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Encyclopedia > Hampstead Heath
Highgate model boating pond near Parliament Hill

Hampstead Heath (locally known as "the Heath") is London's largest ancient parkland, covering 3.2 km² (320 ha; 791 acres). This remarkable public space sits astride a sandy ridge, running from Hampstead to Highgate, which rests on a band of London clay.[1] The Heath is a rambling and hilly, embracing ponds, ancient woodland, a lido, playgrounds, training track and a former stately home at Kenwood House. In the south of Hampstead Heath lies Parliament Hill, the park's focal point and one of the highest points in London: the commanding view from its summit is protected by law. Image File history File links Hampsteadheath1. ... Image File history File links Hampsteadheath1. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... For other places with the same name, see Hampstead (disambiguation). ... This article is on the London suburb. ... The London Clay is a marine deposit which is well known for the fossils it contains. ... Kenwood House Kenwood House (also known as the Iveagh Bequest) is a former stately home in Hampstead Heath in London. ... Highgate model boating pond near Parliament Hill Hampstead Heath (locally known as the Heath) is Londons largest ancient parkland, covering 3. ...


The Heath has long been a popular place for Londoners to walk and take the air. Running along its eastern perimeter lies a chain of ponds - including three open-air public swimming pools - which were originally reservoirs for drinking water formed from the River Fleet; and the northern Kenwood area is a location of a Site of Special Scientific Interest, the smallest such site in London. Until February 2007, Kenwood House in the north of the park held lakeside concerts. The Heath is managed by the City of London Corporation, and lies mostly in the London Borough of Camden, with a small area in the London Borough of Barnet. The Ashokan Reservoir, located in Ulster County, New York, USA. It is one of 19 that supplies New York City with drinking water. ... Entrance to the Fleet River, Samuel Scott, c. ... A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom. ... Coat of arms of the City of London Corporation as shown on Blackfriars station. ... The London Borough of Camden is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. ... The London Borough of Barnet is a London borough in North London and forms part of Outer London. ...

Contents

History

The Heath enters the history books in 986 when Ethelred the Unready granted one of his servants five hides of land at "Hemstede". This same land is later recorded in the Domesday Book as held by the monastery of St. Peter’s at Westminster Abbey in 1086 and by then is known as the "Manor of Hampstead".[2] Westminster held the land until 1133 when control of part of the manor was released to one Richard de Balta; then, during Henry II's reign the whole of the manor was given over to the private hands of an Alexander de Barentyn, the king's butler. Manorial rights to the land remained in private hands until the 1940s when they lapsed under Sir Spencer Pocklington Maryon Wilson,[3] though the estate itself was passed on to Shane Gough, 5th Viscount Gough.[2] Ethelred II (c. ... A line drawing entitled Domesday Book from Andrew Williamss Historic Byways and Highways of Old England. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... For other uses, see Butler (disambiguation). ...


Over time, plots of land in the manor were sold off for building, particularly in the early 19th century, though the Heath remained mainly common land. The main part of the Heath was acquired for the people by the M.B.W.,[4] with Parliament Hill added in 1888 after it was purchased for the public for £300,000, Golders Hill in 1898 and Kenwood House with its grounds in 1928.[5] Commons redirects here. ... Kenwood House Kenwood House (also known as the Iveagh Bequest) is a former stately home in Hampstead Heath in London. ...


From 1808 to 1814 Hampstead Heath hosted a station in the shutter telegraph chain which connected the Admiralty in London to its naval ships in the port of Great Yarmouth. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Great Yarmouth, often known to locals simply as Yarmouth, is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ...


The Heath has been managed by the City of London Corporation since 1989,[6] having been previously managed by the GLC and then Camden Council. Coat of arms of the City of London Corporation as shown on Blackfriars station. ... The term GLC may refer to: Greater London Council Great Lakes Commission This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Geography

The Heath sits astride a sandy ridge resting on a band of London Clay running from east to west. As the sand was easily penetrated by rainwater which was then held by the clay, a landscape of swampy hollows, springs and man-made excavations was created.[1] The London Clay is a marine deposit which is well known for the fossils it contains. ...


Most of the Heath (approx 85%) lies in the borough of Camden, with the rest, the Extension, lying in Barnet. Highgate model boating pond near Parliament Hill Hampstead Heath (locally known as the Heath) is Londons largest ancient parkland, covering 3. ...


Public transport near the Heath include London Overground stations at Gospel Oak to the south, Hampstead Heath and London Underground stations at Hampstead and Belsize Park to the west, Golders Green to the north, and Highgate and Archway to the east. Bus routes serve many of the roads around the Heath. London Transport Portal London Overground[2] is a train operating company that provides railway services concentrated in north London. ... Gospel Oak railway station is a train station in North London in the borough of Camden. ... Hampstead Heath is a railway station in London on the Silverlink North London Line between Finchley Road & Frognal railway station and Gospel Oak railway station. ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ... Hampstead tube station is a London Underground station in Hampstead village in north London. ... , Belsize Park is a suburb of North London in the London Borough of Camden, located 3. ... Golders Green tube station is a station of the London Underground on the Northern Line. ... Highgate tube station is a London Underground station on Archway Road, Highgate, not far from Highgate Village in north London. ... Archway tube station is a London Underground station in north London, near Archway Tower at the intersection of Holloway Road and Junction Road. ...


The wildlife includes kingfishers, jackdaws and ring-necked parakeets. Pipistrelles and Daubenton's bats may be seen over the ponds.


Areas of the Heath

The Heath covers 800 acres (3.2 km²) and has a number of distinct areas. "Boudicca's Mound", near the present men's bathing pond, is a tumulus where, according to local legend, Queen Boudicca (Boadicea) was buried after she and 10,000 other British soldiers were defeated at Battle Bridge.[7] However, earlier drawings and paintings of the area show no mound other than a 17th Century windmill. Boudicca (BOW-dicca [as in bow-and-arrow], mispronnounced by many as [bÅ«-dÄ­kÉ™]; her name means Victorous [Modern Gaelic Buaidheach]) (also written Boudica, Boadicea, Buduica, Bonduca) (d. ...


In the south of the Heath, and on the southern slopes of Parliament Hill, is the Gospel Oak Lido open air swimming pool, with a running track and fitness area to its north. A Lido, in the United Kingdom and some other countries, refers to a public outdoor swimming pool and surrounding facilities, or part of a beach where people can swim, lie in the sun or participate in water sports. ...


Highgate and Hampstead Ponds

A pond on Hampstead Heath

There are over 25 ponds on Hampstead Heath, mostly collected into two distinct areas. On the east (Highgate) side is a series of eight former reservoirs originally dug in the 17th and 18th centuries.[8] These include two single-sex (the men's and ladies' bathing ponds) swimming pools, a model boating pond, a wildlife reserve pond and a fishing lake. A reservoir (French: réservoir) is an artificial lake created by flooding land behind a dam. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


On the other side of the Heath, towards South End Green in the south-west, are three further ponds, one of which is the 'mixed pond', where members of both sexes may swim. These ponds are the result of the damming in 1777 of Hampstead brook, one of the sources for the Fleet River, by the Hampstead Water Company who had been formed in 1692 to meet London's growing water demand.[1] The River Fleet is the largest of Londons subterranean rivers. ...


In 2004, the City of London Corporation, which operates the Heath, tried to close the ponds on the grounds that they were an unsustainable drain on their expenses and posed a health risk to swimmers. The swimmers challenged this and won a victory in the High Court. To defray costs, the Corporation introduced a charge for swimmers of £2 per session, £1 for concessions. There was some opposition to this and some of the ticket machines were vandalized.[9] Coat of arms of the City of London Corporation as shown on Blackfriars station. ... Her Majestys High Court of Justice (usually known more simply as the High Court) is, together with the Crown Court and the Court of Appeal, part of the Supreme Court of Judicature of England and Wales (which under the Constitutional Reform Act 2005, is to be known as the...


Parliament Hill Fields

Parliament Hill Fields lies in the south and east of the Heath; it became an official part of the Heath in 1888. It contains various sporting facilities including an athletics track and tennis courts.[10] Parliament Hill itself is considered to be the focal point of the Heath,[11] with the highest part of it known as "Kite Hill" due to its popularity with kite flyers.[12] The hill is around 321 feet (98 m) high and is notable for the excellent views it provides of the London skyline. It is possible to see the skyscrapers of Canary Wharf and the City of London, along with St Paul's Cathedral and other landmarks, all together in one view, some of which are protected views. The main staff yards for the management of the Heath are located at Parliament Hill Fields.[13] Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... Parliament Hill is an open area of land in north-west London adjacent to Hampstead Heath administered by the Corporation of London. ... Yokaichi Giant Kite Festival held on the fourth Sunday every May in Higashiomi, Shiga, Japan Kite flying is the activity of flying tethered man-made objects in wind. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ...


Kenwood

Main article: Kenwood House
Kenwood House false bridge

The area to the north of the Heath is the Kenwood estate and House - a total area of 0.5 km² (50 ha; 112 acres) which is maintained by English Heritage. This was joined to the Heath when it was donated to the nation by Lord Iveagh, on his death in 1927, and opened to the public in 1928. One third of the estate is a Site of Special Scientific Interest, particularly the ancient woodlands, designated by English Nature. These are home to many birds and insects and the largest Pipistrelle bat roost in London. Kenwood House Kenwood House (also known as the Iveagh Bequest) is a former stately home in Hampstead Heath in London. ... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... Edward Cecil Guinness, 1st Earl of Iveagh, KP, GCVO, FRS (November 10, 1847 - October 7, 1927) was an Irish philanthropist and businessman. ... A Site of Special Scientific Interest or SSSI is a conservation designation denoting a protected area in the United Kingdom. ... English Nature is the United Kingdom government agency that promotes the conservation of wildlife, geology and wild places throughout England. ... The genus Pipistrellus contains the bats referred to as Pipistrelles or Pipistrelle bats. ...


The original house dates from the early 17th century. The orangery was added in about 1700. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Orangery in Kuskovo, Moscow (1760s). ...


The popular summer lakeside concerts, which started in 1951, ceased in February 2007 after protests from local residents.[14] However, the return of the concerts was announced in March 2008 after English Heritage agreed a number of changes with Camden Council, notably with regards to noise levels.[15]


The Vale of Health

The Vale of Health is a small hamlet (named "Hatchett's Bottom" until 1801): accessed via a small lane off East Heath Road, it is surrounded entirely by the Heath. It is now one of the most expensive residential areas in the world. A hamlet is (usually — see below) a small settlement, too small or unimportant to be considered a village. ...


Extension

The Extension is an area which lies to the north-west. It does not share the history of common and heathland of the rest of the Heath. Instead it was created out of farmland, largely due to the efforts of Henrietta Barnett who went on to found Hampstead Garden Suburb. Its farmland origins can still be seen in the form of old field boundaries, hedgerows and trees. Dame Henrietta Barnett (1851 – 1936) was a notable English social reformer. ... , Hampstead Garden Suburb is an example of early 20th Century domestic architecture and town planning located in the London Borough of Barnet in North West London. ...


Golders Hill Park

Coordinates: 51°34′7″N, 0°11′28″W Golders Hill Park is a formal park adjoining the West Heath part of the Heath and is on the site formerly occupied by a large house which was bombed during World War II. Its main characteristic is an expanse of grass, but it also has a formal flower garden with a duck pond and a separate water garden, which leads onto a separate area for deer, near to a recently-renovated small zoo. The zoo has alpacas, maras, red-legged seriemas and white-naped cranes. There are also tennis courts and a putting green.[16] Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A flower garden is a form of garden usually grown for decorative purposes, centering primarily on the kinds of flowers produced by the plants involved. ... A duck pond is a pond for ducks and other water birds. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... This article is about a breed of domesticated ungulates. ... Species , Patagonian Mara , Chacoan Mara The maras (Dolichotis) are a genus of the cavy family. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the sport of golf. ...


Unlike the rest of the Heath, Golders Hill Park is closed at night.


Hampstead Heath Constabulary

The "Hampstead Heath Constabulary" is a group of 12 wardens with trained dogs who have been responsible for patrolling the park 24 hours a day since 1992.[17] NPS director Mary Bomar in her park ranger uniform A park ranger is a person charged with protecting and preserving protected parklands, forests (then called a forest ranger), wilderness areas, as well as other natural resources and protected cultural resources. ...


They are attested under Article 18 of the Ministry of Housing and Local Government Provisional Order Confirmation (Greater London Parks and Open Spaces) Act 1967 and Sec. 29 and Schedule 4 of the Police Act 1996. This authorises them to enforce the Hampstead Heath bylaws, but they do not have police powers.[18] Any significant incidents or crimes on the Heath are the responsibility of the Metropolitan Police, the regional police force for London. A bylaw (sometimes also spelled by-law or byelaw) was originally the Viking town law in the Danelaw. ... Metropolitan Police redirects here. ...


Activities

The Heath is home to a range of activities, including 16 different sports.[6] It is used by walkers, runners, swimmers and kite-flyers, and is regarded as the home of cross-country running in Britain.[6] There is an annual 5k run through the Heath organised by Umbrella,[19] and until February 2007 Kenwood held a series of popular lakeside concerts.


The West Heath is one of the most notable and safest night-time cruising grounds in London.[20] George Michael has revealed that he cruises on the Heath;[21] an activity he then parodied on the Extras Christmas Special.[22] Gay cruising describes the act of searching about a public place in pursuit of a partner for sex. ... For other persons named George Michael, see George Michael (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Extra (TV series). ...


Swimming takes place all year round on two of the three natural swimming ponds: the men's pond which opened in the 1890s, and the ladies’ pond which opened in 1925. The mixed pond is only open from May to September, though is the oldest, having been in use since the 1860s.[23]


Facilities include an athletics track, a pétanque pitch, a volleyball court and eight separate children's play areas including an adventure playground.[6] Action on the Pétanque field in Batignolles, in Provence Playing pétanque in the late afternoon at Aigues-Mortes Pétanque players in Cannes Men playing pétanque next to the Port St. ... Combination playground structure for small children; slides, climbers (stairs in this case), playhouse A playground is an area designed for children to play freely. ...


Culture

The feature film, Scenes of a Sexual Nature (2006), directed by Ed Blum, was shot entirely on Hampstead Heath. Scenes of a Sexual Nature is a 2006 movie directed by Ed Blum. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Hampstead Heath was featured on the television programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the wonders of the London area, with a focus on Parliament Hill to the south. The episode was presented by Bill Oddie, who lives in nearby Gospel Oak, and watches birds there regularly. Seven Natural Wonders is a television programme that aired on BBC Two from 3 May to 20 June 2005. ... William Edgar (Bill) Oddie, OBE (born 7 July 1941 in Rochdale, Lancashire), is a British comedy writer and performer, author, composer and musician. ... Birdwatching or birding is the observation and study of birds. ...


In 2005, Giancarlo Neri's sculpture The Writer, a 9-metre tall table and chair, was exhibited on Hampstead Heath. The Writer Giancarlo Neri is a sculptor born in Naples. ... Sculptor redirects here. ...


Whilst living in London Karl Marx and his family would take regular Sunday picnics on the Heath. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ...


John Atkinson Grimshaw, Victorian era painter, painted an elaborate night-time scene of Hampstead Hill in oils. Hampstead Heath also provided the backdrop for the opening scene in Victorian writer Wilkie Collins' novel The Woman in White. Nightfall on the Thames, 1880 John Atkinson Grimshaw (1836-1893) was a Victorian-era painter, born in Leeds, England. ... Image:Cg Charles Dickens is still one of the best known English writers of any era. ... Wilkie Collins William Wilkie Collins (8 January 1824 – 23 September 1889) was an English novelist, playwright, and writer of short stories. ... For other uses, see The Woman in White. ...


A post-apocalyptic Hampstead Heath is the site of the village of Ham in Will Self's The Book of Dave. Will Self William Self (born September 26, 1961) is an English novelist, reviewer and columnist. ... The Book of Dave is a 2006 book written by English novelist Will Self. ...


Gallery

Download high resolution version (2272x655, 126 KB)Panorama of London from Hampstead Heath. ...

Panorama of London from The Heath Looking south down Bishopsgate, one of the main roads leading through Londons financial district. ... Tower 42 from directly below Tower 42 viewed from street level. ... This article is about the cathedral church of the diocese of London. ... The London Eye, also known as the Millennium Wheel, is an observation wheel in London, England. ... BT Tower from the Euston Road, looking south. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Hampstead - Hampstead Heath | British History Online
  2. ^ a b Hampstead - Manor and Other Estates | British History Online
  3. ^ thePeerage.com - Person Page 7102
  4. ^ Thompson, Hampstead, 130, 165, 195, 317-18, 329- 30; G.L.R.O., E/MW/H, old no. 27/15 (sales parts. 1875).
  5. ^ The London Encyclopaedia, Ben Weinreb & Christopher Hibbert, 1983, ISBN 0-333-57688-8
  6. ^ a b c d Hampstead Heath
  7. ^ [1] London, Rob Humphreys, Rough Guides Ltd, 2004, ISBN: 978-1843533160
  8. ^ Hampstead Heath
  9. ^ London Pools Campaign: Save the Ponds Campaign
  10. ^ Camden Council: Contact Parliament Hill Fields
  11. ^ BBC - Seven Wonders - Parliament Hill
  12. ^ Hampstead Heath - Sightseeing, Areas & Squares
  13. ^ Hampstead Heath
  14. ^ End of an Era for Kenwood House Concerts
  15. ^ IMG and English Heritage announce stunning line up for Kenwood House Picnic Concerts
  16. ^ Camden Council: Contact Golders Hill Park
  17. ^ untitled
  18. ^ Hampstead heath constabulary? - PoliceSpecials.com Forum
  19. ^ Umbrella - Working For Positive Mental Health
  20. ^ Pink UK's Gay Cruising Areas
  21. ^ Personal Column: 'I go with gay strangers. We have our own code' - People, News - Independent.co.uk
  22. ^ Last night on television: Extras Christmas Special (BBC1) - Battleship Antarctica (Channel 4 - Telegraph
  23. ^ Greater London Authority - Press Release
  • London Pools Campaign advocacy website.
  • City of London Corporation Swimming facilities on Hampstead Heath
  • The London Encyclopaedia, Ben Weinreb and Christopher Hibbert, Macmillan.

The London Encyclopaedia, first published in 1983 and revised in 1993 and 1995, is a 1007 page reference work on Englands capital city, London, with some 5,000 articles supported by two indices - one general and one listing people, each of about 10,000 entries. ... Christopher Hibbert, MC, (born 1924) is an English writer and popular historian and biographer. ...

Bibliography

This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Table of natural history, 1728 Cyclopaedia Natural history is an umbrella term for what are now often viewed as several distinct scientific disciplines of integrative organismal biology. ... Categories: Ancient Rome | Classical oracles | Historical stubs ...

External links

  • Detailed guide to the ponds with photographs, by Andrew Selkirk, editor of Hampstead-based Current Archaeology magazine.
  • Map of the River Fleet with links to locations with photographs, including the ponds.
  • Hampstead Heath, City of London Corporation website
  • History of Hampstead Heath
  • The Heath & Hampstead Society
  • BBC website
  • Map (PDF)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hampstead Heath

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