FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hammer v. Dagenhart
Hammer v. Dagenhart

Supreme Court of the United States
Argued April 15 – 16, 1918
Decided June 3, 1918
Full case name: Hammer, United States Attorney for the Western District of North Carolina v. Dagenhart, et al.
Citations: 247 U.S. 251; 38 S. Ct. 529; 62 L. Ed. 1101; 1918 U.S. LEXIS 1907; 3 A.L.R. 649
Prior history: Appeal from the District Court of the United States for the Western District of North Carolina
Holding
Congress has no power under the Commerce Clause to regulate labor conditions.
Court membership
Chief Justice: Edward Douglass White
Associate Justices: Joseph McKenna, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., William R. Day, Charles Evans Hughes, Willis Van Devanter, Joseph Rucker Lamar, Mahlon Pitney, James Clark McReynolds
Case opinions
Majority by: Day
Joined by: White, Pitney, Van Devanter, McReynolds
Dissent by: Holmes
Joined by: McKenna, Brandeis, Clarke
Laws applied
Keating-Owen Act of 1916; Commerce Clause of the U.S. Const.
Overruled by
United States v. Darby Lumber Co., 312 U.S. 100 (1941)

Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251 (1918), was a United States Supreme Court decision involving the power of Congress to enact child labor laws. Image File history File links Seal_of_the_United_States_Supreme_Court. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ... Edward Douglass White (November 3, 1845 – May 19, 1921), American politician and jurist, was a United States Senator, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States and the ninth Chief Justice of the United States. ... Joseph McKenna (August 10, 1843–November 21, 1926) was an American politician who served in all three branches of the U.S. federal government, as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, as U.S. Attorney General and as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court. ... Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | Judges of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit | U.S. Secretaries of State | Spanish-American War people | American lawyers | 1849 births | 1923 deaths ... Charles Evans Hughes (April 11, 1862 – August 27, 1948) was Governor of New York, United States Secretary of State, Associate Justice and Chief Justice of the United States. ... Willis Van Devanter (April 17, 1859 - February 8, 1941), associate justice of the United States Supreme Court, January 3, 1911 to June 2, 1937. ... Joseph Rucker Lamar (October 15, 1857 – January 2, 1916) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court appointed by President William Howard Taft. ... Categories: People stubs | U.S. Supreme Court justices | New Jersey Supreme Court justices | New Jersey State Senators | Members of the U.S. House of Representatives | 1858 births | 1924 deaths ... Justice McReynolds, c. ... The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 was a statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address the perceived evils of child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods manufactured by children. ... Article I, Section 8, Clause 3 of the United States Constitution, known as the Commerce Clause, empowers the United States Congress To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes. ... The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States of America. ... Holding Fair Labor Standards Act was a constitutional exercise of Congressional power under the Commerce Clause. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... // Case citation is the system used in common law countries such as the United States, England and Wales, Canada, New Zealand, Australia and India to uniquely identify the location of past court cases in special series of books called reporters or law reports. ... Year 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (SCOTUS) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the judicial branch of the United States federal government. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate Dick Cheney, R, since January 20, 2001 Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert, R, since January 6, 1999 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of January 4, 2005 elections) Democratic Party Republican Party... Child labor (or child labour) is the employment of children under an age determined by law or custom. ...

Contents

Background

Unable to legislate hours and working conditions for child labor within individual states, Congress sought to regulate child labor by banning the product of that labor from interstate commerce. The Keating-Owen Act of 1916 prohibited interstate commerce of any merchandise that had been made by children under the age of fourteen, or merchandise that had been made in factories where children between the ages of 14 and 16 worked for more than eight hours a day, worked overnight, or worked more than six days a week. Roland Dagenhart, who worked in a cotton mill in Charlotte, North Carolina with his two sons, sued, arguing that this law was unconstitutional. Congress in Joint Session. ... The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 was a statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address the perceived evils of child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods manufactured by children. ... Nickname: The Queen City, Hornets Nest Location in Mecklenburg County in the state of North Carolina Coordinates: Country United States State North Carolina Counties Mecklenburg County, North Carolina Mayor Pat McCrory, (R) Area    - City 280. ... Official language(s) English Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Area  Ranked 28th  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (240 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (901 km)  - % water 9. ...


At issue: Does Congress have the right to regulate commerce of goods that are manufactured by children under the age 14, as specified in the Keating-Owen Act of 1916, and is it within the authority of Congress in regulating commerce among the states to prohibit the transportation in interstate commerce of manufactured goods by the child labor description above? The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 was a statute enacted by the U.S. Congress which sought to address the perceived evils of child labor by prohibiting the sale in interstate commerce of goods manufactured by children. ...


Supreme Court decision

Justice Day, with the Majority Opinion, said that Congress does not have the right to regulate commerce of goods that are manufactured by children, therefore voiding the Keating-Owen Act of 1916. Drawing a distinction between the manufacture of goods and potential "inherent evil" of goods themselves introduced into interstate commerce, the Court maintained that the issue was not a moral one, removing it from precedents set in previous cases where the Congress had sought to control lottery schemes, prostitution, and liquor. The Court reasoned that such instances were inherently 'evil' and thus open to Congressional scrutiny. In this case, however, the issue at hand was the manufacture of cotton, which does not entail a moral evil. The Court further argued that the manufacture of cotton did not in itself constitute interstate commerce. The Court recognized that disparate labor regulations placed the various states on unequal ground in terms of economic competitiveness, but it specifically stated that Congress could not address such inequality: "The commerce clause was not intended to give to Congress a general authority to equalize such conditions." FindLaw The Court held that the federal government was "one of enumerated powers" and could not go beyond the boundary drawn by the 10th Amendment. A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ...


Dissenting opinion

Justice Holmes dissented strongly from the logic and ruling of the majority. He maintained that Congress was completely within its right to regulate interstate commerce, and that goods manufactured in one state and sold in other states were by definition interstate commerce. This places the entire manufacturing process under the purview of Congress, and this constitutional power "could not be cut down or qualified by the fact that it might interfere with the carrying out of the domestic policy of any State." (Ibid) Holmes also took issue with the majority's logic in allowing Congress to regulate activities regarded as immoral, while at the same time disallowing the same in other cases: "The notion that prohibition is any less prohibition when applied to things now thought evil I do not understand...to say that it is permissible as against strong drink but not as against the product of ruined lives." (Ibid)


Later developments

The ruling of the Court was later overturned and repudiated in a series of decisions handed down in the late 1930s. Specifically, Hammer v. Dagenhart was overruled in 1941 in the case of United States v. Darby Lumber Co., 312 U.S. 100 (1941). The Court in the Darby case sided strongly with Holmes' dissent, which they named "classic". They also recast the reading of the 10th Amendment, regarding it as a "truism" that merely restates what the Constitution had already provided for, rather than offering a substantive protection to the States, as the Hammer ruling had contended. The 1930s (years from 1930-1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ... Holding Fair Labor Standards Act was a constitutional exercise of Congressional power under the Commerce Clause. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ...


External links

  • Full text of the decision courtesy of FindLaw
  • Full text of decision at Wikisource

See also


 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m