunched over posture.[3] Photo of a hamster wheel The related term squirrel cage may refer to: a squirrel cage rotor a squirrel cage fan or blower Hamster wheels are toys introduced into the habitats of usually rodent pets. ...


Hamsters are nest builders, so most owners supply strips of tissue or toilet paper so they may build a secure spot in a corner or in their "house". Avoid using newspapers as the ink on it might be ingested when the hamster chews on them. Also avoid bleached-white toilet paper. Hay is also a valuable building material for cozy hamster nests, but may pose the risk of having pesticides on it or sharp pieces that could cut or scratch the hamster. Therefore, select dry hay such as Timothy and use the softer, leafy parts of the hay rather than the stems. Sawdust made from pine, and cedar wood shavings are not suitable for nesting material as stated earlier. It is not advisable to use lint, as the hamster may consume it and the lint will block their intestinal passage. Fine chinchilla sand (not chinchilla dust because the powdery material will cause respiratory problems) can be given in an enclosed container. Hamsters enjoy rolling in the sand to keep their fur clean and dry. For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ...


Hamsters, like many rodents, are also gnawers, and must be supplied with appropriate materials for doing so; for example, an edible gnaw toy or an unpainted wooden block can be placed in the cage. Failure to do so can cause dental problems for the hamster, as the incisors, which grow continually, will become too long and cause discomfort and/or eating problems.


Food

A Syrian hamster eating specially-designed hamster food.

Many hamsters tend to carry food from the source (by carrying it in their cheek pouches) and hoard it away in a cache hidden somewhere inside their container. Fresh vegetables and fruits, seeds, and insects like grasshoppers make up an important part of hamsters' natural diet. However, not all foods are suitable for hamsters and some, such as sweets made for humans or poisonous plants like the leaves of the tomato or rhubarb, are dangerous for hamsters. Citrus fruits such as oranges and lemons should never be fed to a hamster because their stomachs can not handle the acid. Iceburg lettuce has very little nutritional value and in excess can cause liver problems. Campbell's Dwarf Hamsters are susceptible to hereditary diabetes, and any hamster suffering from diabetes should not have high sugar foods, such as fruit and corn. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 687 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 687 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... For other uses, see Grasshopper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Rhubarb (disambiguation) Species About 60, including: R. nobile R. palmatum Rhubarb is a perennial plant that grows from thick short rhizomes, comprising the genus Rheum. ... Binomial name (Thomas, 1905) Campbells Russian dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) is a species of dwarf hamster. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


In detail, the solid food components can be divided into three categories: dry, fresh, and animal food. Dry food generally makes up the bulk of a hamster's diet. Besides the standard rodent food sold in pet stores, most other kinds of seeds, kernels, and nuts can be given. Bird food like millet is a noteworthy alternative for small hamsters. A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ...


Sex and longevity

A female "Teddy Bear" Hamster with her two pups, who are less than one week old.

Syrian hamsters typically live no more than two to three years in captivity, less than that in the wild. Russian Hamsters (Campbell's and Winter White) live approximately 1.5 to 2 years in captivity, and Chinese Hamsters 2.5 to 3 years. The smaller Roborovski Hamster often lives to 3 to 3.5 years in captivity. Both Syrian and Russian hamsters mature quickly and can begin reproducing at a young age (4–5 weeks), whereas Chinese hamsters will usually begin reproducing at 2–3 months of age, and Roborovskis at 3–4 months of age. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixels Full resolution (1362 × 731 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo I took myself. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 429 pixels Full resolution (1362 × 731 pixel, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This is a photo I took myself. ... Binomial name Waterhouse, 1839 The Syrian Hamster or Golden Hamster, Mesocricetus auratus, is the best known member of the rodent subfamily Cricetinae, the hamsters. ... Binomial name (Satunin, 1903) Roborovskis (Phodopus roborovskii) are the smallest and fastest of all hamsters which are commonly kept as pets. ...

A male "Teddy Bear" Hamster

Left to their own devices, hamsters will produce several litters a year with several pups in each litter. Male and female hamsters are therefore usually kept in separate enclosures to prevent the addition of unwanted offspring. When seen from above, a sexually mature female hamster has a trim tail line; a male's tail line bulges on both sides. Male hamsters typically have very large testes in relation to their body size. Before sexual maturity occurs at about 4–6 weeks, it is more difficult to determine a young hamster's sex. When examined, female hamsters have two holes close together, whereas males have anal and genital openings further apart than the female's. (The penis is usually withdrawn into the coat and thus appears as a hole or pink pimple.) Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ... Human male anatomy The testicles, known medically as testes (singular testis), are the male generative glands in animals. ...


Health conditions

Main article: Hamster health conditions

Hamster health conditions can include anything from dental problems due to the continuous growth of the teeth to tumors, which can cause cancer. ...

Relationships among hamsters

Neumann et al. (2006) conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis of 12 of the above 17 species of hamster using DNA sequence from three genes: 12S rRNA, cytochrome b, and von Willebrand factor. They uncovered the following relationships: Molecular phylogeny is the use of the structure of molecules to gain information on an organisms evolutionary relationships. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... CoQ Cytochrome c reductase The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain (PDB 1KYO, EC 1. ... Von Willebrand factor is a blood glycoprotein of the coagulation system. ...

Phodopus group

The genus Phodopus was found to represent the earliest split among hamsters. Their analysis included both species. The results of another study (Lebedev et al., 2003) may suggest that Cricetulus kamensis (and presumably the related C. alticola) might belong to either this Phodopus group or hold a similar basal position.

Mesocricetus group

The genus Mesocricetus also form a clade. Their analysis included all four species, with M. auratus and M. raddei forming one subclade and M. brandti and M. newtoni another. A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ...

Remaining genera

The remaining genera of hamsters formed a third major clade. Two of the three sampled species within Cricetulus represent the earliest split. This clade contains Cricetulus barabensis (and presumably the related C. sokolovi) and Cricetulus longicaudatus.

Miscellaneous

The remaining clade contains members of Allocricetulus, Tscherskia, Cricetus, and Cricetulus migratorius. Allocricetulus and Cricetus were sister taxa. Cricetulus migratorius was their next closest relative, and Tscherskia was basal. This cladogram shows the relationship among various insect groups. ...


Similar animals

Note that there are some rodents which are sometimes called "hamsters" that are not currently classified in the hamster subfamily Cricetinae. These include the Maned Hamster or Crested Hamster, which is really the Maned Rat (Lophiomys imhausi), although not nearly as marketable under that name. Others are the mouse-like hamsters (Calomyscus spp.), and the white-tailed rat (Mystromys albicaudatus). The maned rat (Lophiomys imhausi, also called crested rat) is a long-haired and bushy-tailed East African rodent that resembles a porcupine. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Mystromys albicaudatus (Smith, 1834) The White-tailed Rat, Mystromys albicaudatus, also known as the white-tailed mouse, is the only member of the subfamily Mystromyinae in the family Nesomyidae. ...


See also

Wikinews has related news:
Vietnam bans pet hamsters

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Basil the Rat is the sixth and final episode of the second series of the BBC sitcom Fawlty Towers and the final episode of the programme as a whole. ... Tales of the Riverbank, sometimes mistakenly called Hammy Hamster, is a Canadian childrens television show starring Hammy Hamster and other animals. ... Screen capture of original Hampster Dance showing one frame of animated GIFs described in article. ... Hamtaro , lit. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Hamster behavior website
  2. ^ a b c d "hamster." Encyclopædia Britannica. Standard Edition. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007.
  3. ^ Hamster Hideout - Hamster Care - Ailments

Resources

  • Lebedev, V. S., N. V. Ivanova, N. K. Pavlova, and A. B. Poltoraus. 2003. Molecular phylogeny of the Palearctic hamsters. In Proceedings of the International Conference Devoted to the 90th Anniversary of Prof. I. M. Gromov on Systematics, Phylogeny and Paleontology of Small Mammals (A. Averianov and N. Abramson eds.). St. Petersburg.
  • Musser, G. G. and M. D. Carleton. 2005. Superfamily Muroidea. In Mammal Species of the World a Taxonomic and Geographic Reference (D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder eds.). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.
  • Neumann, K., J. Michaux, V. Lebedev, N. Yigit, E. Colak, N. Ivanova, A. Poltoraus, A. Surov, G. Markov, S. Maak, S. Neumann, R. Gattermann. 2006. Molecular phylogeny of the Cricetinae subfamily based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S rRNA genes and the nuclear vWF gene. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, in press; Available online 17 February 2006.

is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Cricetinae
Wikispecies has information related to:
Cricetinae
Look up hamster in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Hamsters as pets
  • National Hamster Council (UK)
  • New York Hamster House


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hamster - MSN Encarta (309 words)
Hamster, common name for any of several rodents characterized by large food-carrying cheek pouches, thick fur, and a short tail.
Hamsters live in many-chambered burrows 1 to 1.5 m (4 to 5 ft) below the surface of the ground in fields; they subsist mostly on cereal grains and may extensively damage crops.
The fur of some hamsters, notably the unusually colored, fl-bellied hamster, is used for the lining of coats, and the flesh is sometimes eaten.
Hamster (1668 words)
Hamsters, even those recently captured in the wild, are readily tamed, although they remain remarkably adept at chewing on and escaping from their cages.
Factors affecting hamster restraint are the loose skin, which must be gathered to immobilize the animal, the tendency to bit when startled, and the predisposition to sleep deeply and then awaken suddenly.
Adult hamsters are housed in temperatures between 18 degrees and 29 degrees C with a suggested level of 18 degrees to 26 degrees C (65 degrees to 79 degrees F).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m