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Encyclopedia > Hamlet
The American actor Edwin Booth as Hamlet, c. 1870 (Photographer: unknown)

Hamlet is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601. The play, set in Denmark, recounts how Prince Hamlet exacts revenge on his uncle Claudius, who has murdered Hamlet's father, the King, and then taken the throne and married Hamlet's mother. The play vividly charts the course of real and feigned madness—from overwhelming grief to seething rage—and explores themes of treachery, revenge, incest, and moral corruption. Look up hamlet, Hamlet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Edwin Booth as Hamlet. ... Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Prince Hamlet is the main character in Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Prince Hamlet is the main character in Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... Claudius is a fictional character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet. ... King Hamlet is a character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet, also known as The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. ... In William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlets mother and Queen of Denmark. ...


Despite much literary detective work, the exact year of writing remains in dispute. Three different early versions of the play have survived: these are known as the First Quarto (Q1), the Second Quarto (Q2) and the First Folio (F1). Each has lines, and even scenes, that are missing from the others. Shakespeare probably based Hamlet on the legend of Amleth, preserved by 13th-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum and subsequently retold by 16th-century scholar François de Belleforest, and a supposedly lost Elizabethan play known today as the Ur-Hamlet. First quarto is a bibliographic term, usually encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... Second quarto is a bibliographic term, most often encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... Hamlet is a striking figure in Scandinavian romance and the hero of Shakespeares tragedy, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... François de Belleforest (born 1530, died 1583) was a French author and translator. ... Elizabethan redirects here. ... Ur-Hamlet was the name given by nineteenth century German scholars to a pre-Shakespearean Hamlet written before 1589. ...


Given the play's dramatic structure and depth of characterisation, Hamlet can be analyzed, interpreted and argued about from many perspectives. For example, commentators have puzzled for centuries about Hamlet's hesitation in killing his uncle. Some see it as a plot device to prolong the action, and others see it as the result of pressure exerted by the complex philosophical and ethical issues that surround cold-blooded murder, calculated revenge and thwarted desire. More recently, psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, and feminist critics have re-evaluated and rehabilitated the often-maligned characters of Ophelia and Gertrude. A plot device is an element introduced into a story to solely to advance or resolve the plot of the story. ... Psychoanalytic literary criticism is literary criticism which, in method, concept, theory or form, is influenced by the tradition of psychoanalysis begun by Sigmund Freud. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... John William Waterhouses painting Ophelia (1894) Ophelia is a fictional character in the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare. ... In William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlets mother and Queen of Denmark. ...


Hamlet is Shakespeare's longest play, and among the most powerful and influential tragedies in the English language. It provides a storyline capable of "seemingly endless retelling and adaptation by others".[1] During his lifetime the play was one of his most popular works,[2] and it still ranks high among his most-performed, topping, for example, the Royal Shakespeare Company's list since 1879.[3] It has inspired writers from Goethe and Dickens to Joyce and Murdoch, and has been described as "the world's most filmed story after Cinderella".[4] The title role was almost certainly created for Richard Burbage, the leading tragedian of Shakespeare's time;[5] in the four hundred years since, it has been played by the greatest actors, and sometimes actresses, of each successive age. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Dickens redirects here. ... This article is about the writer and poet. ... Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE (July 15, 1919 – February 8, 1999) was an Irish-born British writer and philosopher, best known for her novels, which combine rich characterization and compelling plotlines, usually involving ethical or sexual themes. ... For other uses, see Cinderella (disambiguation). ... Unknown artist: Portrait of Richard Burbage, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London Richard Burbage (July 7, 1568 – March 13, 1619) was an actor and theatre owner. ...

Contents

Synopsis

Horatio, Hamlet, and the Ghost (Artist: Henry Fuseli 1798)[6]

The protagonist of Hamlet is Prince Hamlet of Denmark, son of the recently deceased King Hamlet and the nephew of King Claudius, his father's brother and successor. After the death of King Hamlet, Claudius hastily marries King Hamlet's widow, Gertrude, Hamlet's mother. In the background is Denmark's long-standing feud with neighbouring Norway, and an invasion led by the Norwegian prince, Fortinbras, is expected. What follows is an overview of the main characters in William Shakespeares Hamlet, followed by a list and summary of the minor characters from the play. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Fuseli talking to Johann Jakob Bodmer, 1778-1781. ... Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Prince Hamlet is the main character in Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... King Hamlet is a character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet, also known as The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. ... Claudius is a fictional character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet. ... In William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlets mother and Queen of Denmark. ... Fortinbras is a minor fictional character from William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ...


The play opens on a cold night at Elsinore, the Danish royal castle. The sentinels try to persuade Hamlet's friend Horatio that they have seen King Hamlet's ghost, when it appears again. After hearing from Horatio of the Ghost's appearance, Hamlet resolves to see the Ghost himself. That night, the Ghost appears to Hamlet. He tells Hamlet that he is the spirit of his father, and discloses that Claudius murdered King Hamlet by pouring poison in his ears. The Ghost demands that Hamlet avenge him; Hamlet agrees and decides to fake madness to avert suspicion. He is, however, uncertain of the Ghost's reliability. Kronborg Castle is situated near the town of Elsinore (Danish Helsingør) on the extreme tip of Zealand at the narrowest point of the Oresund (Danish Øresund), the sound between Denmark and Sweden. ... What follows is an overview of the main characters in William Shakespeares Hamlet, followed by a list and summary of the minor characters from the play. ... Horatio is Hamlets friend from university in William Shakespeares play. ...


Busy with affairs of state, Claudius and Gertrude try to avert an invasion by Prince Fortinbras of Norway. Perturbed by Hamlet's continuing deep mourning for his father and his increasingly erratic behaviour, they send two student friends of his—Rosencrantz and Guildenstern—to discover the cause of Hamlet's changed behaviour. Hamlet greets his friends warmly, but quickly discerns that they have turned against him. Fortinbras is a minor fictional character from William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... A lithograph of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in the flute scene from Hamlet Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are minor fictional characters from William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ...


Polonius is Claudius' trusted chief counsellor; his son, Laertes, is returning to France, and his daughter, Ophelia, is courted by Hamlet. Neither Polonius nor Laertes thinks Hamlet is serious about Ophelia, and they both warn her off. Shortly afterwards, Ophelia is alarmed by Hamlet's strange behaviour and reports to her father that Hamlet rushed into her room but stared at her and said nothing. Polonius assumes that the "ecstasy of love"[7] is responsible for Hamlet's madness, and he informs Claudius and Gertrude. Later, in the so-called Nunnery Scene, Hamlet rants at Ophelia, and insists she go "to a nunnery." Polonius is a character from William Shakespeares Hamlet. ... Laertes and Ophelia Laertes is a character from William Shakespeares play, Hamlet. ... John William Waterhouses painting Ophelia (1894) Ophelia is a fictional character in the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare. ... Bold textTHIS IS THE PAGE THAT A.S. REALLY NEEDS!! THIS IS NOW MARKED!!! ] ps i like A.O. This article is about an abbey as a Christian monastic community. ...

The "gravedigger scene"[8] (Artist: Eugène Delacroix 1839)

Hamlet remains unconvinced that the Ghost has told him the truth, but the arrival of a troupe of actors at Elsinore presents him with a solution. He will stage a play, re-enacting his father's murder, and determine Claudius' guilt or innocence by studying his reaction. The court assembles to watch the play; Hamlet provides a running commentary throughout. During the play, Claudius abruptly rises and leaves the room, which Hamlet sees as proof of his uncle's guilt. Claudius, fearing for his life, banishes Hamlet to England on a pretext, closely watched by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, with a letter instructing that the bearer be killed. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2523, 574 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hamlet ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2523, 574 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hamlet ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ...


Gertrude summons Hamlet to her closet to demand an explanation. On his way, Hamlet passes Claudius in prayer but hesitates to kill him, reasoning that death in prayer would send him to heaven. In the bedchamber, a row erupts between Hamlet and Gertrude. Polonius, spying hidden behind an arras, makes a noise; and Hamlet, believing it is Claudius, stabs wildly, killing Polonius. The Ghost appears, urging Hamlet to treat Gertrude gently but reminding him to kill Claudius. Unable to see or hear the Ghost herself, Gertrude takes Hamlet's conversation with it as further evidence of madness. Hamlet hides Polonius' corpse.


Demented by grief at Polonius' death, Ophelia wanders Elsinore singing bawdy songs. Her brother, Laertes, arrives back from France, enraged by his father's death and his sister's madness. Claudius convinces Laertes that Hamlet is solely responsible; then news arrives that Hamlet is still at large. Claudius swiftly concocts a plot. He proposes a fencing match between Laertes and Hamlet in which Laertes will fight with a poison-tipped sword, but tacitly plans to offer Hamlet poisoned wine if that fails. Gertrude interrupts to report that Ophelia has drowned. Ribaldry is a third, and somewhat neglected, genre of sexual entertainment. ...


Two gravediggers discuss Ophelia's apparent suicide, while digging her grave. Hamlet arrives with Horatio and banters with a gravedigger, who unearths the skull of a jester from Hamlet's childhood, Yorick. Ophelia's funeral procession approaches, led by Laertes. He and Hamlet grapple, but the brawl is broken up. The Gravediggers (or Clowns) are examples of Shakespearean fools (also known as clowns or jesters), a recurring type of character in Shakespeares plays. ... For other uses of Jester, see Jester (disambiguation). ... Yorick can refer to: Yorick, the deceased court jester whose skull is exhumed by the gravedigger in Act 5, Scene 1, of Shakespeares Hamlet. ...


Back at Elsinore, Hamlet tells Horatio how he escaped and that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been sent to their deaths. A courtier, Osric, interrupts to invite Hamlet to fence with Laertes. With Fortinbras' army closing on Elsinore, the match begins. Laertes pierces Hamlet with a poisoned blade but is fatally wounded by it himself. Gertrude drinks the poisoned wine and dies. In his dying moments, Laertes is reconciled with Hamlet and reveals Claudius' murderous plot. In his own last moments, Hamlet manages to kill Claudius and names Fortinbras as his heir. When Fortinbras arrives, Horatio recounts the tale and Fortinbras orders Hamlet's body borne off in honour. What follows is an overview of the main characters in William Shakespeares Hamlet, followed by a list and summary of the minor characters from the play. ...


Sources

Main article: Sources of Hamlet
A facsimile of Gesta Danorum by Saxo Grammaticus, which contains the legend of Amleth

Hamlet-like legends are so widely found (for example in Italy, Spain, Scandinavia, Byzantium, and Arabia) that the core "hero-as-fool" theme is possibly Indo-European in origin.[9] Several ancient written sources for Hamlet can be identified. The first is the anonymous Scandinavian Saga of Hrolf Kraki. In this, the murdered king has two sons—Hroar and Helgi—who spend most of the story in disguise, under false names, rather than feigning madness, in a sequence of events that differs from Shakespeare's.[10] The second is the Roman legend of Brutus, recorded in two separate Latin works. Its hero, Lucius ("shining, light"), changes his name and persona to Brutus ("dull, stupid"), playing the role of a fool to avoid the fate of his father and brothers, and eventually slaying his family's killer, King Tarquinius. A 17th-century Nordic scholar, Torfaeus, compared the Icelandic hero Amlodi and the Spanish hero Prince Ambales (from the Ambales Saga) to Shakespeare's Hamlet. Similarities include the prince's feigned madness, his accidental killing of the king's counsellor in his mother's bedroom, and the eventual slaying of his uncle.[11] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (744x917, 373 KB)Original Gesta Danorum parchment page. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (744x917, 373 KB)Original Gesta Danorum parchment page. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Hrólfs saga kraka, the Saga of King Hrolf kraki, is a late legendary saga on the adventures of Hrólfr Kraki and his clan, the Skjöldungs. ... Hroðgar (Proto-Norse *Hrōþigaizaz [1], Hrothgar, Hróar, Ro, Roar), legendary Danish king. ... Helgi means holy and is an old Nordic name still used in e. ... This article is about the founder of the Roman Republic . ...


Many of the earlier legendary elements are interwoven in the 13th-century Vita Amlethi ("The Life of Amleth") by Saxo Grammaticus, part of Gesta Danorum.[12] Written in Latin, it reflects classical Roman concepts of virtue and heroism, and was widely available in Shakespeare's day.[13] Significant parallels include the prince feigning madness, his mother's hasty marriage to the usurper, the prince killing a hidden spy, and the prince substituting the execution of two retainers for his own. A reasonably faithful version of Saxo's story was translated into French in 1570 by François de Belleforest, in his Histoires tragiques.[14] Belleforest embellished Saxo's text substantially, almost doubling its length, and introduced the hero's melancholy.[15] Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... Bishop Asgar, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857—1945) Gesta Danorum (Deeds of the Danes) is a work of Danish history, by 12th century author Saxo Grammaticus (Saxo the Grammarian). It is the most ambitious literary undertaking of medieval Denmark. ... François de Belleforest (born 1530, died 1583) was a French author and translator. ... Melancholy redirects here. ...

Cover of The Spanish Tragedy, by Thomas Kyd. This popular revenge tragedy may have influenced Hamlet. Its author may have also written the Ur-Hamlet.

Shakespeare's main source is believed to be an earlier play—now lost—known today as the Ur-Hamlet. Possibly written by Thomas Kyd, the Ur-Hamlet was in performance by 1589 and is the first version of the story known to incorporate a ghost.[16] Shakespeare's company, the Chamberlain's Men, may have purchased that play and performed a version for some time, which Shakespeare reworked.[17] Since no copy of the Ur-Hamlet has survived, however, it is impossible to compare its language and style with the known works of any of its putative authors. Consequently, there is no direct evidence that Kyd wrote it, nor any evidence that the play was not an early version of Hamlet by Shakespeare himself. This latter idea—placing Hamlet far earlier than the generally accepted date, with a much longer period of development—has attracted some support, though others dismiss it as speculation.[18] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Title page of the Quarto edition (1615) The Spanish Tragedie: or, Hieronimo is Mad Againe is an Elizabethan tragedy written by Thomas Kyd between 1587-1590 and first performed in London around 1590. ... Title page of the Quarto edition of The Spanish Tragedy(1615) The revenge play or revenge tragedy is a form of tragedy which was extremely popular in the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras. ... Ur-Hamlet was the name given by nineteenth century German scholars to a pre-Shakespearean Hamlet written before 1589. ... Ur-Hamlet was the name given by nineteenth century German scholars to a pre-Shakespearean Hamlet written before 1589. ... Thomas Kyd (1558 - 1594) was an English dramatist, the author of The Spanish Tragedy, and one of the most important figures in the development of Elizabethan drama. ... The Lord Chamberlains Men was the playing company that William Shakespeare worked for as actor and playwright for most of his career. ...


The upshot is that scholars cannot assert with any confidence how much material Shakespeare took from the Ur-Hamlet, how much from Belleforest or Saxo, and how much from other contemporary sources (such as Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy). No clear evidence exists that Shakespeare made any direct references to Saxo's version. However, elements of Belleforest's version do appear in Shakespeare's play, though they are not in Saxo's story. Whether Shakespeare took these from Belleforest directly or through the Ur-Hamlet remains unclear.[19] Title page of the Quarto edition (1615) The Spanish Tragedie: or, Hieronimo is Mad Againe is an Elizabethan tragedy written by Thomas Kyd between 1587-1590 and first performed in London around 1590. ...


Most scholars reject the idea that Hamlet is in any way connected with Shakespeare's only son, Hamnet Shakespeare, who died in 1596 at age eleven. Conventional wisdom holds that Hamlet is too obviously connected to legend, and the name Hamnet was quite popular at the time.[20] However, Stephen Greenblatt has argued that the coincidence of the names and Shakespeare's grief for the loss of his son may lie at the heart of the tragedy. He notes that the name of Hamnet Sadler, the Stratford neighbor after whom Hamnet was named, was often written as Hamlet Sadler and that, in the loose orthography of the time, the names were virtually interchangeable.[21] Shakespeare himself spelled Sadler's first name as "Hamlett" in his will.[22] Hamnets death record Hamnet Shakespeare (baptized February 2, 1585 – buried August 11, 1596) was the only son of William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway, and the fraternal twin of Judith Shakespeare. ... Stephen Jay Greenblatt (born November 7, 1943) is a literary critic, theorist and scholar. ...


Date

Frontispiece of the 1605 printing (Q2) of Hamlet

"Any dating of Hamlet must be tentative", cautions the New Cambridge editor, Phillip Edwards.[23] The earliest date estimate relies on Hamlet's frequent allusions to Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, itself dated to mid-1599.[24] The latest date estimate is based on an entry, of July 26, 1602, in the Register of the Stationers' Company, indicating that Hamlet was "latelie Acted by the Lo: Chamberleyne his servantes". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (784x1237, 471 KB)The third quarto of Hamlet (1605). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (784x1237, 471 KB)The third quarto of Hamlet (1605). ... Terminus post quem, (limit after which), Earliest point in time when the text may have been written. ... Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ... Terminus post quem, (limit after which), Earliest point in time when the text may have been written. ... is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This page is about the year. ... The Stationers Register was a journal maintained by the Stationers Company of London. ... The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... The Lord Chamberlains Men was the playing company that William Shakespeare worked for as actor and playwright for most of his career. ...


In 1598, Francis Meres published in his Palladis Tamia a survey of English literature from Chaucer to its present day, within which twelve of Shakespeare's plays are named. Hamlet is not among them, suggesting that it had not yet been written. As Hamlet was very popular, the New Swan series editor Bernard Lott believes it "unlikely that he [Meres] would have overlooked ... so significant a piece".[25] Francis Meres (1565 - January 29, 1647), was an English churchman and author. ...


The phrase "little eyases"[26] in the First Folio (F1) may allude to the Children of the Chapel, whose popularity in London forced the Globe company into provincial touring. This became known as the War of the Theatres, and supports a 1601 dating.[25] The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... The Children of the Chapel (later known as the Children of the Queens Revels) was a troupe of child actors in Elizabethan England. ... The War of the Theatres is the name commonly applied to a controversy from the later Elizabethan theatre; Thomas Dekker termed it the Poetomachia. ...


A contemporary of Shakespeare's, Gabriel Harvey, wrote a marginal note in his copy of the 1598 edition of Chaucer's works, which some scholars use as dating evidence. Harvey's note says that "the wiser sort" enjoy Hamlet, and implies that the Earl of Essex—executed in February 1601 for rebellion—was still alive. Other scholars consider this inconclusive. Edwards, for example, concludes that the "sense of time is so confused in Harvey's note that it is really of little use in trying to date Hamlet". This is because the same note also refers to Spenser and Watson as if they were still alive ("our flourishing metricians"), but also mentions "Owen's new epigrams", published in 1607.[27] Gabriel Harvey (c. ... Chaucer redirects here. ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 – 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Watson (1557?-1592), was an English lyrical poet, possibly educated at Oxford, and was a law-student in London. ... In poetry, the meter or metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse. ... John Owen (c1564 - 1622), was a Welsh epigrammatist. ...


Texts

Facsimile of the first page of Hamlet from the First Folio, published in 1623

Three early editions of the text have survived, making attempts to establish a single authentic text problematic.[28] Each is different from the others:[29] The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ...

  • First Quarto (Q1) In 1603 the booksellers Nicholas Ling and John Trundell published, and Valentine Simmes printed the so-called "bad" first Quarto. Q1 contains just over half of the text of the later second quarto.
  • Second Quarto (Q2) In 1604 Nicholas Ling published, and James Roberts printed, the second quarto. Some copies are dated 1605, which may indicate a second impression; consequently, Q2 is often dated "1604/5". Q2 is the longest early edition, although it omits 85 lines found in F1 (most likely to avoid offending James I's queen, Anne of Denmark).[30]
  • First Folio (F1) In 1623 Edward Blount and William and Isaac Jaggard published the First Folio, the first edition of Shakespeare's Complete Works.[31]

Other folios and quartos were subsequently published—including John Smethwick's Q3, Q4, and Q5 (1611–37)—but these are regarded as derivatives of the first three editions.[31] First quarto is a bibliographic term, usually encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... Valentine Simmes (flourished 1585 – 1622) was an Elizabethan era and Jacobean era printer; he did business in London, on Adling Hill near Bainards Castle at the sign of the White Swan. ... Bad quarto is a term and concept developed by twentieth-century Shakespeare scholars to explain some problems in the early transmission of the texts of Shakespearan works. ... Old book binding and cover Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. ... Second quarto is a bibliographic term, most often encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Anna of Denmark (October 14, 1574 – March 4, 1619) was queen consort of King James I of England and VI of Scotland. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... Edward Blount (or Blunt) (b. ... William Jaggard (c. ... William Shakespeares earliest published plays are referred to as folios or quartos according to the size of the book. ... John Smethwick (died 1641) was a London publisher of the Elizabethan, Jacobean, and Caroline eras. ...

The Q1 rendering of the "To be, or not to be" soliloquy

Early editors of Shakespeare's works, beginning with Nicholas Rowe (1709) and Lewis Theobald (1733), combined material from the two earliest sources of Hamlet available at the time, Q2 and F1. Each text contains material that the other lacks, with many minor differences in wording: scarcely 200 lines are identical in the two. Editors have combined them in an effort to create one "inclusive" text that reflects an imagined "ideal" of Shakespeare's original. Theobald's version became standard for a long time,[32] and his "full text" approach continues to influence editorial practice to the present day. Some contemporary scholarship, however, discounts this approach, instead considering "an authentic Hamlet an unrealisable ideal. ... there are texts of this play but no text".[33] The 2006 publication by Arden Shakespeare of different Hamlet texts in different volumes is perhaps the best evidence of this shifting focus and emphasis.[34] Image File history File links To_be_or_not_to_be_(Q1). ... Image File history File links To_be_or_not_to_be_(Q1). ... For the Ernst Lubitsch film, see To Be or Not to Be (1942 film). ... Shakespeares Editors were essential in the development of the modern practice of producing printed books and the evolution of textual criticism. ... Nicholas Rowe Guilt is the source of sorrow, tis the fiend, Th avenging fiend, that follows us behind, With whips and stings Nicholas Rowe (1674 – 1718), English dramatist, poet and miscellaneous writer, was selected Poet Laureate in 1715. ... Lewis Theobald (1688 - 1744), British textual editor and author, was a landmark figure both in the history of Shakespearean editing and in literary satire. ...


Traditionally, editors of Shakespeare's plays have divided them into five acts. None of the early texts of Hamlet, however, was arranged this way, and the play's division into acts and scenes derives from a 1676 quarto. Modern editors generally follow this traditional division, but consider it unsatisfactory; for example, after Hamlet drags Polonius' body out of Gertrude's bedchamber, there is an act-break[35] after which the action appears to continue uninterrupted.[36] In theater, an act (noun) is a short performance that is part of a longer program. ...


The discovery in 1823 of Q1—whose existence had been quite unsuspected—caused considerable interest and excitement, raising many questions of editorial practice and interpretation. Scholars immediately identified apparent deficiencies in Q1, which was instrumental in the development of the concept of a Shakespearean "bad quarto".[37] Yet Q1 has value: it contains stage directions that reveal actual stage practices in a way that Q2 and F1 do not; it contains an entire scene (usually labelled 4.6)[38] that does not appear in either Q2 or F1; and it is useful for comparison with the later editions. Bad quarto is a term and concept developed by twentieth-century Shakespeare scholars to explain some problems in the early transmission of the texts of Shakespearan works. ...


Q1 is considerably shorter than Q2 or F1 and may be a memorial reconstruction of the play as Shakespeare's company performed it, by an actor who played a minor role (most likely Marcellus).[39] Scholars disagree whether the reconstruction was pirated or authorised. Another theory, considered by New Cambridge editor Kathleen Irace, holds that Q1 is an abridged version intended especially for travelling productions.[40] The idea that Q1 is not riddled with error but is instead eminently fit for the stage has led to at least 28 different Q1 productions since 1881.[41]


Analysis and criticism

Main article: Critical approaches to Hamlet

Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti From its premiere at the turn of the seventeenth century, Hamlet has been one of Shakespeares best-known, most-imitated, and most-analyzed plays. ...

Critical history

From the early 17th century, the play was famous for its ghost and vivid dramatization of melancholy and insanity, leading to a procession of mad courtiers and ladies in Jacobean and Caroline drama.[42] Though it remained popular with mass audiences, late 17th-century Restoration critics saw Hamlet as primitive and disapproved of its lack of unity and decorum.[43] This view changed drastically in the 18th century, when critics regarded Hamlet as a hero—a pure, brilliant young man thrust into unfortunate circumstances.[44] By the mid-18th century, however, the advent of Gothic literature brought psychological and mystical readings, returning madness and the Ghost to the forefront.[45] Not until the late 18th century did critics and performers begin to view Hamlet as confusing and inconsistent. Before then, he was either mad, or not; either a hero, or not; with no in-betweens.[46] These developments represented a fundamental change in literary criticism, which came to focus more on character and less on plot.[47] By the 19th century, Romantic critics valued Hamlet for its internal, individual conflict reflecting the strong contemporary emphasis on internal struggles and inner character in general.[48] Then too, critics started to focus on Hamlet's delay as a character trait, rather than a plot device.[47] This focus on character and internal struggle continued into the 20th century, when criticism branched in several directions, discussed in context and interpretation below. Melancholy redirects here. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Not to be confused with Jacobinism or Jacobitism. ... The Caroline era refers to a period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of Charles I (1625—1642). ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... The three unities or classical unities are rules for drama derived from a mistaken interpretation of a particular passage in Aristotles Poetics. ... Etiquette is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole Gothic fiction is an important genre of literature that combines elements of both horror and romance. ... {redirect|Psychological science|the journal|Psychological Science (journal)}} Not to be confused with Phycology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Romantics redirects here. ...


Dramatic structure

Hamlet departed from contemporary dramatic convention in several ways. First, in Shakespeare's day, plays were usually expected to follow the advice of Aristotle in his Poetics: that a drama should focus on action, not character. In Hamlet, Shakespeare reverses this so that it is through the soliloquies, not the action, that the audience learns Hamlet's motives and thoughts. Second—and unlike Shakespeare's other plays (with the exception of Othello)—there is no strong subplot; all plot-forks directly connect to the main vein of Hamlet's struggle for revenge. The play is full of seeming discontinuities and irregularities of action. At one point, as in the Gravedigger scene,[8] Hamlet seems resolved to kill Claudius: in the next scene, however, when Claudius appears, he is suddenly tame. Scholars still debate whether these twists are mistakes or intentional additions to add to the play's theme of confusion and duality.[49] Finally, in a period when most plays ran for two hours or so, the full text of Hamlet—Shakespeare's longest play, with 4,042 lines, totalling 29,551 words—takes over four hours to deliver.[50] Hamlet also contains a favourite Shakespearean device, a play within the play.[51] Though it was first called The Murder of Gonzago, Hamlet changes the name to The Mousetrap when he modifies the plot. For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... A monologue, pronounced monolog, is a speech made by one person speaking his or her thoughts aloud or directly addressing a reader, audience, or character. ... A story within a story is a literary device or conceit in which one story is told during the action of another story. ...


Language

Hamlet's statement that his dark clothes are the outer sign of his inner grief demonstrates strong rhetorical skill. (Artist: Eugène Delacroix 1834).

Much of the play's language is courtly: elaborate, witty discourse, as recommended by Baldassare Castiglione's 1528 etiquette guide, The Courtier. This work specifically advises royal retainers to amuse their masters with inventive language. Osric and Polonius, especially, seem to respect this injunction. Claudius' speech is rich with rhetorical figures—as is Hamlet's and, at times, Ophelia's—while the language of Horatio, the guards, and the gravediggers is simpler. Claudius' high status is reinforced by using the royal first person plural ("we" or "us"), and anaphora mixed with metaphor to resonate with Greek political speeches.[52] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... i love orange pekoe tea!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... This article is about the rhetorical term. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ...


Hamlet is the most skilled of all at rhetoric. He uses highly developed metaphors, stichomythia, and in nine memorable words deploys both anaphora and asyndeton: "to die: to sleep— / To sleep, perchance to dream".[53] In contrast, when occasion demands, he is precise and straightforward, as when he explains his inward emotion to his mother: "But I have that within which passes show, / These but the trappings and the suits of woe".[54] At times, he relies heavily on puns to express his true thoughts while simultaneously concealing them.[55] His "nunnery" remarks[56] to Ophelia are an example of a cruel double meaning as nunnery was Elizabethan slang for brothel.[57] His very first words in the play are a pun; when Claudius addresses him as "my cousin Hamlet, and my son", Hamlet says as an aside: "A little more than kin, and less than kind."[58] Stichomythia is a technique in drama or poetry, in which alternating lines, or half-lines, are given to alternating characters, voices, or entities. ... This article is about the rhetorical term. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... For other uses, see Pun (disambiguation). ... A double entendre is a figure of speech similar to the pun, in which a spoken phrase can be understood in either of two ways. ... Elizabethan redirects here. ...


An unusual rhetorical device, hendiadys, appears in several places in the play. Examples are found in Ophelia's speech at the end of the nunnery scene: "Th'expectation and rose of the fair state"; "And I, of ladies most deject and wretched".[59] Many scholars have found it odd that Shakespeare would, seemingly arbitrarily, use this rhetorical form throughout the play. One explanation may be that Hamlet was written later in Shakespeare's life, when he was adept at matching rhetorical devices to characters and the plot. Linguist George T. Wright suggests that hendiadys was used deliberately to heighten the play's sense of duality and dislocation.[60] Hendiadys (Greek for one through two) is a figure of speech used for emphasis. ...


Hamlet's soliloquies have also captured the attention of scholars. Hamlet interrupts himself, vocalising either disgust or agreement with himself, and embellishing his own words. He has difficulty expressing himself directly and instead blunts the thrust of his thought with wordplay. It is not until late in the play, after his experience with the pirates, that Hamlet is able to articulate his feelings freely.[61] A monologue, pronounced monolog, is a speech made by one person speaking his or her thoughts aloud or directly addressing a reader, audience, or character. ...


Context and interpretation

Religious

Ophelia depicts her mysterious death by drowning. The clowns' discussion of whether her death was a suicide and whether she merits a Christian burial is at heart a religious topic. (Artist: John Everett Millais 1852).

Written at a time of religious upheaval, and in the wake of the English Reformation, the play is alternately Catholic (or superstitiously medieval) and Protestant (or consciously modern). The Ghost describes himself as being in purgatory, and as dying without last rites. This and Ophelia's burial ceremony, which is characteristically Catholic, make up most of the play's Catholic connections. Some scholars have observed that revenge tragedies come from traditionally Catholic countries, such as Spain and Italy; and they present a contradiction, since according to Catholic doctrine the strongest duty is to God and family. Hamlet's conundrum, then, is whether to avenge his father and kill Claudius, or to leave the vengeance to God, as his religion requires.[62] Download high resolution version (1600x1164, 503 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1164, 503 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Ophelia (disambiguation). ... Sir John Everett Millais Sir John Everett Millais, 1st Baronet, PRA (June 8, 1829 – August 13, 1896) was a British painter and illustrator and one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Illustration for Dantes Purgatorio (18), by Gustave Doré, an imaginative picturing of Purgatory. ... Anointing of the Sick is the ritual anointing of a sick person and is a Sacrament of the Catholic Church. ...


Much of the play's Protestantism derives from its location in Denmark—then and now a predominantly Protestant country, though it is unclear whether the fictional Denmark of the play is intended to mirror this fact. The play does mention Wittenberg, where Hamlet, Horatio, and Rosencrantz and Guildenstern attend university, and where Martin Luther first nailed up his 95 theses.[63] When Hamlet speaks of the "special providence in the fall of a sparrow",[64] he reflects the Protestant belief that the will of God—Divine Providence—controls even the smallest event. In Q1, the first sentence of the same section reads: "There's a predestinate providence in the fall of a sparrow,"[65] which suggests an even stronger Protestant connection through John Calvin's doctrine of predestination. Scholars speculate that Hamlet may have been censored, as "predestined" appears only in this quarto.[66] Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... In theology, Divine Providence, or simply Providence, is the sovereignty, superintendence, or agency of God over events in peoples lives and throughout history. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ...


Philosophical

Philosophical ideas in Hamlet are similar to those of the French writer Michel de Montaigne, a contemporary of Shakespeare's. (Artist: Thomas de Leu (fl. 1580–1610)).

Hamlet is often perceived as a philosophical character, expounding ideas that are now described as relativist, existentialist, and sceptical. For example, he expresses a relativistic idea when he says to Rosencrantz: "there is nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so".[67] The idea that nothing is real except in the mind of the individual finds its roots in the Greek Sophists, who argued that since nothing can be perceived except through the senses—and since all individuals sense, and therefore perceive, things differently—there is no absolute truth, only relative truth.[68] The clearest example of existentialism is found in the "to be, or not to be"[69] speech, where Hamlet uses "being" to allude to both life and action, and "not being" to death and inaction. Hamlet's contemplation of suicide in this scene, however, is less philosophical than religious as he believes that he will continue to exist after death.[70] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French pronounced ) (February 28, 1533–September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... This article is about the psychological term. ... Sophist redirects here. ... For the Ernst Lubitsch film, see To Be or Not to Be (1942 film). ...


Scholars agree that Hamlet reflects the contemporary scepticism that prevailed in Renaissance humanism.[71] Prior to Shakespeare's time, humanists had argued that man was God's greatest creation, made in God's image and able to choose his own nature, but this view was challenged, notably in Michel de Montaigne's Essais of 1590. Hamlet's "What a piece of work is a man" echoes many of Montaigne's ideas, but scholars disagree whether Shakespeare drew directly from Montaigne or whether both men were simply reacting similarly to the spirit of the times.[72] Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Renaissance humanism (often designated simply as humanism) was a European intellectual movement beginning in Florence in the last decades of the 14th century. ... Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (French pronounced ) (February 28, 1533–September 13, 1592) was one of the most influential writers of the French Renaissance. ... Essays is the title of a book written by Michel de Montaigne that was first published in 1580. ... The phrase What a piece of work is a man! comes from Shakespeares Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Act II, scene II, and it is often used in reference to the whole speech containing the line. ...


Political

In the early 17th century political satire was discouraged, and playwrights were punished for "offensive" works. In 1597, Ben Jonson was jailed for his participation in the play The Isle of Dogs.[73] Thomas Middleton was imprisoned in 1624, and his A Game at Chess was banned after nine performances.[74] Numerous scholars believe that Hamlet's Polonius poked fun at the safely deceased William Cecil (Lord Burghley)—Lord High Treasurer and chief counsellor to Queen Elizabeth I[75]—as numerous parallels can be found. Polonius' role as elder statesman is similar to the role Burghley enjoyed;[76] Polonius' advice to Laertes may echo Burghley's to his son Robert Cecil;[77] and Polonius' tedious verbosity may resemble Burghley's.[78] Also, "Corambis", (Polonius' name in Q1) resonates with the Latin for "double-hearted"—which may satirise Lord Burghley's Latin motto Cor unum, via una ("One heart, one way").[79] Lastly, the relationship of Polonius' daughter Ophelia with Hamlet may be compared to the relationship of Burghley's daughter, Anne Cecil, with the Earl of Oxford, Edward de Vere.[80] These arguments are also offered in support of the Shakespeare authorship claims for the Earl of Oxford.[81] Nevertheless Shakespeare escaped censure; and far from being suppressed, Hamlet was given the royal imprimatur, as the king's coat of arms on the frontispiece of the 1604 Hamlet attests.[82] 1867 edition of Punch, a ground-breaking British magazine of popular humour, including a good deal of satire of the contemporary social and political scene. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ... The Isle of Dogs is play by Thomas Nashe and Ben Jonson which was performed in 1597. ... Thomas Middleton (1580 – 1627) was an English Jacobean playwright and poet. ... A Game at Chess is a comic satirical play by Thomas Middleton, first staged in August 1624 by the Kings Men at the Globe Theatre, and notable for its political content. ... William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley (13 September 1520 – 4 August 1598), was an English politician, the chief advisor of Queen Elizabeth I for most of her reign (17 November 1558–24 March 1603), and Lord High Treasurer from 1572. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... ] The Right Honourable Robert Cecil, 1st Earl of Salisbury, KG, PC (1 June 1563–24 May 1612), son of William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley and half-brother of Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of Exeter, statesman, spymaster and minister to Queen Elizabeth I and King James I. Lord Salisbury is the... The Earl of Oxford, from the 1914 publication English Travellers of the Renaissance by Clare Howard. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays. ... The Oxfordian theory of Shakespearean authorship holds that Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford (1550-1604), wrote the plays and poems conventionally attributed to William Shakespeare. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Psychoanalytic

Freud suggested that an unconscious oedipal conflict caused Hamlet's hesitations. (Artist: Eugène Delacroix 1844).

Since the birth of psychoanalysis in the late 19th century, Hamlet has been the source of such studies, notably by Sigmund Freud, Ernest Jones, and Jacques Lacan, which have influenced theatrical productions. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1388 × 2036 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 409 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1388 × 2036 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Today psychoanalysis comprises several interlocking theories concerning the functioning of the mind. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ...


In his The Interpretation of Dreams (1900), Freud's analysis starts from the premise that "the play is built up on Hamlet's hesitations over fulfilling the task of revenge that is assigned to him; but its text offers no reasons or motives for these hesitations".[83] After reviewing various literary theories, Freud concludes that Hamlet has an "Oedipal desire for his mother and the subsequent guilt [is] preventing him from murdering the man [Claudius] who has done what he unconsciously wanted to do".[84] Confronted with his repressed desires, Hamlet realises that "he himself is literally no better than the sinner whom he is to punish".[83] Freud suggests that Hamlet's apparent "distaste for sexuality"—articulated in his "nunnery" conversation with Ophelia—accords with this interpretation.[85][86] John Barrymore introduced Freudian overtones into his landmark 1922 production in New York, which ran for a record-breaking 101 nights. A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... The Oedipus complex in Freudian psychoanalysis refers to a stage of psychosexual development in childhood where children of both sexes regard their father as an adversary and competitor for the exclusive love of their mother. ... Psychological repression, or simply repression, is the psychological act of excluding desires and impulses (wishes, fantasies or feelings) from ones consciousness and attempting to hold or subdue them in the subconscious. ... This article is about John Barrymore, Sr. ...


In the 1940s, Ernest Jones—a psychoanalyst and Freud's biographer—developed Freud's ideas into a series of essays that culminated in his book Hamlet and Oedipus (1949). Influenced by Jones' psychoanalytic approach, several productions have portrayed the "closet scene",[87] where Hamlet confronts his mother in her private quarters, in a sexual light. In this reading, Hamlet is disgusted by his mother's "incestuous" relationship with Claudius while simultaneously fearful of killing him, as this would clear Hamlet's path to his mother's bed. Ophelia's madness after her father's death may also be read through the Freudian lens: as a reaction to the death of her hoped-for lover, her father. She is overwhelmed by having her unfulfilled love for him so abruptly terminated and drifts into the oblivion of insanity.[88] In 1937, Tyrone Guthrie directed Laurence Olivier in a Jones-inspired Hamlet at the Old Vic.[89] Ernest Jones (1879-1958) was arguably the best-known follower of Sigmund Freud. ... Sir William Tyrone Guthrie (2 July 1900 - 15 May 1971) was a British theatrical director instrumental in the founding of the Stratford Festival of Canada and the Guthrie Theatre in Minneapolis, Minnesota. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... The exterior of the Old Vic from the corner of Baylis Road and Waterloo Road. ...


In the 1950s, Lacan's structuralist theories about Hamlet were first presented in a series of seminars given in Paris and later published in "Desire and the Interpretation of Desire in Hamlet". Lacan postulated that the human psyche is determined by structures of language and that the linguistic structures of Hamlet shed light on human desire.[84] His point of departure is Freud's Oedipal theories, and the central theme of mourning that runs through Hamlet.[84] In Lacan's analysis, Hamlet unconsciously assumes the role of phallus—the cause of his inaction—and is increasingly distanced from reality "by mourning, fantasy, narcissism and psychosis", which create holes (or "lacks") in the real, imaginary, and symbolic aspects of his psyche.[84] Lacan's theories influenced literary criticism of Hamlet because of his alternative vision of the play and his use of semantics to explore the play's psychological landscape.[84] Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... The Seminars of Jacques Lacan I. 1953-54 Les écrits techniques de Freud - Freuds Papers on Technique II. 1954-55 Le moi dans la théorie de Freud et dans la technique de la psychanalyse - The Ego in Freuds Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis III. 1955... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... This article is about the symbol of the erect penis. ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... Narcissus, the Greek hero after whom narcissism is named, became obsessed with his own reflection. ... For other uses, see Psychosis (disambiguation). ... Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ...


Feminist

Ophelia is distracted by grief.[90] Feminist critics have explored her descent into madness. (Artist: Henrietta Rae 1890).

In the 20th century feminist critics opened up new approaches to Gertrude and Ophelia. New Historicist and cultural materialist critics examined the play in its historical context, attempting to piece together its original cultural environment.[91] They focused on the gender system of early modern England, pointing to the common trinity of maid, wife, or widow, with whores alone outside of the stereotype. In this analysis, the essence of Hamlet is the central character's changed perception of his mother as a whore because of her failure to remain faithful to Old Hamlet. In consequence, Hamlet loses his faith in all women, treating Ophelia as if she too were a whore and dishonest with Hamlet. Ophelia, by some critics, can be honest and fair, however; it is virtually impossible to link these two traits, since 'fairness' is an outward trait, while 'honesty' is an inward trait. [92] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... John William Waterhouses painting Ophelia (1894) Ophelia is a fictional character in the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare. ... Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theory, or by the politics of feminism more broadly. ... New Historicism is an approach to literary criticism and literary theory based on the premise that a literary work should be considered a product of the time, place and circumstances of its composition rather than as an isolated creation of genius. ... Cultural materialism in literary theory and cultural studies traces its origin to the work of the left-wing literary critic Raymond Williams. ... A bagpiper in Scottish military clan-uniform. ... The early modern period is a term initially used by historians to refer mainly to the post Late Middle Ages period in Western Europe (Early modern Europe), its first colonies marked by the rise of strong centralized governments and the beginnings of recognizable nation states that are the direct antecedents...


Carolyn Heilbrun's 1957 essay "Hamlet's Mother" defends Gertrude, arguing that the text never hints that Gertrude knew of Claudius poisoning King Hamlet. This analysis has been championed by many feminist critics. Heilbrun argued that men have for centuries completely misinterpreted Gertrude, accepting at face value Hamlet's view of her instead of following the actual text of the play. By this account, no clear evidence suggests that Gertrude is an adulteress: she is merely adapting to the circumstances of her husband's death for the good of the kingdom.[93]


Ophelia has also been defended by feminist critics, most notably Elaine Showalter.[94] Ophelia is surrounded by powerful men: her father, brother, and Hamlet. All three disappear: Laertes leaves, Hamlet abandons her, and Polonius dies. Conventional theories had argued that without these three powerful men making decisions for her, Ophelia is driven into madness.[95] Feminist theorists argue that she goes mad with guilt because, when Hamlet kills her father, he has fulfilled her sexual desire to have Hamlet kill her father so they can be together. Showalter points out that Ophelia has become—inaccurately and inappropriately—the symbol of the distraught and hysterical woman in modern culture.[96] Elaine Showalter (1941- ) is an American literary critic, feminist, and writer on cultural and social issues. ...


Influence

See also Stage and screen adaptations (below), and Literary influence of Hamlet

Hamlet is one of the most quoted works in the English language, and is often included on lists of the world's greatest literature.[97] As such, it reverberates through the writing of later centuries. Academic Laurie Osborne identifies the direct influence of Hamlet in numerous modern narratives, and divides them into four main categories: fictional accounts of the play's composition, simplifications of the story for young readers, stories expanding the role of one or more characters, and narratives featuring performances of the play.[98] William Shakespeares play Hamlet has contributed many phrases to common English, from the famous To be, or not to be to a few less known, but still in everyday English. ...


Henry Fielding's Tom Jones, published about 1749, describes a visit to Hamlet by Tom Jones and Mr Partridge, with similarities to the "play within a play".[99] In contrast, Goethe's Bildungsroman Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, written between 1776 and 1796, not only has a production of Hamlet at its core but also creates parallels between the Ghost and Wilhelm Meister's dead father.[99] In the early 1850s, in Pierre, Herman Melville focuses on a Hamlet-like character's long development as a writer.[99] Ten years later, Dickens' Great Expectations contains many Hamlet-like plot elements: it is driven by revenge-motivated actions, contains ghost-like characters (Abel Magwich and Miss Havisham), and focuses on the hero's guilt.[99] Academic Alexander Welsh notes that Great Expectations is an "autobiographical novel" and "anticipates psychoanalytic readings of Hamlet itself".[100] About the same time, George Eliot's The Mill on the Floss was published, introducing Maggie Tulliver "who is explicitly compared with Hamlet"[101] though "with a reputation for sanity".[102] Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (often known simply as Tom Jones) is a comic novel by Henry Fielding. ... Goethe redirects here. ... A Bildungsroman (IPA: /, German: novel of self-cultivation) is a novelistic variation of the monomyth that concentrates on the spiritual, moral, psychological, or social development and growth of the protagonist usually from childhood to maturity. ... Wilhelm Meisters Apprenticeship (in German, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre) is the second novel by Goethe, published in 1795. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Dickens redirects here. ... For other uses, see Great Expectations (disambiguation). ... Miss Havisham has sick fancies. ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... The Mill on the Floss is a novel by George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans), first published in three volumes in 1860. ...


In the 1920s, James Joyce managed "a more upbeat version" of Hamlet—stripped of obsession and revenge—in Ulysses, though its main parallels are with Homer's Odyssey.[99] In the 1990s, two women novelists were explicitly influenced by Hamlet. In Angela Carter's Wise Children, To be or not to be[103] is reworked as a song and dance routine, and Iris Murdoch's The Black Prince has Oedipal themes and murder intertwined with a love affair between a Hamlet-obsessed writer, Bradley Pearson, and the daughter of his rival.[101] This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... Angela Carter (May 7, 1940 – February 16, 1992) was an English novelist and journalist, known for her post-feminist magical realist and science fiction works. ... Wise Children (1991) was the last novel written by Angela Carter. ... Dame Jean Iris Murdoch DBE (July 15, 1919 – February 8, 1999) was an Irish-born British writer and philosopher, best known for her novels, which combine rich characterization and compelling plotlines, usually involving ethical or sexual themes. ... The Black Prince is Iris Murdochs 15th novel, first published in 1973. ...


Performance history

Thomas Betterton as Hamlet during the Restoration (Artist: unknown; Nicholas Rowe edition of 1709)
Main articles: Hamlet in performance and Shakespeare in performance

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 353 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1582 × 2688 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 353 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1582 × 2688 pixel, file size: 2. ... Thomas Betterton (c. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... Nicholas Rowe Guilt is the source of sorrow, tis the fiend, Th avenging fiend, that follows us behind, With whips and stings Nicholas Rowe (1674 – 1718), English dramatist, poet and miscellaneous writer, was selected Poet Laureate in 1715. ... French actress Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, in a publicity postcard from the end of the 19th century. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ...

Shakespeare's day to the Interregnum

Shakespeare almost certainly wrote the role of Hamlet for Richard Burbage. He was the chief tragedian of the Lord Chamberlain's Men, with a capacious memory for lines and a wide emotional range.[5] Judging by the number of reprints, Hamlet appears to have been Shakespeare's fourth most popular play during his lifetime—only Henry VI Part 1, Richard III and Pericles eclipsed it.[2] Shakespeare provides no clear indication of when his play is set; however, as Elizabethan actors performed at the Globe in contemporary dress on minimal sets, this would not have affected the staging.[104] Unknown artist: Portrait of Richard Burbage, Dulwich Picture Gallery, London Richard Burbage (July 7, 1568 – March 13, 1619) was an actor and theatre owner. ... The Lord Chamberlains Men was the playing company that William Shakespeare worked for as actor and playwright for most of his career. ... The First Part of King Henry the Sixth is one of Shakespeares history plays. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Title page of the 1611 quarto edition of the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a play written (at least in part) by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected plays despite some questions over its authorship. ... This article is about the original Globe Theatre of Shakespeare and the modern reconstruction in London known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre. ...


Firm evidence for specific early performances of the play is scant. What is known is that the crew of the ship Red Dragon, anchored off Sierra Leone, performed Hamlet in September 1607;[105] that the play toured in Germany within five years of Shakespeare's death;[106] and that it was performed before James I in 1619 and Charles I in 1637.[107] Oxford editor George Hibbard argues that, since the contemporary literature contains many allusions and references to Hamlet (of Shakespeare's works and characters, only Falstaff is mentioned more), the play was surely performed with a frequency that the historical record misses.[108] James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, Scotland and Ireland from March 27, 1625 until his execution. ... Adolf Schrödter: Falstaff and his page Sir John Falstaff is a fictional character who appears in three plays by William Shakespeare as a companion to Prince Hal, the future King Henry V. A fat, vainglorious, and cowardly knight, Falstaff leads the apparently wayward Prince Hal into trouble, but he...


All theatres were closed down by the Puritan government during the Interregnum.[109] Even during this time, however, playlets known as drolls were often performed illegally, including one called The Grave-Makers based on Act 5, Scene 1 of Hamlet.[110] For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ...


Restoration and 18th century

The play was revived early in the Restoration. When the existing stock of pre-civil war plays was divided between the two newly created patent theatre companies, Hamlet was the only Shakespearean favourite that Sir William Davenant's Duke's Company secured.[111] It became the first of Shakespeare's plays to be presented with movable flats painted with generic scenery behind the proscenium arch of Lincoln's Inn Fields Theatre.[112] This new stage convention highlighted the frequency with which Shakespeare shifts dramatic location, encouraging the recurrent criticisms of his violation of the neoclassical principle of maintaining a unity of place.[113] Davenant cast Thomas Betterton in the eponymous role, and he continued to play the Dane until he was 74.[114] David Garrick at Drury Lane produced a version that adapted Shakespeare heavily; he declared: "I had sworn I would not leave the stage till I had rescued that noble play from all the rubbish of the fifth act. I have brought it forth without the grave-digger's trick, Osrick, & the fencing match".[115] The first actor known to have played Hamlet in North America is Lewis Hallam. Jr., in the American Company's production in Philadelphia in 1759.[116] For other uses, see Restoration. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The patent theatres were the theatres that were licenced to perform spoken drama after the English Restoration of Charles II in 1660. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... The Dukes Company was one of the two theatre companies (the other being the Kings Company) that were chartered by King Charles II at the start of the English Restoration era, when the London theatres re-opened after their eighteen-year closure (1642–60) during the English Civil... 10 foot tall cloth covered flats Flats, short for Scenery Flats, are flat pieces of theatrical scenery which are painted and positioned on stage so as to give the appearance of buildings or other background. ... The interior of the Auditorium Building in Chicago built in 1887. ... Lincolns Inn Fields is the largest public square in London. ... Late Baroque classicizing: G. P. Pannini assembles the canon of Roman ruins and Roman sculpture into one vast imaginary gallery (1756) Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that... The three unities or classical unities are rules for drama derived from a mistaken interpretation of a particular passage in Aristotles Poetics. ... Thomas Betterton (c. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... Currently home to Lord Of The Rings, the musical. ... The Hallam Company, which later became the American Company, was the first fully professional theatre company to perform in North America. ...

David Garrick's iconic hand gesture expresses Hamlet's shock at the first sight of the Ghost. (Artist: unknown).

John Philip Kemble made his Drury Lane debut as Hamlet in 1783.[117] His performance was said to be 20 minutes longer than anyone else's, and his lengthy pauses provoked the suggestion that "music should be played between the words".[118] Sarah Siddons was the first actress known to play Hamlet; many women have since played him as a breeches role, to great acclaim.[119] In 1748, Alexander Sumarokov wrote a Russian adaptation that focused on Prince Hamlet as the embodiment of an opposition to Claudius' tyranny—a treatment that would recur in Eastern European versions into the 20th century.[120] In the years following America's independence, Thomas Abthorpe Cooper, the young nation's leading tragedian, performed Hamlet among other plays at the Chestnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia, and at the Park Theatre in New York. Although chided for "acknowledging acquaintances in the audience" and "inadequate memorisation of his lines", he became a national celebrity.[121] Image File history File links Garrick_as_Hamlet. ... Image File history File links Garrick_as_Hamlet. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ... John Philip Kemble (February 1, 1757 - February 26, 1823), was an English actor. ... Sarah Siddons as the Tragic Muse by Sir Joshua Reynolds (The Huntington, San Marino, California) Sarah Siddons (July 5, 1755 – June 8, 1831) was a British actress, the best-known tragedienne of the 18th century. ... A breeches role (also pants role or trouser role) is a role in which an actress appears in male clothes (breeches being tight-fitting knee-length pants, the standard male garment at the time breeches roles were introduced). ... Alexander P. Sumarokov Aleksandr Petrovich Sumarokov (Александр Петрович Сумароков) (1717 - 1774) was a Russian poet and playwright who single-handedly created Neoclassical theatre in Russia. ... The Park Theatre c. ...


19th century

From around 1810 to 1840, the best-known Shakespearean performances in the United States were tours by leading London actors—including George Frederick Cooke, Junius Brutus Booth, Edmund Kean, William Charles Macready, and Charles Kemble. Of these, Booth remained to make his career in the States, fathering the nation's most notorious actor, John Wilkes Booth (who later assassinated Abraham Lincoln), and its most famous Hamlet, Edwin Booth.[122] Edwin Booth's Hamlet was described as "like the dark, mad, dreamy, mysterious hero of a poem ... [acted] in an ideal manner, as far removed as possible from the plane of actual life".[123] Booth played Hamlet for 100 nights in the 1864/5 season at The Winter Garden Theatre, inaugurating the era of long-run Shakespeare in America.[124] George Frederick Cooke (born April 17, 1756 in London; died September 26, 1811 in New York) was an English actor. ... Photo of Booth Junius Brutus Booth (May 1, 1796–November 30, 1852) was a British and American actor. ... Edmund Kean (March 17, 1787 – May 15, 1833) was an English actor, regarded in his time as the greatest ever. ... William Charles Macready (March 3, 1793 - April 27, 1873), English actor, was born in London, and educated at Rugby. ... Charles Kemble (November 25, 1775 - November 12, 1854) was a British actor. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Edwin Booth as Hamlet. ...


In the United Kingdom, the actor-managers of the Victorian era (including Kean, Samuel Phelps, Macready, and Henry Irving) staged Shakespeare in a grand manner, with elaborate scenery and costumes.[125] The tendency of actor-managers to emphasise the importance of their own central character did not always meet with the critics' approval. George Bernard Shaw's praise for Johnston Forbes-Robertson's performance ends with a sideswipe at Irving: "The story of the play was perfectly intelligible, and quite took the attention of the audience off the principal actor at moments. What is the Lyceum coming to?"[126] The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Samuel Phelps (1804-1878) was an English actor, born in Devonport. ... Sir Henry Irving, as Hamlet, in an 1893 illustration from The Idler magazine John Henry Brodribb (February 6, 1838 – October 13, 1905), knighted in 1895, as Sir Henry Irving, was one of the most famous stage actors of the Victorian era. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Sir Johnston Forbes-Robertson (born January 16, 1853, London - died November 6, 1937, St. ... The Lyceum Theatre is a 2,000-seat West End theatre located in the City of Westminster, on Wellington Street, just off the Strand. ...


In London, Edmund Kean was the first Hamlet to abandon the regal finery usually associated with the role in favour of a plain costume, and he is said to have surprised his audience by playing Hamlet as serious and introspective.[127] In stark contrast to earlier opulence, William Poel's 1881 production of the Q1 text was an early attempt at reconstructing the Elizabethan theatre's austerity; his only backdrop was a set of red curtains.[128] Sarah Bernhardt played the prince in her popular 1899 London production. In contrast to the "effeminate" view of the central character that usually accompanied a female casting, she described her character as "manly and resolute, but nonetheless thoughtful ... [he] thinks before he acts, a trait indicative of great strength and great spiritual power".[129] William Poel (1852-1934) was an English actor and theatrical manager, known for his presentation of old plays. ... Sarah Bernhardt (October 23, 1844 – March 26, 1923) was a French stage actress. ...


In France, Charles Kemble initiated an enthusiasm for Shakespeare; and leading members of the Romantic movement such as Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas saw his 1827 Paris performance of Hamlet, particularly admiring the madness of Harriet Smithson's Ophelia.[130] In Germany, Hamlet had become so assimilated by the mid-19th century that Ferdinand Freiligrath declared that "Germany is Hamlet".[131] From the 1850s, the Parsi theatre tradition in India transformed Hamlet into folk performances, with dozens of songs added.[132] Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Henrietta Constance (Harriet) Smithson (1800 - March 3, 1854) was an Irish actress, the first wife of Hector Berlioz, and the inspiration for his Symphonie Fantastique. ... Ferdinand Freiligrath (17 June 1810 - 18 March 1876) was a German writer. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ...


20th century

Apart from some western troupes' 19th-century visits, the first professional performance of Hamlet in Japan was Otojiro Kawakami's 1903 Shimpa ("new school theatre") adaptation.[133] Shoyo Tsubouchi translated Hamlet and produced a performance in 1911 that blended Shingeki ("new drama") and Kabuki styles.[133] This hybrid-genre reached its peak in Fukuda Tsuneari's 1955 Hamlet.[133] In 1998, Yukio Ninagawa produced an acclaimed version of Hamlet in the style of theatre, which he took to London.[134] Tsubouchi Shoyo (坪内 逍遥, Tsubouchi Shōyō) (May 22, 1859 - February 28, 1935) was a Japanese author, critic, playwright, translator, and editor. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... Yukio Ninagawa (蜷川幸雄 Ninagawa Yukio, born October 15, 1935) is a Japanese theatre director, particularly known for his Japanese language productions of Shakespeare plays and Greek tragedies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

In 1908, Edward Gordon Craig designed the MAT production of Hamlet (1911–12). The isolated figure of Hamlet reclines in the dark foreground, while behind a gauze the rest of the court are absorbed in a bright, unified golden pyramid emanating from Claudius. Craig's famous screens are flat against the back in this scene.

Constantin Stanislavski and Edward Gordon Craig—two of the 20th century's most influential theatre practitioners—collaborated on the Moscow Art Theatre's seminal production of 1911–12.[135] While Craig favoured stylised abstraction, Stanislavski, armed with his "system", explored psychological motivation.[136] Craig conceived of the play as a symbolist monodrama, offering a dream-like vision as seen through Hamlet's eyes alone.[137] This was most evident in the staging of the first court scene.[138][139] The most famous aspect of the production is Craig's use of large, abstract screens that altered the size and shape of the acting area for each scene, representing the character's state of mind spatially or visualising a dramaturgical progression.[140] The production attracted enthusiastic and unprecedented worldwide attention for the theatre and placed it "on the cultural map for Western Europe".[141] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (1546 × 1143 pixel, file size: 880 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 591 pixelsFull resolution (1546 × 1143 pixel, file size: 880 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Edward Henry Gordon Craig (16 January 1872-29 July 1966), usually known as Gordon Craig, was a British actor, producer, director and scenic designer. ... The Moscow Art Theatre is a theatre company in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1897 by Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. ... A scrim or gauze is a very light textile made from cotton, or sometimes flax. ... Young Stanislavski Stanislavski in Carlo Goldonis La locandiera (The Innkeeper Woman, 1753), in 1898. ... Edward Henry Gordon Craig (16 January 1872-29 July 1966), usually known as Gordon Craig, was a British actor, producer, director and scenic designer. ... Theatre practitioner is a modern term to describe someone who both creates theatre performance and who produces a theoretical discourse that informs their practical work. ... The Moscow Art Theatre is a theatre company in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1897 by Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. ... Stanislavskis ‘system’ is an approach to acting developed by Constantin Stanislavski, a Russian actor, director, and theatre administrator at the Moscow Art Theatre (founded 1897). ... Mikhail Nesterovs painting Vision to Youth Bartholomew (1890) is often taken as a starting point of Russian Symbolism. ... A monodrama (also Solospiel in German; solo play) is a theatrical melodrama in which there is only one character. ... Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. ...


Hamlet is often played with contemporary political overtones. Leopold Jessner's 1926 production at the Berlin Staatstheater portrayed Claudius' court as a parody of the corrupt and fawning court of Kaiser Wilhelm.[142] In Poland, the number of productions of Hamlet has tended to increase at times of political unrest, since its political themes (suspected crimes, coups, surveillance) can be used to comment on a contemporary situation.[143] Similarly, Czech directors have used the play at times of occupation: a 1941 Vinohrady Theatre production "emphasised, with due caution, the helpless situation of an intellectual attempting to endure in a ruthless environment".[144] In China, performances of Hamlet often have political significance: Gu Wuwei's 1916 The Usurper of State Power, an amalgam of Hamlet and Macbeth, was an attack on Yuan Shikai's attempt to overthrow the republic.[145] In 1942, Jiao Juyin directed the play in a Confucian temple in Sichuan Province, to which the government had retreated from the advancing Japanese.[145] In the immediate aftermath of the collapse of the protests at Tiananmen Square, Lin Zhaohua staged a 1990 Hamlet in which the prince was an ordinary individual tortured by a loss of meaning. In this production, the actors playing Hamlet, Claudius and Polonius exchanged roles at crucial moments in the performance, including the moment of Claudius' death, at which point the actor mainly associated with Hamlet fell to the ground.[145] Leopold Jessner (March 3, 1878–October 30, 1945) was a noted producer and director of German Expressionist theater. ... William II (German: ) (born Prince Frederick William Victor Albert of Prussia; German: ) (27 January 1859 – 4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from 15 June 1888... Havlíčkovy Sady Park Vinohrady (in English literally vineyards) is a cadastral district in Prague. ... Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: Yuán ShìkÇŽi; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859[1] – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... A Confucian temple in Wuwei, Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is about the Chinese province. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... For the 1989 protest, see Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ...


Notable stagings in London and New York include Barrymore's 1925 production at the Haymarket; it influenced subsequent performances by John Gielgud and Laurence Olivier.[146] Gielgud played the central role many times: his 1936 New York production ran for 136 performances, leading to the accolade that he was "the finest interpreter of the role since Barrymore".[147] Although "posterity has treated Maurice Evans less kindly", throughout the 1930s and 1940s he was regarded by many as the leading interpreter of Shakespeare in the United States and in the 1938/9 season he presented Broadway's first uncut Hamlet, running four and a half hours.[148] Olivier's 1937 performancee at the Old Vic Theatre was popular with audiences but not with critics, with James Agate writing in a famous review in The Sunday Times, "Mr. Olivier does not speak poetry badly. He does not speak it at all."[149] In 1963, Olivier directed Peter O'Toole as Hamlet in the inaugural performance of the newly formed National Theatre; critics found resonance between O'Toole's Hamlet and John Osborne's hero, Jimmy Porter, from Look Back in Anger.[150] Haymarket Theatre, ca. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Maurice Evans (born June 3, 1901 in Dorset; died March 12, 1989 in East Sussex) was a British-born actor who became a US citizen in 1941. ... The Old Vic is a theatre in the Waterloo area of London. ... James Agate (1877-1947) was a British writer famous for his witticisms. ... For other uses, see The Sunday Times (disambiguation). ... Peter Seamus OToole (born August 2, 1932, uncertain but presumed correct date[1]) is an eight-time Academy Award-nominated Irish actor. ... The Royal National Theatre from Waterloo Bridge The Royal National Theatre is a building complex and theatre company located on the South Bank in London, England immediately east of the southern end of Waterloo Bridge. ... John James Osborne (December 12, 1929 – December 24, 1994) was an English playwright, screenwriter, and critic of the Establishment. ... Look Back in Anger (1956) is a John Osborne play and 1958 movie about a love triangle involving an intelligent but disaffected young man (Jimmy Porter), his upper-middle-class, impassive wife (Alison), and her snooty best friend (Helena Charles). ...


Other New York portrayals of Hamlet of note include that of Ralph Fiennes's in 1995 (for which he won the Tony Award for Best Actor) - which ran, from first preview to closing night, a total of one hundred performances. About the Feinnes Hamlet Vincent Canby wrote in The New York Times that it was "...not one for literary sleuths and Shakespeare scholars. It respects the play, but it doesn't provide any new material for arcane debates on what it all means. Instead it's an intelligent, beautifully read..."[151] Stephen Lang's Hamlet for the Roundabout Theatre Company in 1992 received positive reviews, and ran for sixty-one performances; and Sam Waterston's for the New York Shakespeare Festival at the Vivian Beaumont Theatre in 1975 (for which Lang played Bernardo and other roles) was well-received. Off Broadway, the Riverside Shakespeare Company mounted an uncut first folio Hamlet in 1979 at Columbia University, with a playing time of under three hours.[152] In fact, Hamlet is the most produced Shakespeare play in New York theatre history, with sixty-four recorded productions on Broadway, and an untold number Off Broadway.[153] Ralph Nathaniel Fiennes, (IPA: ), born 22 December 1962) is a Tony Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated and Genie Award-nominated British actor. ... The Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American theatre and are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League [1] at an annual ceremony in New York City. ... Stephen Lang is a film actor from New York City, New York, who started in theatre on Broadway. ... The Roundabout Theatre Company is a non-profit, subscription based theatre company, based in New York City. ... Samuel Atkinson Waterston (born November 15, 1940) is an Oscar nominated American actor noted particularly for his portrayal of Jack McCoy on the long-running NBC television series Law & Order. ... New York Shakespeare Festival is the traditional name of a sequence of shows organized by the Public Theater in New York City, most often being held at the Delacorte Theater in Central Park. ... The Vivian Beaumont Theater is a Broadway theatre at the Lincoln Center. ... Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City in smaller theatres than Broadway, but larger than Off-Off-Broadway, productions. ... // The Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City was founded in 1977 as an Equity theatre company on the Upper West Side of New York City, by W. Stuart McDowell and Gloria Skurski. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Off-Broadway plays or musicals are performed in New York City in smaller theatres than Broadway, but larger than Off-Off-Broadway, productions. ...


Screen performances

Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, with Yorick's skull (Photographer: James Lafayette, c. 1885–1900)
Main article: Hamlet on screen

The earliest screen success for Hamlet was Sarah Bernhardt's five-minute film of the fencing scene,[154] produced in 1900. The film was a crude talkie, in that music and words were recorded on phonograph records, to be played along with the film.[155] Silent versions were released in 1907, 1908, 1910, 1913, and 1917.[155] In 1920, Asta Nielsen played Hamlet as a woman who spends her life disguised as a man.[155] Laurence Olivier's 1948 film noir Hamlet won best picture and best actor Oscars. His interpretation stressed the Oedipal overtones of the play, to the extent of casting the 28-year-old Eileen Herlie as Hamlet's mother, opposite himself, at 41, as Hamlet.[156] Gamlet (Russian: Гамлет) is a 1964 film adaptation in Russian, based on a translation by Boris Pasternak and directed by Grigori Kozintsev, with a score by Dmitri Shostakovich.[157] Innokenty Smoktunovsky was cast in the role of Hamlet, which won him a praise from Sir Laurence Olivier. Shakespeare experts Sir John Gielgud and Kenneth Branagh consider this work the definitive rendition of the Bard's tragic tale.[158] John Gielgud directed Richard Burton at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre in 1964–5, and a film of a live performance was produced, in ELECTRONOVISION.[159] Franco Zeffirelli's Shakespeare films have been described as "sensual rather than cerebral": his aim to make Shakespeare "even more popular".[160] To this end, he cast the Australian actor Mel Gibson—then famous for the Mad Max and Lethal Weapon movies—in the title role of his 1990 version, and Glenn Close—then famous as the psychotic other woman in Fatal Attraction—as Gertrude.[161] Sarah Bernhardt (October 23, 1844 – March 26, 1923) was a French stage actress. ... Yorick can refer to: Yorick, the deceased court jester whose skull is exhumed by the gravedigger in Act 5, Scene 1, of Shakespeares Hamlet. ... In putting Hamlet on screen, directors invariably place it within a film genre: Oliviers Hamlet, for example, is a film noir; Zeffirellis version is, to some, an action adventure and Branaghs is an epic. ... Sarah Bernhardt (October 23, 1844 – March 26, 1923) was a French stage actress. ... 1902 poster advertising Gaumonts sound films, depicting an optimistically vast auditorium A sound film is a motion picture with synchronized sound, or sound technologically coupled to image, as opposed to a silent film. ... Asta Nielsen Asta Sofie Amalie Nielsen (September 11, 1883 - May 24, 1972), also known as Die Asta, was a Danish actress, mostly appearing in German silent films during the 1910s and 1920s. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo (1955). ... Hamlet is a 1948 British film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Hamlet, directed by and starring Sir Laurence Olivier. ... ©A.M.P.A.S.® The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to artists working in the motion picture industry. ... Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding performance while working within the film industry. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Eileen Herlie (born Eileen Herlihy on March 8, 1920) is a Scottish-American actress. ... Hamlet is a 1964 film adaptation of the William Shakespeare play Hamlet based on the Russian translation of Boris Pasternak. ... Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Russian: ) (February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1890 – May 30, 1960) was a Nobel Prize-winning Russian poet and writer, in the West best known for his epic novel Doctor Zhivago. ... Grigori Mikhailovich Kozintsev (Russian: ; Kiev, 22 March (O.S. 9 March) 1905 – Leningrad, now Saint Petersburg, 11 May 1973) was a Soviet Russian film director. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Smoktunovsky as Hamlet in the 1964 movie. ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... Kenneth Charles Branagh (born December 10, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated Northern Irish-born actor and film director. ... Sir Arthur John Gielgud, OM, CH (14 April 1904 – 21 May 2000), known as Sir John Gielgud, was an English theatre and film actor. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... The Lunt-Fontanne Theatre is a Broadway theatre, located at 205 West 46th Street. ... Franco Zeffirelli (born Gianfranco Corsi on February 12, 1923), is an Italian film director. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson, AO (born January 3, 1956) is an American-Australian actor, historian, Academy Award-winning director, producer and screenwriter. ... For other uses, see Mad Max (disambiguation). ... Lethal Weapon is a 1987 action film, the first in a series of American movies that were released in 1987, 1989, 1992, and 1998, all directed by Richard Donner and starring Mel Gibson and Danny Glover as a mismatched pair of LAPD detectives. ... Hamlet is a 1990 film based on the Shakespearean play of the same name. ... Glenn Close (born March 19, 1947) is an American film and stage actress and singer, perhaps best known for her role as a deranged stalker in Fatal Attraction (1987). ... Fatal Attraction is a 1987 thriller about a married man who has a weekend affair with a woman who refuses to allow it to end and who becomes obsessed with him. ...


In contrast to Zeffirelli, whose Hamlet was heavily cut, Kenneth Branagh adapted, directed, and starred in a 1996 version containing every word of Shakespeare's play, combining the material from the F1 and Q2 texts. Branagh's Hamlet runs for around four hours.[162] Branagh set the film with late 19th-century costuming and furnishings;[163] and Blenheim Palace, built in the early 18th century, became Elsinore Castle in the external scenes. The film is structured as an epic and makes frequent use of flashbacks to highlight elements not made explicit in the play: Hamlet's sexual relationship with Kate Winslet's Ophelia, for example, or his childhood affection for Yorick (played by Ken Dodd).[164] In 2000, Michael Almereyda's Hamlet set the story in contemporary Manhattan, with Ethan Hawke playing Hamlet as a film student. Claudius became the CEO of "Denmark Corporation", having taken over the company by killing his brother.[165] Kenneth Charles Branagh (born December 10, 1960) is an Emmy Award-winning, Academy Award-nominated Northern Irish-born actor and film director. ... William Shakespeares Hamlet is a 1996 film version of William Shakespeares classic play of the same name, adapted and directed by Kenneth Branagh, who also starred in the title role. ... Blenheim Palace is a large and monumental country house situated in Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England. ... The epic film is a film genre typically featuring expensive production values, an emotionally moving music soundtrack, and dramatic themes. ... In literature, film, television and other media, a flashback (also called analepsis) is an interjected scene that takes the narrative back in time from the current point the story has reached. ... Kate Elizabeth Winslet (born October 5, 1975) is a five time Academy Award-nominated Emmy Award-nominated BAFTA, Grammy and Screen Actors Guild Award winning English actress. ... Kenneth Arthur Dodd OBE (born 8 November 1927, in Knotty Ash, Liverpool), better known as Ken Dodd, is a veteran English comedian and singer, famous for selling over 100 million records, his buck teeth, frizzy hair, feather duster (or tickling stick), and his catchphrases, often playing on the tickled motif... Michael Almereyda (born 1960 in Overland Park, Kansas) is an American film director. ... Hamlet, also referred to as Hamlet 2000, is an American film by Michael Almereyda, released in 2000, set in contemporary New York City, and based on the Shakespeare play of the same name. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Ethan Green Hawke (born November 6, 1970) is a two-time Academy Award-nominated American actor, writer and film director. ... Chief Executive redirects here. ...


Stage and screen adaptations

Further information: References to Hamlet

Hamlet has been adapted into stories that deal with civil corruption by the West German director Helmut Käutner in Der Rest ist Schweigen (The Rest is Silence) and by the Japanese director Akira Kurosawa in Warui Yatsu Hodo Yoku Nemuru (The Bad Sleep Well).[166] In Claude Chabrol's Ophélia (France, 1962) the central character, Yvan, watches Olivier's Hamlet and convinces himself—wrongly and with tragic results—that he is in Hamlet's situation.[167] Numerous references to Hamlet in popular culture (in film, literature, arts, etc. ... West Germany was the informal but almost universally used name for the Federal Republic of Germany from 1949 until 1990, during which years the Federal Republic did not yet include East Germany. ... Helmut Käutner (March 25, 1908 – April 20, 1980) was a German film director active mainly in the 1940s and 50s. ... Kurosawa redirects here. ... The Bad Sleep Well (Warui yatsu hodo yoku nemuru) is a 1960 film by the Japanese director Akira Kurosawa. ... Claude Chabrol (French IPA: ) (born June 24, 1930, Paris) is a French film director and has become well-known since his first film, Le Beau Serge (1958) for his chilling tales of murder, including Le Boucher (1970). ...


Tom Stoppard's play, Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead (which has a 1990 film version), portrays the events of Hamlet from the perspective of Hamlet's two school friends, recasting it as the tragedy of two minor characters who must die to fulfil their role in a drama that they do not understand. A parody of Hamlet called Rosencrantz and Guildenstern had been written by W. S. Gilbert in 1874. In 1977, East German playwright Heiner Müller wrote Die Hamletmaschine (Hamletmachine) a postmodernist, condensed version of Hamlet; this adaptation was subsequently incorporated into his translation of Shakespeare's play in his 1989/1990 production Hamlet/Maschine (Hamlet/Machine).[168] The highest-grossing Hamlet adaptation to date is Disney's Academy Award-winning animated feature The Lion King, which enacts a loose version of the plot among a pride of African lions.[169] Sir Tom Stoppard, OM, CBE (born as Tomáš Straussler on July 3, 1937)[1] is an Academy Award winning British playwright of more than 24 plays. ... This article is about the play. ... Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead is a 1990 film written and directed by Tom Stoppard based on his play of the same name. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 – May 29, 1911) was an English dramatist, librettist and illustrator best known for the fourteen comic operas produced in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan. ... Heiner Müller (January 9, 1929 – December 30, 1995) was an East German dramatist and writer. ... Die Hamletmaschine is a play by East German author and theatre director Heiner Müller. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ...


References

Notes

All references to Hamlet, unless otherwise specified, are taken from the Arden Shakespeare Q2 (Thompson and Taylor, 2006a). Under their referencing system, 3.1.55 means act 3, scene 1, line 55. References to the First Quarto and First Folio are marked Hamlet Q1 and Hamlet F1, respectively, and are taken from the Arden Shakespeare "Hamlet: the texts of 1603 and 1623" (Thompson and Taylor, 2006b). Their referencing system for Q1 has no act breaks, so 7.115 means scene 7, line 115.
  1. ^ Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 74).
  2. ^ Crystal and Crystal (2005, 66).
  3. ^ Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 17).
  4. ^ a b See Taylor (2002, 4); Banham (1998, 141); Hattaway asserts that "Richard Burbage ... played Hieronimo and also Richard III but then was the first Hamlet, Lear, and Othello" (1982, 91); Peter Thomson argues that the identity of Hamlet as Burbage is built into the dramaturgy of several moments of the play: "we will profoundly misjudge the position if we do not recognise that, whilst this is Hamlet talking about the groundlings, it is also Burbage talking to the groundlings" (1983, 24); see also Thomson on the first player's beard (1983, 110).
  5. ^ Hamlet 1.4.
  6. ^ Hamlet 2.1.99.
  7. ^ a b The Gravedigger Scene: Hamlet 5.1.1–205.
  8. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 36–37).
  9. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 16–25).
  10. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 5–15).
  11. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 1–5).
  12. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 25–37).
  13. ^ Edwards (1985, 1–2).
  14. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 66–67).
  15. ^ Jenkins (1982, 82–85).
  16. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 67).
  17. ^ In his 1936 book The Problem of Hamlet: A Solution Andrew Carincross asserted that the Hamlet referred to in 1589 was written by Shakespeare; Peter Alexander (1964), Eric Sams (according to Jackson 1991, 267) and, more recently, Harold Bloom (2001, xiii and 383; 2003, 154) have agreed. This is also the opinion of anti-Stratfordians (Ogburn 1988, 631). Harold Jenkins, the editor of the second series Arden edition of the play, dismisses the idea as groundless (1982, 84 n4). Francis Meres's Palladis Tamia (published in 1598, probably October) provides a list of twelve named Shakespeare plays, but Hamlet is not among them (Lott 1970, xlvi).
  18. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 66–68).
  19. ^ Saxo and Hansen (1983, 6).
  20. ^ Greenblatt (2004a, 311); Greenblatt (2004b).
  21. ^ Shakespeare's Last Will and Testament.
  22. ^ MacCary suggests 1599 or 1600 (1998, 13); James Shapiro offers late 1600 or early 1601 (2005, 341); Wells and Taylor suggest that the play was written in 1600 and revised later (1988, 653); the New Cambridge editor settles on mid-1601 (Edwards 1985, 8); the New Swan Shakespeare Advanced Series editor agrees with 1601 (Lott 1970, xlvi); Thompson and Taylor, tentatively ("according to whether one is the more persuaded by Jenkins or by Honigmann") suggest a terminus ad quem of either Spring 1601 or sometime in 1600 (2001a, 58–59).
  23. ^ MacCary (1998, 12–13) and Edwards (1985, 5–6).
  24. ^ a b Lott (1970, xlvi).
  25. ^ Hamlet F1 2.2.337. The whole conversation between Rozencrantz, Guildenstern and Hamlet concerning the touring players' departure from the city is at Hamlet "F1" 2.2.324–360.
  26. ^ Edwards (1985, 5).
  27. ^ Hattaway (1987, 13–20).
  28. ^ Chambers (1923, vol. 3, 486–487) and Halliday (1964, 204–205).
  29. ^ Halliday (1964, 204).
  30. ^ a b Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 78).
  31. ^ Hibbard (1987, 22–23).
  32. ^ Hattaway (1987, 16).
  33. ^ Thompson and Taylor published Q2, with appendices, in their first volume (2006a) and the F1 and Q1 texts in their second volume (2006b). Bate and Rasmussen (2007) is the F1 text with additional Q2 passages in an appendix. The New Cambridge series has begun to publish separate volumes for the separate quarto versions that exist of Shakespeare's plays (Irace 1998).
  34. ^ Hamlet 3.4 and 4.1.
  35. ^ Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 543–552).
  36. ^ Jenkins (1982, 14).
  37. ^ Hamlet Q1 14.
  38. ^ Jackson (1986, 171).
  39. ^ Irace (1998); Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 85–86).
  40. ^ Thompson and Taylor (2006b, 36–37) and Checklist of Q1 Productions in Thompson and Taylor (2006b, 38–39).
  41. ^ Wofford (1994) and Kirsch (1968).
  42. ^ Vickers (1974a, 447) and (1974b, 92).
  43. ^ Wofford (1994, 184–185).
  44. ^ Vickers (1974c, 5).
  45. ^ Wofford (1994, 185).
  46. ^ a b Wofford (1994, 186).
  47. ^ Rosenberg (1992, 179).
  48. ^ MacCary (1998, 67–72, 84).
  49. ^ Based on the length of the first edition of The Riverside Shakespeare (1974).
  50. ^ Also used in Love's Labour's Lost and A Midsummer Night's Dream. Kermode (2000, 256).
  51. ^ MacCary (1998, 84–85).
  52. ^ Hamlet 3.1.63–64.
  53. ^ Hamlet 1.2.85–86.
  54. ^ MacCary (1998, 89–90).
  55. ^ Hamlet 3.1.87–148 especially lines 120, 129, 136, 139 and 148.
  56. ^ Oxford English Dictionary (2004, CD).
  57. ^ Hamlet 2.1.63-65.
  58. ^ Hamlet 3.1.151 and 3.1.154. The Nunnery Scene: Hamlet 3.1.87–160.
  59. ^ MacCary (1998, 87–88).
  60. ^ MacCary (1998, 91–93).
  61. ^ MacCary (1998, 37–38); in the New Testament, see Romans 12:19: " 'vengeance is mine, I will repay' sayeth the Lord".
  62. ^ MacCary (1998, 38).
  63. ^ Hamlet 5.2.197–202.
  64. ^ Hamlet Q1 17.45–46.
  65. ^ Blits (2001, 3–21).
  66. ^ Hamlet F1 2.2.247–248.
  67. ^ MacCary (1998, 47–48).
  68. ^ Hamlet 3.1.55–87 especially line 55.
  69. ^ MacCary (1998, 28–49).
  70. ^ MacCary (1998, 49).
  71. ^ Knowles (1999, 1049 and 1052–1053) cited by Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 73–74); MacCary (1998, 49).
  72. ^ Baskerville (1934, 827–830).
  73. ^ Jones (2007, web page).
  74. ^ French writes in 1869: "The next important personages in the play are the 'Lord Chamberlain', Polonius; his son, Laertes; and daughter, Ophelia; and these are supposed to stand for Queen Elizabeth's celebrated Lord High Treasurer, Sir William Cecil, Lord Burleigh; his second son, Robert Cecil; and his daughter, Anne Cecil" (301). Excepts from his research may be found here. In 1932, John Dover Wilson wrote: "the figure of Polonius is almost without doubt intended as a caricature of Burleigh, who died on August 4, 1598" (1932, 104).
  75. ^ Winstanley (1921, 112). Winstanley devotes 20 pages proposing connections between scenes involving Polonius and people and events in Elizabethan England.
  76. ^ See Chambers (1930, 418); in 1964, Hurstfield and Sutherland wrote: "The governing classes were both paternalistic and patronizing; and nowhere is this attitude better displayed than in the advice which that archetype of elder statesmen William Cecil, Lord Burghley—Shakespeare's Polonius—prepared for his son" (1964, 35).
  77. ^ Rowse (1963, 323).
  78. ^ Ogburn (1988, 202–203). As glossed by Mark Anderson, "With 'cor' meaning 'heart' and with 'bis' or 'ambis' meaning 'twice' or 'double', Corambis can be taken for the Latin of 'double-hearted,' which implies 'deceitful' or 'two-faced'."
  79. ^ Winstanley (1921, 122–124).
  80. ^ Ogburn (1984, 84–86).
  81. ^ Matus (1994, 234–237).
  82. ^ a b Freud (1900, 367).
  83. ^ a b c d e Britton (1995, 207-211).
  84. ^ Freud (1900, 368).
  85. ^ The nunnery conversation referred to in this sentence is Hamlet 3.1.87–160.
  86. ^ The Closet Scene: Hamlet 3.4.
  87. ^ MacCary (1998, 104–107, 113–116) and de Grazia (2007, 168–170).
  88. ^ Smallwood (2002, 102).
  89. ^ Hamlet 4.5.
  90. ^ Wofford (1994, 199–202).
  91. ^ Howard (2003, 411–415).
  92. ^ Bloom (2003, 58–59); Thompson (2001, 4).
  93. ^ Showalter (1985).
  94. ^ Bloom (2003, 57).
  95. ^ MacCary (1998, 111–113).
  96. ^ Hamlet has 208 quotations in "The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations; it takes up 10 of 85 pages dedicated to Shakespeare in the 1986 Bartlett's Familiar Quotations (14th ed. 1968). For examples of lists of the greatest books, see Harvard Classics, Great Books, Great Books of the Western World, Harold Bloom's The Western Canon, St. John's College reading list, and Columbia College Core Curriculum.
  97. ^ Osborne (2007, 114–133 especially 115 and 120).
  98. ^ a b c d e Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 123–126).
  99. ^ Welsh (2001, 131).
  100. ^ a b Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 126–131).
  101. ^ Novy (1994, 62, 77–78).
  102. ^ Hamlet 3.1.55–87.
  103. ^ Taylor (2002, 13).
  104. ^ Thompson and Taylor (2006a; 53–55); Chambers (1930, vol. 1, 334), cited by Dawson (2002, 176).
  105. ^ Dawson (2002, 176).
  106. ^ Pitcher and Woudhuysen (1969, 204).
  107. ^ Hibbard (1987, 17).
  108. ^ Marsden (2002, 21).
  109. ^ Holland (2007, 34).
  110. ^ Marsden (2002, 21–22).
  111. ^ Samuel Pepys records his delight at the novelty of Hamlet "done with scenes"; see Thompson and Taylor (1996, 57).
  112. ^ Taylor (1989, 16).
  113. ^ Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 98–99).
  114. ^ Letter to Sir William Young, 10 January 1773, quoted by Uglow (1977, 473).
  115. ^ Morrison (2002, 231).
  116. ^ Moody (2002, 41).
  117. ^ Moody (2002, 44), quoting Sheridan.
  118. ^ Gay (2002, 159).
  119. ^ Dawson (2002, 185–187).
  120. ^ Morrison (2002, 232–233).
  121. ^ Morrison (2002, 235–237).
  122. ^ William Winter, New York Tribune 26 October 1875, quoted by Morrison (2002, 241).
  123. ^ Morrison (2002, 241).
  124. ^ Schoch (2002, 58–75).
  125. ^ George Bernard Shaw in The Saturday Review 2 October 1897, quoted in Shaw (1961, 81).
  126. ^ Moody (2002, 54).
  127. ^ Halliday (1964, 204) and O'Connor (2002, 77).
  128. ^ Sarah Bernhardt, in a letter to the London Daily Telegraph, quoted by Gay (2002, 164).
  129. ^ Holland (2002, 203–205).
  130. ^ Dawson (2002, 184).
  131. ^ Dawson (2002, 188).
  132. ^ a b c Gillies et al (2002, 259–262).
  133. ^ Dawson (2002, 180).
  134. ^ For more on this production, see The MAT production of Hamlet. Craig and Stanislavski began planning the production in 1908 but, due to a serious illness of Stanislavski's, it was delayed until December, 1911. See Benedetti (1998, 188–211).
  135. ^ Benedetti (1999, 189, 195).
  136. ^ On Craig's relationship to Russian symbolism and its principles of monodrama in particular, see Taxidou (1998, 38–41); on Craig's staging proposals, see Innes (1983, 153); on the centrality of the protagonist and his mirroring of the 'authorial self', see Taxidou (1998, 181, 188) and Innes (1983, 153).
  137. ^ The First Court Scene: Hamlet 1.2.1–128.
  138. ^ A brightly lit, golden pyramid descended from Claudius' throne, representing the feudal hierarchy, giving the illusion of a single, unified mass of bodies. In the dark, shadowy foreground, separated by a gauze, Hamlet lay, as if dreaming. On Claudius' exit-line the figures remained but the gauze was loosened, so that they appeared to melt away as if Hamlet's thoughts had turned elsewhere. For this effect, the scene received an ovation, which was unheard of at the MAT. See Innes (1983, 152).
  139. ^ See Innes (1983, 140–175; esp. 165–167 on the use of the screens).
  140. ^ Innes (1983, 172).
  141. ^ Hortmann (2002, 214).
  142. ^ Hortmann (2002, 223).
  143. ^ Burian (1993), quoted by Hortmann (2002, 224–225).
  144. ^ a b c Gillies et al. (2002, 267–269).
  145. ^ Morrison (2002, 247–248); Thompson and Taylor (2006a, 109).
  146. ^ Morrison (2002, 249).
  147. ^ Morrison (2002, 249–250).
  148. ^ "Olivier" by Robert Tanitch, Abbeville Press, 1985
  149. ^ Smallwood (2002, 108); National Theatre reviews Retrieved: 4 December 2007.
  150. ^ Vincent Canby, "Theatre Review: Ralph Fiennes as Mod Hamlet," The New York Times May 3, 1995.
  151. ^ Ari Panagako, "Dandy Hamlet Bows Uptown", Heights/Inwood Press of North Manhattan, June 14, 1978.
  152. ^ According to the Internet Broadway Database: http://www.ibdb.com/show; Romeo and Juliet is the second most-produced Shakespeare play on Broadway, with thirty-four different productions, followed by Twelfth Night, with thirty.
  153. ^ The Fencing Scene: Hamlet 5.2.203–387.
  154. ^ a b c Brode (2001, 117–118).
  155. ^ Davies (2000, 171).
  156. ^ Guntner (2000, 120–121).
  157. ^ http://movies.nytimes.com/person/66625/Innokenti-Smoktunovsky/biography)
  158. ^ Brode (2001, 125–127).
  159. ^ Both quotations from Cartmell (2000, 212), where the aim of making Shakespeare "even more popular" is attributed to Zeffirelli himself in an interview given to The South Bank Show in December 1997.
  160. ^ Guntner (2000, 121–122).
  161. ^ Crowl (2000, 232).
  162. ^ Starks (1999, 272).
  163. ^ Keyishian (2000, 78–79).
  164. ^ Burnett (2000).
  165. ^ Howard (2000, 300–301).
  166. ^ Howard (2000, 301–302).
  167. ^ Teraoka (1985, 13).
  168. ^ Vogler (1992, 267–275).

Dramaturgy is the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. ... Eric Sams (1926—Sept. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays. ... Francis Meres (1565 - January 29, 1647), was an English churchman and author. ... Terminus post quem, (limit after which), Earliest point in time when the text may have been written. ... For the film, see Loves Labours Lost (2000 film). ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... is the 216th day of the year (217th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 7 - Boris Godunov seizes the throne of Russia following the death of his brother-in-law, Tsar Feodor I. April 13 - Edict of Nantes - Henry IV of France grants French Huguenots equal rights with Catholics. ... The Oxford Dictionary of Quotations is an 1100-page book listing short quotations that are common in English language and culture. ... Bartletts Familiar Quotations, often simply called Bartletts, is an American reference work that is the longest-lived and most widely distributed collection of quotations. ... The Harvard Classics, originally known as Dr. Eliots Five Foot Shelf, was a fifty-volume anthology of works selected by Charles W. Eliot. ... Great Books refers to a curriculum and a book list. ... The Great Books Great Books of the Western World is a series of books originally published in the United States in 1952 by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... St. ... The Core Curriculum was originally developed as the main curriculum used by Columbia Universitys Columbia College. ... Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1773 (MDCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Richard Brinsley Sheridan Richard Brinsley Sheridan (October 30, 1751 – July 7, 1816) was an Irish playwright and Whig statesman. ... The New York Tribune building - today the site of Pace Universitys building complex of One Pace Plaza in New York City The New York Tribune was established by Horace Greeley in 1841 and was long considered one of the leading newspapers in the United States. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Sarah Bernhardt (October 23, 1844 – March 26, 1923) was a French stage actress. ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... Young Stanislavski Stanislavski in Carlo Goldonis La locandiera (The Innkeeper Woman, 1753), in 1898. ... Mikhail Nesterovs painting Vision to Youth Bartholomew (1890) is often taken as a starting point of Russian Symbolism. ... A monodrama (also Solospiel in German; solo play) is a theatrical melodrama in which there is only one character. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... A scrim or gauze is a very light textile made from cotton, or sometimes flax. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The Moscow Art Theatre is a theatre company in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1897 by Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... Twelfth Night has at least three meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday), celebrated by some Christians Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare Twelfth Night (band), a progressive rock band This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... The South Bank Show is a British television arts magazine show, presented by Melvyn Bragg and seen in over 60 countries — including Australia, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Sweden and the USA. Its stated aim is to bring both high art and popular culture to a mass audience. ...

Editions of Hamlet

  • Bate, Jonathan, and Eric Rasmussen, eds. 2007. Complete Works. By William Shakespeare. The RSC Shakespeare. New York: Modern Library. ISBN 0679642951.
  • Edwards, Phillip, ed. 1985. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. New Cambridge Shakespeare ser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521293669.
  • Hibbard, G. R., ed. 1987. Hamlet. Oxford World's Classics ser. Oxford. ISBN 0192834169.
  • Hoy, Cyrus, ed. 1992. Hamlet. Norton Critical Edition ser. 2nd ed. New York: Norton. ISBN 9780393956634.
  • Irace, Kathleen O. 1998. The First Quarto of Hamlet. New Cambridge Shakespeare ser. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521653908.
  • Jenkins, Harold, ed. 1982. Hamlet. The Arden Shakespeare, second ser. London: Methuen. ISBN 1903436672.
  • Lott, Bernard, ed. 1970. Hamlet. New Swan Shakespeare Advanced ser. New ed. London: Longman. ISBN 0582527422.
  • Spencer, T. J. B., ed. 1980 Hamlet. New Penguin Shakespeare ser. London: Penguin. ISBN 0140707344.
  • Thompson, Ann and Neil Taylor, eds. 2006a. Hamlet. The Arden Shakespeare, third ser. Volume one. London: Arden. ISBN 1904271332.
  • ———. 2006b. Hamlet: The Texts of 1603 and 1623. The Arden Shakespeare, third ser. Volume two. London: Arden. ISBN 1904271804.
  • Wells, Stanley, and Gary Taylor, eds. 1988. The Complete Works. By William Shakespeare. The Oxford Shakespeare. Compact ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198711905.

Secondary sources

  • Alexander, Peter. 1964. Alexander's Introductions to Shakespeare. London: Collins.
  • Banham, Martin, ed. 1998. The Cambridge Guide to Theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521434378.
  • Baskerville, Charles Read. ed. 1934. Elizabethan and Stuart Plays. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
  • Benedetti, Jean. 1999. Stanislavski: His Life and Art. Revised edition. Original edition published in 1988. London: Methuen. ISBN 0413525201.
  • Blits, Jan H. 2001. Introduction. In Deadly Thought: "Hamlet" and the Human Soul: 3–22. Langham, MD: Lexington Books. ISBN 0739102141.
  • Bloom, Harold. 2001. Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. Open Market ed. Harlow, Essex: Longman. ISBN 157322751X.
  • ———. 2003. Hamlet: Poem Unlimited. Edinburgh: Cannongate. ISBN 1841954616.
  • Britton, Celia. 1995. "Structuralist and poststructuralist psychoanalytic and Marxist theories" in Cambridge History of Literary Criticism: From Formalism to Poststructuralism (Vol 8). Ed. Raman Seldon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1995. ISBN 978-0521300131.
  • Brode, Douglas. 2001. Shakespeare in the Movies: From the Silent Era to Today. New York: Berkley Boulevard Books. ISBN 0425181766.
  • Brown, John Russell. 2006. Hamlet: A Guide to the Text and its Theatrical Life. Shakespeare Handbooks ser. Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1403920923.
  • Burian, Jarka. 1993. "Hamlet in Postwar Czech Theatre". In Foreign Shakespeare: Contemporary Performance. Ed. Dennis Kennedy. New edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. ISBN 0521617081.
  • Burnett, Mark Thornton. 2000. " 'To Hear and See the Matter': Communicating Technology in Michael Almereyda's Hamlet (2000)". Cinema Journal 42.3: 48–69.
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Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... For other persons named Thomas Eliot, see Thomas Eliot (disambiguation). ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... A modern English edition of The Interpretation of Dreams. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jacques-Marie-Émile Lacan (French pronounced ) (April 13, 1901 – September 9, 1981) was a French psychoanalyst, psychiatrist, and doctor, who made prominent contributions to the psychoanalytic movement. ... John Lennard is Professor of British and American Literature at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and a freelance academic and writer. ... // Charlton Ogburn, Jr. ... // Charlton Ogburn, Jr. ... William H. Quillian is at Mount Holyoke College where he has been a professor (and departmental chair on two occasions) since 1975. ... Saxo, etching by the Danish-Norwegian illustrator Louis Moe (1857 – 1945) Saxo Grammaticus (estimated. ... George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856–2 November 1950) was a world-renowned Irish author. ... Elaine Showalter (1941- ) is an American literary critic, feminist, and writer on cultural and social issues. ... For other uses, see Gary Taylor (disambiguation). ... A remix is an alternative version of a song, different from the original version. ... Stanley Wells is a Shakespeare scholar, who was Professor of Shakespeare Studies and Director of the Shakespeare Institute, University of Birmingham from 1988-1997, and is now emeritus Professor of Shakespeare Studies. ... John Dover Wilson (July 13, 1881-January 15, 1969) was a professor and scholar of Renaissance drama, focusing particularly on the work of William Shakespeare. ...

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  • Open Source Shakespeare—Hamlet A complete text of Hamlet based on Q2.
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  • Hamlet (Regained) — Full play text, with parallel modern English translation, and extensive notes.
  • "HyperHamlet" — The Q2 text, with copious hyper-linked references and notes. Run by the University of Basel.
  • Hamlet with Hypertext - The full text of the play with easy-to-use hypertext commentary for all readers. You can even add your own commentary.
Analysis
  • Hamlet on the Ramparts — The MIT's Shakespeare Electronic Archive.
  • Hamletworks.org A highly respected scholarly resource with multiple versions of Hamlet, numerous commentaries, concordances, facsimiles, and more.
  • "The Hamlet Weblog" — A weblog about the play.
  • "Nine Hamlets" — An analysis of the play and nine film versions, at the Bright Lights Film Journal.
  • Full summary of Hamlet
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti Prince Hamlet is the main character in Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... Claudius is a fictional character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet. ... In William Shakespeares play Hamlet, Gertrude is Hamlets mother and Queen of Denmark. ... King Hamlet is a character from William Shakespeares play Hamlet, also known as The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. ... Polonius is a character from William Shakespeares Hamlet. ... Laertes and Ophelia Laertes is a character from William Shakespeares play, Hamlet. ... John William Waterhouses painting Ophelia (1894) Ophelia is a fictional character in the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare. ... Horatio is Hamlets friend from university in William Shakespeares play. ... A lithograph of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in the flute scene from Hamlet Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are minor fictional characters from William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... Fortinbras is a minor fictional character from William Shakespeares tragedy Hamlet. ... The Gravediggers (or Clowns) are examples of Shakespearean fools (also known as clowns or jesters), a recurring type of character in Shakespeares plays. ... Yoricks skull in the gravedigger scene (5. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the Ernst Lubitsch film, see To Be or Not to Be (1942 film). ... The phrase What a piece of work is a man! comes from Shakespeares Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, Act II, scene II, and it is often used in reference to the whole speech containing the line. ... Speak the speech is a famous speech from Shakespeares Hamlet (1601). ... Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti From its premiere at the turn of the seventeenth century, Hamlet has been one of Shakespeares best-known, most-imitated, and most-analyzed plays. ... Hamlet is a striking figure in Scandinavian romance and the hero of Shakespeares tragedy, Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. ... Title page of the Quarto edition (1615) The Spanish Tragedie: or, Hieronimo is Mad Againe is an Elizabethan tragedy written by Thomas Kyd between 1587-1590 and first performed in London around 1590. ... Ur-Hamlet was the name given by nineteenth century German scholars to a pre-Shakespearean Hamlet written before 1589. ... Hamlet and Ophelia, by Dante Gabriel Rossetti From its premiere at the turn of the seventeenth century, Hamlet has been one of Shakespeares best-known, most-imitated, and most-analyzed plays. ... William Shakespeares play Hamlet has contributed many phrases to common English, from the famous To be, or not to be to a few less known, but still in everyday English. ... Numerous references to Hamlet in popular culture (in film, literature, arts, etc. ... Ophelia was a favorite subject of artist John William Waterhouse. ... French actress Sarah Bernhardt as Hamlet, in a publicity postcard from the end of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ... Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead is a humorous, absurdist, tragic and existentialist play by Tom Stoppard, first staged in 1966. ... Die Hamletmaschine is a play by East German author and theatre director Heiner Müller. ... Hamlet is an opera in five acts by the French composer Ambroise Thomas. ... Strange Brew is also the title of a song by the band Cream (released on their 1967 album Disraeli Gears), and of a compilation album - Strange Brew: The Very Best of Cream Strange Brew is a 1983 film starring the popular SCTV characters Bob & Doug McKenzie, played by Dave Thomas... Gertrude and Claudius is a 1997 novel by John Updike. ... Hamlet is a 1920 film adaptation of the William Shakespeare play Hamlet starring Danish silent film legend Asta Nielsen. ... Hamlet is a 1948 British film adaptation of William Shakespeares play Hamlet, directed by and starring Sir Laurence Olivier. ... Hamlet is a 1964 film adaptation of the William Shakespeare play Hamlet based on the Russian translation of Boris Pasternak. ... Hamlet is a 1969 film of the play by Shakespeare, starring Nicol Williamson as the Dane. ... Hamlet is a 1990 film based on the Shakespearean play of the same name. ... William Shakespeares Hamlet is a 1996 film version of William Shakespeares classic play of the same name, adapted and directed by Kenneth Branagh, who also starred in the title role. ... Hamlet, also referred to as Hamlet 2000, is an American film by Michael Almereyda, released in 2000, set in contemporary New York City, and based on the Shakespeare play of the same name. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare2. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616)[1] was an English poet and playwright. ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... Detail from statue of Shakespeare in Leicester Square, London. ... William Shakespeares influence extends from theatre to literature to the English language itself. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays. ... Shakespeare wrote tragedies from the beginning of his career. ... Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. ... Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus by Gaspare Landi Photo courtesy of The VRoma Project. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Imogen This article is about Shakespeares play. ... Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ... King Lear and the Fool in the Storm by William Dyce (1806-1864) King Lear is a play by William Shakespeare, considered one of his greatest tragedies, based on the legend of King Lear of Britain. ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Timon (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) For the band of the same name, see Titus Andronicus (band). ... For the Chaucer poem, see Troilus and Criseyde. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Chiodos album, see Alls Well That Ends Well (album). ... Walter Deverell,The Mock Marriage of Orlando and Rosalind, 1853 William Shakespeares As You Like It is a pastoral comedy written in 1599 or early 1600. ... Poster for a performance The Comedy of Errors is one of William Shakespeares early plays, written between 1592 and 1594. ... For the film, see Loves Labours Lost (2000 film). ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Title page of the 1602 quarto The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Sir John Falstaff and is Shakespeares only play to deal exclusively with contemporary English life. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Title page of the 1611 quarto edition of the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a play written (at least in part) by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected plays despite some questions over its authorship. ... Taming of the Shrew by Augustus Egg The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... Twelfth Night has at least three meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday), celebrated by some Christians Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare Twelfth Night (band), a progressive rock band This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... The Two Gentlemen of Verona is a comedy by William Shakespeare from early in his career. ... The Two Noble Kinsmen is a play written in 1613 by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare in collaboration. ... Florizel and Perdita by Charles Robert Leslie. ... Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... The Life and Death of King John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ... Henry IV part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare, first published as part of Shakespeares First Folio. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V, also known as The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... The First Part of King Henry the Sixth is one of Shakespeares history plays. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Katherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... -1... Title page of the first quarto (1593) Venus and Adonis is one of Shakespeares three longer poems. ... The Earl of Southampton, painted in 1594, aged 21, the year that Shakespeare dedicated The Rape of Lucrece to him The narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece is the graver work promised by English dramatist-poet William Shakespeare in his dedication to his patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton... The Passionate Pilgrim is a collection of poems, first published in 1599, attributed on the title-page to William Shakespeare. ... The Phoenix and the Turtle is a poem by William Shakespeare. ... A Lovers Complaint is a narrative poem usually attributed to William Shakespeare, although the poems authorship is a matter of critical debate. ... The Shakespeare Apocrypha is the name given to a group of plays that have sometimes been attributed to William Shakespeare, but whose attribution is questionable for various reasons. ... The Reign of King Edward III is a play attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Playtext from the 2005 Royal Shakespeare Company production. ... Publicity poster for the 2002 Los Angeles production of The Second Maidens Tragedy as The History of Cardenio is a lost play, known to have been performed by the Kings Men, a London theatre company, in 1613. ... Loves Labours Won, alternatively written Loves labours wonne, is the name of a play written by William Shakespeare before 1598. ... The Birth of Merlin, or, The Child Hath Found his Father is a Jacobean play, written in 1622. ... Locrine is an Elizabethan play depicting the legendary Trojan founders of the nation of England and of Troynovant (London). ... The London Prodigal is a city comedy set in London in which a prodigal son learns the error of his ways. ... Title page of the 1607 quarto The Puritan is a Jacobean comedy, published in 1607, generally considered to be written by Thomas Middleton. ... The Second Maidens Tragedy is a Jacobean play that survives only in manuscript. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sir John Oldcastle is an Elizabethan play about John Oldcastle, a controversial 14th-15th century rebel and Lollard who was seen by some of Shakespeares contemporaries as a proto-Protestant martyr. ... Thomas Lord Cromwell is an Elizabethan play, published in 1602. ... A Yorkshire Tragedy is an early Jacobean era stage play, a domestic tragedy printed in 1608. ... Fair Em, the Millers Daughter of Manchester, is an Elizabethan comedy written ca. ... Mucedorus is a play at one time claimed to be one of Shakespeares. ... The Merry Devil of Edmonton is an Elizabethan comedy about a magician, Peter Fabel, nicknamed the Merry Devil. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edmund Ironside is an anonymous Elizabethan play that depicts the life of Edmund II of England; however, at least two critics have suggested it is an early work by Shakespeare. ... Vortigern and Rowena, or Vortigern, an Historical Play is a play that was touted as a newly discovered work by William Shakespeare when it first appeared in 1796. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985. ... The following is a partially complete list of titles of works based on Shakespearean phrases. ... In Shakespeare studies, the term problem plays normally refers to three comedies that William Shakespeare wrote between the late 1590s and the first years of the seventeenth century: Alls Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure and The Merchant of Venice, although some critics would extend the term to... This list contains the biographies of historical figures who appear in the plays of William Shakespeare. ... In playwriting, a ghost character is a character that is mentioned as appearing on stage but neither says nor does anything but enter, and possibly exit. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hamlet Summary and Study Guide - William Shakespeare (661 words)
In the words of Ernest Johnson, “the dilemma of Hamlet the Prince and Man” is “to disentangle himself from the temptation to wreak justice for the wrong reasons and in evil passion, and to do what he must do at last for the pure sake of justice….
Hamlet is angry at his uncle even before he sees his father's ghost and learns of...
Marcellus, Horatio, Hamlet, and the Ghost by Henry Fuseli
Hamlet and His Problems. Eliot, T. S. 1920. The Sacred Wood (1593 words)
And Hamlet the character has had an especial temptation for that most dangerous type of critic: the critic with a mind which is naturally of the creative order, but which through some weakness in creative power exercises itself in criticism instead.
And the supposed identity of Hamlet with his author is genuine to this point: that Hamlet's bafflement at the absence of objective equivalent to his feelings is a prolongation of the bafflement of his creator in the face of his artistic problem.
Hamlet is up against the difficulty that his disgust is occasioned by his mother, but that his mother is not an adequate equivalent for it; his disgust envelops and exceeds her.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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