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Encyclopedia > Hamburg
Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg
Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg
Flag Coat of arms

Details
Location
Coordinates 53°35′00″N 9°59′00″E / 53.583333, 9.983333Coordinates: 53°35′00″N 9°59′00″E / 53.583333, 9.983333
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Administration
Country Germany
NUTS Region DE6
First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU)
Governing parties CDU / Alliance '90/The Greens
Votes in Bundesrat 3 (of 69)
Basic statistics
Area  755 km² (292 sq mi)
Population 1,769,117 (10/2007)[1]
 - Density 2,343 /km² (6,069 /sq mi)
Other information
GDP/ Nominal € 86,153 billion (2006)
Postal codes 20001–21149, 22001–22769
Area codes 040
Licence plate code HH
Website hamburg.de

Hamburg (German language: pronounced [ˈhambʊʁk]; English: [ˈhæmbəˑg]) is the second-largest city in Germany and along with Hamburg Harbour, its principal port, Hamburg is also the second-largest port in Europe (after Rotterdam), ninth-largest port in the world, and the most populous city in the European Union which is not a national capital. The city, defined according to its current administrative area, contains 1.8 million inhabitants, the Hamburg Metropolitan Area is home to 4.5 million people. Hamburg is a city-state in Germany It is also the name of several places in the United States of America: Hamburg, Arkansas Hamburg Township, Michigan Hamburg, Minnesota Hamburg, New Jersey Hamburg, New York Hamburg, North Carolina (now Glenville) Hamburg, Pennsylvania Hamburg, South Carolina Hamburg, Wisconsin Hamburg is also a... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 389 pixelsFull resolution (1772 × 861 pixel, file size: 471 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hamburg. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Hamburg. ... Greater Coat of arms of Hamburg Lesser Coat of arms of Hamburg This article is about the coat of arms of the German state and city of Hamburg. ... Image File history File links Deutschland_Lage_von_Hamburg. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Time (CET) is one of the names of the time zone that is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries that do not observe summer time Central European Summer Time (CEST) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... Central European Time West Africa Time British Summer Time* Irish Summer Time* Western European Summer Time* Category: ... Eastern European Time Central Africa Time Israel Standard Time South Africa Standard Time Central European Summer Time West Africa Summer Time Category: ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) is a geocode standard for referencing the administrative division of countries for statistical purposes. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The following is a list of mayors of Hamburg, the city-state in Germany. ... Carl-Friedrich Arp Freiherr von Beust, generally called Ole von Beust, born April 13, 1955 in Hamburg, Germany, Mayor of the city-state (Bundesland) of Hamburg since 2001. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... GDP redirects here. ... German Postleitzahl map of the first two digits Postal codes in Germany, Postleitzahl (plural Postleitzahlen, abbreviated to PLZ), consist of five digits, which indicate the wider area (first two digits), and the postal district (last three digits). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... German car number plates (Kfz-Kennzeichen) show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Landungsbrücken (“Jetties”), in St. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ... This list includes the most up-to-date official census figures or census estimates with regards to the population of the largest cities in the European Union. ...


The official name Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg); refers to Hamburg's membership in the medieval Hanseatic League and the fact that Hamburg is a city-state and one of the sixteen Federal States of Germany. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). ...


Hamburg is on the southern tip of the Jutland Peninsula, centred between Continental Europe to the south, Scandinavia to the north, the North Sea to the west, and the Baltic Sea to the east. The city of Hamburg lies at the junction of the River Elbe with the rivers Alster and Bille. The city centre is set around two lakes, the Binnenalster ("Inner Alster") and the Außenalster ("Outer Alster"). The island of Neuwerk and two other islands in the North Sea are also part of Hamburg, forming the Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park. Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland, German: Jütland) is a peninsula in northern Europe that forms the continental part of Denmark and a northern part of Germany, dividing the North Sea from the Baltic Sea. ... Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Alster in Hamburg The Alster is a 53 km long right tributary of the river Elbe in Northern Germany. ... The Bille river is a small, slow-flowing river in Stormarn, Schleswig-Holstein. ... The Binnenalster (meaning inner Alster) is one of two artificial lakes within the city limits of Hamburg, Germany, which are formed by the river Alster (the other being the Außenalster). ... The Außenalster (meaning outer Alster) is one of two artificial lakes within the city limits of Hamburg, Germany, which are formed by the river Alster (the other being the Binnenalster). ... Neuwerk is a Wadden Sea island on the German coast of the North Sea. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... The Wadden Sea National Parks are located along the German coast of the North Sea. ...


An international trade city, Hamburg is the commercial and cultural centre of Northern Germany. A citizen of Hamburg is referred to as a Hamburger. Northern Germany is the the geographic area of the five German states Bremen, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Niedersachsen and Schleswig-Holstein in the German Lowlands known as the Northern German Plain with Low German as the historic language (see: Benrath line). ...

Contents

History

Hamburg in 1800.

The city takes its name from the first permanent building on the site, a castle ordered to be built by Emperor Charlemagne in 808 AD. The castle was built on rocky ground in a marsh between the Alster and the Elbe as a defense against Slavic incursion. The castle was named Hammaburg, where "burg" means "castle". The "Hamma" element remains uncertain. Old High German includes both a hamma, "angle" and a hamme, "pastureland". The angle might refer to a spit of land or to the curvature of a river. However, the language spoken might not have been Old High German, as Low Saxon was spoken there later. Other theories hold that the castle was named for a surrounding Hamma forest, or for the village of Hamm, later incorporated into the city. Hamm as a place name occurs a number of times in Germany, but its meaning is equally uncertain. It could be related to "heim" and Hamburg could have been placed in the territory of the ancient Chamavi. However, a derivation of "home city" is perhaps too direct, as the city was named after the castle. Another theory is that Hamburg comes from ham which is Old Saxon for shore. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (854x792, 55 KB) own drawing from atlas town of hamburg an surrounding app. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (854x792, 55 KB) own drawing from atlas town of hamburg an surrounding app. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... The (Late Old High) German speaking area of the Holy Roman Empire around 950. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ... The Chamavi first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania of Tacitus as a Germanic tribe that, for most of their history, existed along the north bank of the lower Rhine in the region today called Hamaland after them. ...


In 834 Hamburg was designated the seat of a bishopric, whose first bishop, Ansgar, became known as the Apostle of the North. In 845 a fleet of 600 Viking ships came up the River Elbe and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. Two years later, Hamburg was united with Bremen as the bishopric of Hamburg-Bremen. In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... For the city in Iowa, see St. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... The Archbishopric of Bremen was an ecclesiastical state in the Holy Roman Empire. ...

In 983, the town was destroyed by King Mstivoj of the Obodrites. In 1030, the city was burned down by King Mieszko II Lambert of Poland. After further raids in 1066 and 1072 the bishop permanently moved to Bremen. Hamburg had several great fires, notably in 1284 and 1842. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mstivoj, Mistivoj or MÑŒstivoj (Old Norse: Mistivir) was a king of the Obodrites, a West Slavic tribe in what is today north-eastern Germany. ... The Obotrites (sometimes Abodrites, Obodrites) were a group of Slavic peoples who had in the 6th century settled in the regions later known as Mecklenburg and Schleswig-Holstein in what is now north-eastern Germany. ... Reign From 1025 until 1031 Coronation On December 25, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Bolesław I Chrobry Emnilda Consorts Ryksa Children with Ryksa Boleslaw Zapomiany Kazimierz I Odnowiciel Gertruda Date of Birth 990 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death May 10...


The charter in 1189 by Frederick I "Barbarossa" granted Hamburg the status of an Imperial Free City and tax-free access up the Lower Elbe into the North Sea. This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the North Sea and Baltic Sea, quickly made it a major port in Northern Europe. Its trade alliance with Lübeck in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... In the Holy Roman Empire, an imperial free city (in German: freie Reichsstadt) was a city formally responsible to the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which belonged to a territory and were thus governed by one of the many princes (Fürsten) of... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ...


In 1529 the city embraced Lutheranism, and Hamburg subsequently received Protestant refugees from the Netherlands and France. Hamburg was at times under Danish sovereignty while remaining part of the Holy Roman Empire as an Imperial Free City. Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...


Briefly annexed by Napoleon I (1810–14), Hamburg suffered severely during his last campaign in Germany. The city was besieged for over a year by Allied forces (mostly Russian, Swedish and German). Russian forces under General Bennigsen finally freed the city in 1814. During the first half of the 19th century a patron goddess with Hamburg's Latin name Hammonia emerged, mostly in romantic and poetic references, and although she has no mythology to call her own, Hammonia became the symbol of the city's spirit during this time. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Levin August Gottlieb Theophil (Russian: Leonty Leontyevich), count von Bennigsen (February 10, 1745 - December 3, 1826) was a Russian general. ... Hammonia is the Latin name for Hamburg. ...


In 1842, about a quarter of the inner city was destroyed in the "Great Fire". This fire started on the night of the 4 May 1842 and was extinguished on 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and countless other buildings. It killed 51 people, and left an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years. is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hamburg experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's Atlantic trade helped make it Europe's third-largest port.

Hamburg's central promenade Jungfernstieg on River Alster in 1900.

With Albert Ballin as its director the Hamburg-America Line became the world's largest transatlantic shipping company at the turn of the century, and Hamburg was also home to shipping companies to South America, Africa, India and East Asia. Hamburg became a cosmopolitan metropolis based on worldwide trade. Hamburg was the port for most Germans and Eastern Europeans to leave for the New World and became home to trading communities from all over the world (like a small Chinatown in Altona, Hamburg). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x771, 179 KB) // Information Original file Originally uploaded on de. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x771, 179 KB) // Information Original file Originally uploaded on de. ... Albert Ballin ca. ... Hapag-Lloyd is a German transportation company comprising a cargo container shipping line and a cruise line. ... For other uses, see Transatlantic (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geographical region. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... This article is about sections of an urban area associated with a large number of Chinese residents or commercial activities. ...


In 1903, the world's first[2] organized club for social and family nudism, Freilichtpark (Free-Light Park) was opened in Hamburg by Paul Zimmerman. It was located on a lake formed by the Alster River in the southern part of the city, adjoining a bathing beach. The meanings of naturism and nudism are very similar, and refer to a cultural and political movement practising, advocating and defending social nudity in private and public spaces. ...


After World War I Germany lost her colonies and Hamburg lost many of its trade routes. In 1938 the city boundaries were extended with the Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz (Greater Hamburg Act) to incorporate Wandsbek, Harburg, Wilhelmsburg and Altona. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This is a list of former German colonies, or Schutzgebiete (protectorates) as they were called in official German. ... The Gesetz über Groß-Hamburg und andere Gebietsbereinigungen or Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz (Law regarding Larger Hamburg and other territorial readjustments) was passed by the government of the German Reich on January 26, 1937 and mandated the exchange of territories between Hamburg and Prussia. ... Wandsbek (Map) is the largest () of seven districts that are comprising the City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Germany). ... Hamburg-Harburg (UN/LOCODE: DE HBU) is a borough of the city of Hamburg, Germany. ... Altona is the westernmost district of the city of Hamburg in Germany, on the right bank of the Elbe. ...


During World War II Hamburg suffered a series of devastating air raids which killed 42,000 German civilians (see Bombing of Hamburg in World War II). Through this, and the new zoning guidelines of the 1960s, the inner city lost much of its architectural past. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The large port city of Hamburg, Germany, was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused tens of thousands of mostly...


The Iron Curtain — only 50 kilometres (30 mi) east of Hamburg — separated the city from most of its hinterland and further reduced Hamburg's global trade. On February 16, 1962 a severe storm caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people. Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After German reunification in 1990, and the accession of some Eastern European and Baltic States into the EU in 2004, Hamburg Harbour and Hamburg have ambitions for regaining their positions as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre. Since reunification the Greater Hamburg Metropolitan Region gained about 400,000 inhabitants and in 2007 its population was about 4.3 million people. This article is about the 1990 German reunification. ... Landungsbrücken (“Jetties”), in St. ...


Main sights

View of Hamburg.
Neue and Freihafen-Elbbrücke.
The Speicherstadt at night.
Binnenalster.

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 172 KB) Summary Author:Dhakaiya Taken on visit to Germany 4 months before World Cup 2006. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 172 KB) Summary Author:Dhakaiya Taken on visit to Germany 4 months before World Cup 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1451x965, 412 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hamburg Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/January-2007 Wikipedia:Picture peer review/Hamburg warehouse disctrict at night Wikipedia:Featured... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1451x965, 412 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hamburg Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/January-2007 Wikipedia:Picture peer review/Hamburg warehouse disctrict at night Wikipedia:Featured...

Churches

St. Michaelis Church on the €2 coin 2008

The skyline of Hamburg features the high spires of the five principal churches (Hauptkirchen) covered with green copper plates. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

(The dates given correspond to the establishment of the respective parish; the buildings are considerably younger) St. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup, as it does not appear to have been written by a native English speaker. ... St. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


Other churches are also visible in the inner city:

  • St.Johannis, Harvestehude, Hamburg (Saint John's) at the Außenalster

Bridges and tunnels

Hamburg has a number of prominent buildings from the past and present. The many canals in Hamburg are crossed by over 2,300 bridges — more than Amsterdam (1200) and Venice (400) combined. Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city or town on Earth. For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ...

Lombardsbrücke and Kennedybrücke divide Binnenalster from Aussenalster Köhlbrandbrücke in Hamburg View westward on Köhlbrandbrücke. ... Old Elbe Tunnel Opened 1911, the 426m ( 1,400 ft ) long tunnel was a technical sensation. ... New Elbe Tunnel The tunnel with its length of 2. ...


Towers and masts

  • Heinrich-Hertz-Turm
  • Transmitter Hamburg-Billstedt

Heinrich-Hertz-Turm The Heinrich-Hertz-Turm (named after the German physicist and Hamburg-born Heinrich Hertz) is a radio telecommunication tower and a famous landmark of Hamburg, Germany. ... The Transmitter Hamburg-Billstedt is a broadcasting facility in Hamburg-Billstedt, established in 1934. ...

Other sights

Townhall (Rathaus)

Richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1896. With its tower of 112 meters it is Europe's highest townhall. On its facade it shows the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire since Hamburg was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor. [3]

Chilehaus

A brick stone office building from 1922 spectacularly shaped like an ocean liner. Designed by architect Fritz Höger. Johann Friedrich (Fritz) Höger (1877 - 1949) was one of Adolph Hitlers architects. ...

Stadtpark

Hamburg's "Central Park" has a great lawn and a huge watertower which houses one of Europe's biggest Planetariums. The park and its buildings were also designed by Fritz Schumacher in the 1910s

HafenCity

To be completed around 2015 Europe's largest inner city development will house about 10 000 inhabitants and 15 000 workers. Its ambitious planning and architecture (amongst others designs by Rem Kolhaas and Renzo Piano will be realized) are slowly coming into shape. Its location in an abandoned area of the harbour is already drawing tourists. In 2008 the International Maritime Museum will open, By the end of 2009 the Elbphilharmonie – by many considered Germany's most exciting new structure – is scheduled to house its first concerts in a spectacular building designed by the Swiss firm Herzog & de Meuron on top of an old warehouse.


Parks

The many parks of Hamburg are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very green city. The biggest parks are the Stadtpark, the cemetery Ohlsdorf and Planten un Blomen.


Culture

The smaller Alster (Binnenalster) lake at dusk.

Image File history File links Binnenalster at dusk Source: Jan van der Crabben (Photographer) File links The following pages link to this file: Hamburg ... Image File history File links Binnenalster at dusk Source: Jan van der Crabben (Photographer) File links The following pages link to this file: Hamburg ...

Theatres

  • Altonaer Theater
  • Theater Allee
  • Deutsches Schauspielhaus
  • Ernst-Deutsch-Theater
  • Hansa Theater
  • Theater im Zimmer
  • English Theatre
  • St. Pauli Theater
  • Schmidts Tivoli
  • Hamburger Kammerspiele
  • Imperial Theater
  • komödie - im Winterhuder Fährhaus
  • Thalia-Theater
  • Thalia Gaußstraße
  • Monsun Theater
  • Theater Imago
  • Kampnagel-Fabrik
  • Theater für Kinder
  • Neues Theater am Holstenwall
  • Theater in der Basilika
  • Schilleroper
  • Theaterschiff am Mäuseturm
  • Ohnsorg-Theater—a theatre in which the actors speak Low Saxon (but they speak Missingsch-infused German for national television broadcasts, since Low Saxon is not comprehensible to most German speakers)

--- The Thalia Theater is one of the three state-owned theatres in Hamburg, Germany. ... Missingsch is a Low German-colored regiolect of German, retaining Low German sentence construction and calques of Low German idioms into Hochdeutsch. ...


Politics of Hamburg

Main article: Politics of Hamburg

The city of Hamburg is one of 16 German states, therefore the First Mayor of Hamburg's office correspondents more to the role of a minister-president than to the one of a "normal" city mayor. The current First Mayor of Hamburg is Ole von Beust, govern in Germany's first state-wide "black-green" coalition, consiting of the conservative CDU and the alternative Green Party. Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... The following is a list of mayors of Hamburg, the city-state in Germany. ... A minister-president (Ministerpräsident) is the head of government of a German federal state; the office corresponds to the governorship of a state in the United States. ... Carl-Friedrich Arp Freiherr von Beust, generally called Ole von Beust, born April 13, 1955 in Hamburg, Germany, Mayor of the city-state (Bundesland) of Hamburg since 2001. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Alliance 90/The Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen), the German Green party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ...


More impressions

Economy

The most significant economic basis for Hamburg is the Hamburg Harbour, which ranks 2nd only to Rotterdam in Europe and 9th worldwide with transshipments of 9.8 million twenty-foot equivalent units (TEU) of cargo and 134 million tons of goods in 2007.[4] After the German reunification, Hamburg recovered the eastern portion of its hinterland, becoming by far the fastest growing port in Europe. International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Although situated 68 miles (110 km) up the Elbe, it is considered a sea harbor due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels. Landungsbrücken (“Jetties”), in St. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Province Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - Total 319 km² (123. ...


Hamburg, along with Seattle and Toulouse, is one of the most important locations of the civil aerospace industry in the world. Airbus, which has one of its two assembly plants in Hamburg, and related companies employ over 30,000 people in or near the city. City nickname Emerald City City bird Great Blue Heron City flower Dahlia City mottos The City of Flowers The City of Goodwill City song Seattle, the Peerless City Mayor Greg Nickels County King County Area   - Total   - Land   - Water   - % water 369. ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ...


Other important industries are media businesses, most notably four of Germany's largest publishing companies, Axel Springer AG, Gruner + Jahr, Heinrich Bauer Verlag, Der Spiegel and Die Zeit. About half of Germany's national newspapers and magazines are produced in Hamburg. There are also a number of music companies (the largest being Warner Music Germany) and Internet businesses (e.g. AOL, Adobe Systems and Google Germany, and also Web 2.0 companies like Qype). Axel Springer AG is one of the largest newspaper publishing companies in Europe, claiming to have over 150 newspapers and magazines in over 30 countries, including several central and eastern european countries: Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic, Russia and western european countries: Germany, France, Spain, Switzerland, more than 10,000... Gruner + Jahr GmbH & Co. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Warner Music Group is one of the Big Four record labels. ... For other uses, see AOL (disambiguation). ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... This article is about the corporation. ... Qype is a web 2. ...


Heavy industry includes the making of steel, aluminium and Europe's largest copper plant [1], and a number of shipyards like Blohm + Voss [2]. Blohm + Voss Schiffswerft und Maschinenfabrik is a German shipbuilding and engineering works. ...


Transport

Hamburg's licence plate prefix is "HH" (Hansestadt Hamburg, English: Hanseatic City of Hamburg), rather than just the single-letter normally used for large cities. The prefix "H" is used in Hanover instead. License plates in Germany show the place where the car carrying them is registered. ... , Hanover(i) (German: , IPA: ), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ...


As in most larger German cities, public transport is organised by a fare-collection joint venture between transportation companies. Tickets sold by one member company in this Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (Hamburg traffic group) (HVV) are valid on all other HVV companies' services. The Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (HVV) is an organisation coordinating the public transport in and around Hamburg, Germany. ...


HVV acts as an overall coordinating body for transport in the Hamburg combination, with representation by the Hamburger Hochbahn (Hamburger Overhead Railway); Deutsche Bahn (German Federal Railroads); AKN (Altona-Kaltenkirchen-Neumunster Gleis/Altona—Kaltenkirchen—Neumunster Railway); HADAG Seetouristik und Fahrdienst A. G. (HADAG sea-tourism and driving service shares society); VHH (Verkehrsbetriebe Hamburg-Holstein A.G./ Transporting enterprises Hamburg Holstein shares society); PVG (Pinneberger Verkehrsgesellschaft, mbH/ Pinneberger public transport company, Inc); and KVG (Kraftverkehrgesellschaft, GmbH/ Motor Traffic Company, LLC). Hamburger Hochbahn AG or HHA is an organisation operating the underground system and large parts of the bus system in Hamburg, Germany. ... Germanys main train operator, the Deutsche Bahn AG (German Railway Corporation, also known as DB or DBAG) provides passenger and freight service via federally owned tracks. ...


Nine mass transit routes across the city are the backbone of Hamburg public transport. Three lines comprise the U-Bahn and six the S-Bahn system. U-Bahn is short for Untergrundbahn (underground railway). Approximately 41 km (25 mi) of 101 km (63 mi) of the U-Bahn is underground; most of the U-Bahn tracks are on embankments or viaducts or at ground level. Older residents still speak of the system as the Hochbahn ("elevated railway"). The Hamburg S-Bahn has a total length of 115.2 km (72 mi) (8 km/5 mi single-track, 10 km/6 mi underground) with 59 stations, of which 10 are underground. A light rail system, the AKN, connects to satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein. Gaps in the mass-transit network are filled by bus routes, plied by single-deck, two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. Hamburg has no trams or trolley-buses, but has hydrogen fuelled buses operating pilot services. The Hamburg U-Bahn is operated by Hamburger Hochbahn AG and belongs to the Hamburger Verkehrsverbund (HVV). ... The Hamburg S-Bahn is the suburban S-Bahn railway network serving the city of Hamburg. ...


Finally, regional trains of Germany's major railway company Deutsche Bahn AG and the regional Metronom trains may be used with a HVV public transport ticket, too. Except at the three bigger stations in the centre of Hamburg, the regional trains hardly stop again inside the area of the city. Deutsche Bahn AG (German Railway Corporation; abbreviated DBAG or simply DB) is Germanys main railway operator, providing passenger and goods services over federally owned tracks. ...


A 24-hour bus network operates as frequently as every 2 minutes on busy routes (30 minutes in suburban areas). There are six ferry lines along the river Elbe, operated by the HADAG company. While mainly needed by Hamburg citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours at the (relatively) low fees of a HVV public transport ticket.


Hamburg is connected by four Autobahnen (motorways) and is the most important railway junction on the route to Northern Europe. This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ...


Airports

Hamburg Airport is the oldest airport in Germany still in operation. There is also the smaller Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport, used only as a company airport for Airbus. Some airlines market Lübeck Airport in Lübeck as serving Hamburg. Hamburg Airport (IATA: HAM, ICAO: EDDH) (German: ) is the international airport of Hamburg, Germany. ... Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (IATA: XFW, ICAO: EDHI) is an airport near Hamburg, Germany. ... Airbus S.A.S. (pronounced in English, in French, and in German) is an aircraft manufacturing subsidiary of EADS, a European aerospace concern. ... Lübeck Airport (IATA: LBC, ICAO: EDHL), also known as Lübeck Blankensee Airport (German: Flughafen Lübeck Blankensee), is an airport in Germany located 5 miles (8km) south of Lübeck city centre and 33. ... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Luebeck. ...

The port of Hamburg on the river Elbe.
St. Pauli in 1900.

Image File history File linksMetadata Hamburg-port. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Hamburg-port. ... Landungsbrücken (“Jetties”), in St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 773 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Landungsbrücken bei St. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 794 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 773 pixel, file size: 191 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Landungsbrücken bei St. ... St. ...

Music

Famous composers connected to Hamburg include:

Hamburg and vicinity is a popular residency for famous contemporary classical composers. Hungarian composer György Ligeti (1923–2006) also known for his music in films by Stanley Kubrick lived in Hamburg for 30 years and taught at the local music academy. He was succeeded at the Hochschule by the Russian-German composer Alfred Schnittke (1934–1998) who died in Hamburg. His countrywoman Sofia Gubaidulina (born in 1931) lives on the outskirts of Hamburg. Other important composers living and working in Hamburg are Manfred Stahnke, a pupil of György Ligeti's, Peter Ruzicka, Peter Michael Hamel and Babette Koblenz. Georg Philipp Telemann. ... Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (March 8, 1714 – December 14, 1788) was a German musician and composer, the second of five sons of Johann Sebastian Bach and Maria Barbara Bach. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... Kubrick redirects here. ... A university school of music or college of music, or academy of music or conservatoire (British English) — also known as a conservatory (American English) or a conservatorium (Australian English) — is a higher education institution dedicated to teaching the art of music, including the playing of musical instruments, musical composition, musicianship... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Sofia Gubaidulina in Sortavala 1981 Sofia Asgatovna Gubaidulina, (Russian София Асгатовна Губайдулина) (born October 24, 1931) is a Russian-Tatar composer of deeply religious music. ... Manfred Stahnke (* 30th October 1951 in Kiel) is a german composer and a Musicologist. ... “Ligeti” redirects here. ... Peter Ruzicka (born July 3, 1948) is a German composer of classical music. ... Peter Michael Hamel (born in Munich, 15 July 1947) is a German composer. ...


The Hamburg State Opera is one of the leading German opera houses. Its orchestra is the Philharmoniker Hamburg. Hamburg's current Generalmusikdirektorin is Simone Young, music director of both the opera and the orchestra. The Hamburg State Opera (in German: Hamburgische Staatsoper) is one of the leading opera companies in Germany. ... Simone Young (born March 2, 1961) is an Australian conductor, particularly well known for opera. ...


Hamburg's most prestigious orchestra is the North German Radio Symphony Orchestra. The North German Radio Symphony Orchestra (NDR Symphony Orchestra, German Sinfonieorchester des Norddeutschen Rundfunks) is the most prestigious orchestra in the city of Hamburg and one of the most acclaimed orchestras in Germany. ...


Hamburg's main concert venue is the Laeiszhalle-Musikhalle, pending the completion of the Elbphilharmonie Hamburg. The Musikhalle which is the home of the Hamburger Symphoniker. The Hamburger Symphoniker is one of the three big orchestras of Hamburg, Germany. ...


St. Pauli

Main article: St. Pauli

St. Pauli is usually associated with the street of Reeperbahn a synonym for maybe the worlds most famous red light destrict. Singer and actor Hans Albers is strongly associated with St. Pauli, providing in the 1940s the neighbourhood's unofficial anthem, "Auf der Reeperbahn Nachts um Halb Eins." The song explains in a polite way how a sailor enjoys his last day with a trollop before going aboard. St. Pauli is known for giving the Beatles a start in their musical career in the early 1960s. The Beatles lived in St. Pauli and played at the Indra and the Kaiserkeller (1960), the Top Ten Club (1961), and the Star-Club (1962), which was located in the district near the perhaps most famous street of Hamburg, the Reeperbahn. St. Pauli is also known as a centre for the German punk movement. St. ... A sexshop on the Reeperbahn The Reeperbahn is a street in Hamburgs St. ... Hans Albers Hans Albers (September 22, 1891 Hamburg - July 24, 1960 Starnberg) was a German actor and singer. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... St. ... Kaiserkeller is a night club in Hamburg, Germany, near the Reeperbahn. ... The Top Ten Club was a music club in Hamburg, Germany owned by Peter Eckhorn. ... The Star-Club was a music club in Hamburg, Germany that opened April 13, 1962 and was initially operated by Manfred Weissleder und Horst Fascher. ... A sexshop on the Reeperbahn The Reeperbahn is a street in Hamburgs St. ...


Contemporary popular

Nena lives in Hamburg. Sascha Konietzko the frontman and founder of KMFDM is from Hamburg and visits regularly. More recently it is known for some of the most popular German hip hop acts, such as Fünf Sterne deluxe, Samy Deluxe, Beginner and Fettes Brot. There is also a quite big alternative and punk scene which gathers around the Rote Flora [3], an occupied former theatre located in the district of Sternschanze. Some of the musicians of the famous electronic band Kraftwerk also came from Hamburg. In addition, the members of Tokio Hotel currently reside in Hamburg. Other Hamburg residents include German comedic troop Studio Braun and comedian Helge Schneider. The seemstress Floriana Schmidtess resides in the St. George neighbourhood and counts among the city's elite. Nena (born March 24, 1960 in Hagen, North Rhine-Westphalia) is a German singer who became famous with the New German Wave song 99 Luftballons (99 Red Balloons in the English version). ... Sascha Konietzko (born June 21, 1961 in Hamburg, Germany), also known as Sascha K and Käptn K, is the frontman of the industrial music band KMFDM, having founded the group in 1984. ... KMFDM is an industrial rock band and the brainchild of founding member Sascha Konietzko. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Fünf Sterne Deluxe (Five Stars Deluxe) was a German-language hip-hop band from Hamburg, Germany, founded in mid-1997, consisting of the rappers Das Bo (Mirko Bogojevic) and Tobi Tobsen (Tobias Schmidt), the graphic designer Marcnesium (Marc Clausen), and the disc jockey DJ Coolmann (Mario Cullmann). ... Samuel Sorge (born December 19, 1977 in Hamburg), commonly known as Samy Deluxe,The Big Baus of the Nauf and Wickeda MC, is a German hip hop artist and producer from Hamburg. ... Beginner (formerly Absolute Beginner - note that Beginner is the German plural) is the name of a German rap group from Hamburg, consisting of Jan Eißfeldt, Denyo and DJ Mad Band history The group was founded as Absolute Beginners in 1991, initially with six members: Jan, Denyo, Mardin, DJ Burn, Nabil... Fettes Brot [] is a German hip hop group founded in 1992. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Kraftwerk (pronounced , German for power station) is a Grammy award nominated, electronic music band from Düsseldorf, Germany. ... Tokio Hotel is a German rock band. ...


Hamburg is also famous for an original kind of German alternative music called Hamburger Schule ("Hamburg School"), a term used for bands like Tocotronic, Blumfeld, Die Sterne and Tomte. The term alternative rock or alternative music1 was coined in the early 1980s to describe bands which didnt fit into the mainstream genres of the time. ... Introduction The tagline Wir sind neu in der Hamburger Schule (Whe are new to the Hamburg school) of Tocotronic gave name to a group of rock bands coming from Hamburg in the 90s formed around the LAge DOr label. ... Tocotronic is a German rock band founded in 1993 (see 1993 in music). ... Blumfeld Blumfeld is a indie-pop band from Hamburg, Germany, which arised from the bands Arm, Laut und Der schwarze Kanal. The name of the band was coined by the main character of the short story Blumfeld, ein älterer Junggeselle by Franz Kafka. ... Tomte is a German-speaking indie band from Hamburg. ...


Hamburg was one of the major centres of the heavy metal music world in the 1980s. Many bands such as Helloween, Running Wild and Grave Digger got their start in Hamburg. The influences of these bands and other bands from the area were critical to establishing the subgenre of Power metal. Heavy metal redirects here. ... This article is about the power metal band. ... Running Wild is one of a few German heavy metal bands to emerge in the early/mid 1980s (along with Helloween, Gamma Ray, Rage, Blind Guardian, Grave Digger, etc). ... Grave Digger is a German power metal/speed metal band formed in the mid 1980s. ... This article is about the sub-genre of heavy metal music. ...


Hamburg is also one of the most important global centres for psychedelic trance music. It is home to many record labels such as Spirit Zone, [Mushroom Magazine, the world's best known and longest running psy-trance magazine, as well as many parties and club nights. During the summer people from all over the world flock to the countryside surrounding Hamburg to attend massive festivals such as Voov Experience, Shiva Moon, Tshitraka and Fusion Festival. Psychedelic trance or psytrance is a form of electronic music that evolved from Goa trance in the early 1990s when it first began hitting the mainstream. ... Spirit Zone Records is an electronic music record label from Germany which started in 1994. ... Raja Ram has been experementing with psychedelic trance as early as the 1980s. ...

The Lion King theatre in Hamburg's harbour.

Since the German premiere of Cats in 1985 there are always a number of musicals being played in the city. Among them have been Phantom of the Opera, The Lion King or Dirty Dancing (before there was Dance of the Vampires). This density, which is the highest in Germany, is partly due to Germany's major musical production company Stage Entertainment being located in Hamburg. One of the musical theatres is a large tent in the harbour, guests either arrive by boat or through the historic Old Elbe Tunnel. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 265 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Hamburg ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 265 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Hamburg ... Cats is an award-winning musical composed by Andrew Lloyd Webber based on Old Possums Book of Practical Cats and other poems by T. S. Eliot. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... The title character as depicted by Lon Chaney, Sr. ... This article is about Disneys 1994 film. ... Dance of the Vampires (or Tanz der Vampire as the original German version is named) is a musical remake of a 1967 Roman Polanski film called The Fearless Vampire Killers. ...


Hamburg was one city to take part in the Complaints Choir project. Meg Weymes is also a celebrity from Hamburg. Complaints Choir is a community art project that invites people to sing about their complaints in a choir together with fellow complainers. ...


Museums

Currently Hamburg has 79 museums. Famous and popular ones include:

  • Altona Museum and North German State Museum [4]
  • Art Gallery and Gallery of Contemporary Arts and (Kunsthalle Hamburg und Galerie der Gegenwart) [5]
  • BallinStadt - The History of Emigration [6]
  • Bucerius Kunst Forum [7]
  • Deutsches Zollmuseum [8]
  • Erotic Art Museum [9]
  • Hamburg Dungeon [10]
  • Hamburg Museum for Archaeology and the History of Harburg
  • Neuengamme concentration camp memorial [11]
  • Helms-Museum [12]
  • Johannes-Brahms-Museum
  • HSV Museum [13]
  • Museum of Art and Design (Museum für Kunst und Gewerbe) [14]
  • Museum of Communication (Museum für Kommunikation) [15]
  • Museum of Ethnography (Museum für Völkerkunde) [16]
  • Museum of Hamburg History (Museum für Hamburgische Geschichte) [17]
  • Museum of Labour (Museum der Arbeit) [18], an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage
  • Speicherstadt Museum [19]
  • St. Pauli Museum [20]
  • See also: List of museums in Hamburg in the German Wikipedia

The Kunsthalle Hamburg is an art museum in Hamburg, Germany. ... (This article is about the district in northern Germany. ... Neuengamme was a concentration camp near Hamburg, Germany during World War 2 [1]. The site is one of the few concentration camps in Germany where most of the buildings have been conserved and serves as a memorial today. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Hamburger SV is a German football club based in Hamburg. ... The European Route of Industrial Heritage (ERIH) is a network of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe. ... St. ...

Cuisine

Hamburg is the birthplace of the Hamburger. This is not a myth. The beef patties a German immigrant from Hamburg sold in the 1850s in New York allegedly were named after the butcher and then became a generic term. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


Original Hamburg dishes are Bohnen, Birnen und Speck (Low Saxon Bohn, Peern un Speck, green runner beans cooked with pears and bacon), Aalsuppe (Low Saxon Oolsupp, often mistaken to be German for "eel soup" (Aal/Ool ‘eel’), however the name probably comes from the Low Saxon allns [ʔaˑlns], meaning “all”, “everything and the kitchen sink”, not necessarily eel. Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners.), Bratkartoffeln (Low Saxon Brootkartüffeln, pan-fried potato slices), Finkenwerder Scholle (Low Saxon Finkwarder Scholl, pan-fried plaice), Pannfisch (pan-fried fish), Rote Grütze (Low Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish rødgrød, a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde) and Labskaus (a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian lapskaus and Liverpool's lobscouse, all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas). For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ... Scouse was originally a mutton stew. ...


Hamburg is the birthplace of Alsterwasser (a reference to the city's river Alster with two lake-like bodies in the city centre thanks to damming), a type of shandy, a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade (Zitronenlimonade), the lemonade being added to the beer. Hamburg is also home to a curious regional dessert pastry called Franzbrötchen. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, the Franzbrötchen is somewhat similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar streusel. The name may also reflect to the roll's croissant-like appearance -- franz appears to be a shortening of französisch, meaning "French", which would make a Franzbrötchen a “French roll.” Being a Hamburg regional food, the Franzbrötchen becomes quite scarce outside the borders of the city; as near as Lunenburg (Lüneburg) it can only be found as a Hamburger and is not to be had in Bremen at all. A popular shandy Shandy (also radler or panaché) is beer flavoured with lemonade or another soft drink. ... The term streusel is from the German, for something strewn together. Its a crumb topping of butter, flour, and various spices that is baked on top of muffins, breads, and cakes (eg. ... For the Japanese womens magazine, see Croissant (magazine). ... Lunenburg is the name of several places: Lunenburg, Nova Scotia (town), Canada Lunenburg, Nova Scotia (municipal district), Canada Lunenburg County, Nova Scotia, Canada Lunenburg, Germany (aka Lüneburg) Lunenburg, Arkansas, United States of America Lunenburg, Massachusetts, United States of America Lunenburg, Vermont, United States of America Lunenburg, Virginia, United States of... Lüneburg (English: Lunenburg) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, about 50km southeast of Hamburg. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Ordinary bread rolls—without which a leisurely weekend breakfast in Hamburg is unimaginable—tend to be oval-shaped and of the French bread variety. The local name is Rundstück (“round piece” rather than mainstream German Brötchen, diminutive form of Brot “bread”), a relative of Denmark's rundstykke. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and Denmark, especially of Copenhagen have a lot in common. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish. The American hamburger seems to have developed from Hamburg's Frikadelle (or Frikandelle): a pan-fried patty (usually larger and thicker than the American counterpart) made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked stale bread, egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. (Many Hamburgers consider their Frikadelle and the American hamburger different, virtually unrelated “creatures.”) This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Sports

HSV vs Eintracht Frankfurt, May 2004

Hamburg is considered Germany's capital of sports since no other city is home to more first league teams and international sports events. Hamburger SV, the most successful team in Hamburg, is a football team in the Bundesliga (which has played in the group stages of the Champions League twice; in 2000/2001 and in 2006/2007). HSV is a six time German champion, a three time German cup winner and triumphed in the European cup in 1977 and 1983. The most famous players in its history are Uwe Seeler, Kevin Keegan, Manfred Kaltz, Felix Magath, Horst Hrubesch, Franz Beckenbauer and Rafael van der Vaart. They play at the HSH Nordbank Arena (average attendance in the 06/07 season was 56 100). The Hamburg Freezers represent Hamburg in the DEL, the highest ice hockey league in Germany. The HSV Handball represents Hamburg in the German handball league. In 2007 HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. Both teams play in the ultra-modern Color Line Arena. Additionally FC St. Pauli is a second division (formerly third League) football club. They play at the Millerntor-Stadion which they regularly sell out and are world famous for their anti racist, anti sexist, actively anti Neo-Nazi and left-leaning fans. Hamburg is the nation's hockey capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga with teams like Der Club an der Alster, Großflottbeker THGC, Harvestehuder THC, Klipper THC or Uhlenhorster HC. There are also several minority sports clubs, surprisingly Hamburg has four cricket clubs, Alster CC, HSV Cricket, Pak Alemi CC and Hamburg International CC. Hamburg is also home to the Hamburg Dockers Australian Rules Football club which compete in the German Australian Football League. The FC St.Pauli dominates women's Rugby in Germany. Other first league teams include NA Hamburg (Volleyball), Hamburger Polo Club, Blue Devils (American Football). The Centre Court of Tennis Stadium Rothenbaum with a capacity of 13000 people is the fifth largest in the world and home to the German Open. Hamburg also hosts Germany's most prestigious equestrian events at Reitstadion Klein Flottbek (Deutsches Derby in jumping and dressage) and Horner Rennbahn (Deutsches Derby racing). The Hamburg Marathon (18 000 participants), Worldcups in Cycling and Triathlon are also held here. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 676 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) El AOL Arena en un partido de la Bundesliga Beschreibung: Hamburg, Germany, AOL-Arena: HSV-Eintracht Frankfurt, Mai 2004, Endstand 2:1 für den HSV... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 676 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) El AOL Arena en un partido de la Bundesliga Beschreibung: Hamburg, Germany, AOL-Arena: HSV-Eintracht Frankfurt, Mai 2004, Endstand 2:1 für den HSV... Eintracht Frankfurt is a German sports club, based in Frankfurt, Hesse that is best known for its football team. ... Hamburger SV is a German football club based in Hamburg. ... Soccer redirects here. ... The official Bundesliga logo. ... UEFA Champions League, which replaced the European Champions Cup, is a seasonal club football competition organised by UEFA since 1992 for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ... HSH Nordbank Arena is the main stadium of Hamburg, Germany. ... The Hamburg Freezers are a member of the German hockey league (DEL) that play their games in Hamburg, Germany. ... Deutsche Eishockey-Liga (German Hockey League, shortname DEL) is a German high-calibre ice hockey league, and has the highest number of American and Canadian players overseas. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Since 1977, the German handball championship is determined by a uniform premier league, The Handball Bundesliga. ... Color Line Arena is an arena in Hamburg, Germany. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A floodlit Millerntor-Stadion A map of the surrounding area The Millerntor-Stadion is a multi-use stadium in Hamburg, Germany. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ...


The HSH Nordbank Arena (formerly the AOL Arena and originally Volksparkstadion) was used a site for the 2006 World Cup. (Redirected from 2006 World Cup) The final stages of Football World Cup 2006 are scheduled to take place in Germany between 9 June and 9 July. ...


See also: Deutsches Derby The Deutsches Derby is a Group 1 flat horse race in Germany for three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies run over a distance of 2,400 metres (approximately 1 mile 4 furlongs) at the Hamburg-Horn Racecourse, Hamburg in July. ...


Religion

41% of inhabitants are Christians, 10% of them being Catholics. Muslims (mostly Sunni) are 12% of the population. About 39% profess no religion. There are also large numbers of Hindus and Sikhs. This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... This article is about the Hindu religion; for other meanings of the word, see Hindu (disambiguation). ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ...


Language

As elsewhere in Northern Germany, the original language of Hamburg is Low Saxon, usually referred to as Hamborger Platt (German Hamburger Platt) or Hamborgsch. It is still in use, albeit by a minority and rarely in public, probably due to a hostile climate between World War II and the early 1980s. Since large-scale Germanisation beginning in earnest with in the 18th century, various Low German-coloured dialects have developed (contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates). Originally, there was a range of such Missingsch varieties, best known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more “posh” bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch. All of these are now moribund due to the influences of “proper” German propagated by education and media, perhaps also because of gradual erosion of the erstwhile independent spirit and local pride of Hamburg's population. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous sea shanty Hamborger Veermaster, written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Low German (also called Niederdeutsch, Plattdeutsch or Plattdüütsch) is a name for the regional language varieties of the West Germanic languages spoken mainly in Northern Germany where it is officially called Niederdeutsch (Low German), and in Eastern Netherlands where it is officially called Nedersaksisch (Low Saxon). Low refers to... Sea shanties (singular shanty, also spelled chantey; derived from the French word chanter, to sing) were shipboard working songs. ...


In addition, immigration brought numerous dialects from all over the German-speaking world used to Hamburg, also a large number of foreign language communities. Hamburg has a sizeable population of Sinti and Roma (“Gypsy”) people, some of them sedentary (mostly Sinti) and some of them nomadic or semi-nomadic (mostly Roma), camp grounds being set aside by the state and municipal governments. Hamburg is thus one of the few locations in the world in which both Sinti and Romany are spoken, and it is also one of the major headquarters of international Roma organisations. Sinti or Sinte (Singular masc. ... Language(s) Romani, languages of native region Religion(s) Romanipen, combined with assimilations from local religions Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) This article is about the Indo-Aryan ethnic group. ... Romany (or Romani) is the language of the Roma and Sinti, peoples often referred to in English as Gypsies. The Indo-Aryan Romany language should not be confused with either Romanian (spoken by Romanians), or Romansh (spoken in parts of southeastern Switzerland), both of which are Romance languages. ...


Education

Universities

Currently, up to 29 institutions of tertiary education are located in Hamburg:

  • AMD - Akademie für Mode & Design website
  • BAH - Berufsakademie Hamburg website
  • BLS - Bucerius Law School - Hochschule für Rechtswissenschaft website
  • EBC - Euro-Business College Hamburg website
  • Euro-FH - Europäische Fernhochschule Hamburg - European University of Applied Sciences Hamburg website
  • EvFH - Evangelische Fachhochschule für Sozialpädagogik, Soziale Arbeit und Diakonie website
  • FHÖV - Fachhochschule für Öffentliche Verwaltung Hamburg website
  • FOM - Fachhochschule für Oekonomie und Management Studienort Hamburg website
  • FüAkBw - Führungsakademie der Bundeswehr website
  • HAW - Hochschule für Angewandte Wissenschaften - Hamburg University of Applied Sciences website
  • HCU - HafenCity University for Architecture, City Planning, Structural Development and Geomatics website
  • HfbK - Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg website
  • HfF - Hochschule für Finanzen (website not available yet)
  • HFH - Hamburger Fern-Hochschule website
  • HfMT - Hochschule für Musik und Theater Hamburg website
  • HH - Hotelfachschule Hamburg website
  • HMS - Hamburg Media School website
  • HSBA - Hamburg School of Business Administration website
  • HSU - Helmut Schmidt Universität / Universität der Bundeswehr Hamburg - Helmut Schmidt University / University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg website
  • HWP - Hamburger Universität für Wirtschaft und Politik website
  • ICoM- International College of Music, Hamburg website
  • JAK - Akademie JAK Modedesign website
  • NIT - Northern Institute of Technology website
  • SSH - Stage School Hamburg website
  • TUHH - Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg - Hamburg University of Technology website
  • UHH - Universität Hamburg - University of Hamburg website
  • UKE - Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf - University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf website
  • WAHH - Wirtschaftsakademie Hamburg website
  • ZMNH - Zentrum für Molekulare Neurobiologie Hamburg - Centre for Molecular Neurobiology Hamburg [21]

Bucerius Law School is a private law school located in Hamburg, Germany. ... The Hamburg University of Applied Sciences (HAW) is an institution of higher education and applied research located in Hamburg, Germany. ... For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... Hamburg University of Technology (Technische Universität Hamburg-Harburg) [1] View of SBS building, The TUHH is one of the youngest universities in Germany as well as one of the most successful. ... The University of Hamburg was founded on the 1 April 1919 by Wilhelm Stern and others. ...

Tourism

Tourists play a significant role in the city's economy, and according to the magazine Travelhouse Media two of the most visited sites in Germany are located here: the harbour (8 million visitors per year) and the Reeperbahn (4 million), compared to famous sites like the Cathedral in Cologne (6 million) or the castle Neuschwanstein (200,000) unexpected high numbers to most people. Hamburg has the fastest growing tourism industry in Germany (2005 and 2006 approx. 15%) and will most probably reach rank 10 of Europe's most visited tourist destinations by 2008. The Cologne Cathedral (German: , officially ) is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne, under the administration of the Roman Catholic Church and is renowned as a monument of Christianity, of Gothic architecture and of the faith and perseverance of the people of the city in which it stands. ... Neuschwanstein seen from the Marienbrücke. ...


Hamburg is best visited in spring or summer. A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church St. Michaelis (called the Michel), and visiting the old warehouse district (Speicherstadt) and the harbour promenade (Landungsbrücken). Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. Of course, a visit in one of the world's largest harbours would be incomplete without having taken one of the harbour and/or canal boat tours (Große Hafenrundfahrt, Fleetfahrt) which start from the Landungsbrücken. Many visitors, especially those with a taste for the low life, take a walk in the evening around the area of Reeperbahn, considered Europe's largest red light district and home of many strip clubs, bars and nightclubs. It was in the Reeperbahn that The Beatles began their career with a 48-night residency at the Indra Club, and then another 58 nights at the Kaiserkeller, in 1960. Others prefer the laidback Schanze district with its street cafés or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo, the Tierpark Hagenbeck, was founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures. A friend of Hagenbeck's, the illustrator Heinrich Leutemann made some illustrations here. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... Giant rock formation at Tierpark Hagenbeck The Tierpark Hagenbeck is a zoo in Stellingen, in Hamburg, Germany, founded in 1907 by Carl Hagenbeck. ... Carl Hagenbeck Carl Hagenbeck (1844-1913) was a merchant in wild animals and future entrepreneur of many European zoos. ... The Vandals sacking Rome, by Leutemann Gottlob Heinrich (Henrik) Leutemann (October 8, 1824—December 14, 1904) was a German artist and book illustrator. ...


Quite common is a tour through Northern Germany with Hamburg as a starting point or stop-over.


However, most people visit Hamburg because of a specific interest, notably one of the musicals, a sports event, a congress or fair. Therefore, in 2005, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg. The majority of visitors come from Germany (80%); most foreigners are European, especially from the United Kingdom and Switzerland, and the largest group from outside Europe comes from the U.S. An interesting footnote is the high number of rich guests from the Arabian peninsula, who seek treatment in one of Hamburg's hospitals. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Arabia redirects here. ...


Regular events

For the interested visitor, some events held every year:

  • Sports (Note that a registration, usually months in advance, is needed for public races.)
    • Hamburg Marathon [22] — marathon, open to the public: April
    • Tennis Masters Series Am Rothenbaum [23]: May
    • HSH Nordbank Run, [24] open to the public. Race through the HafenCity (HarbourCity): May
    • Hamburg Masters [25] — Hockey 4 Nations Trophy: August
    • Dragon boat race, open to the public: August
    • Cyclassics [26] — UCI-ProTour bike race, open to the public: August
    • Hamburg City Man Triathlon [27] — triathlon, open to the public: August
  • Film festivals
    • Filmfest Hamburg [28]: September
    • Fantasy Filmfest [29]: April
    • Kurzfilmfestival — International Short Film Festival [30]: June
    • Lateinamerika-Filmtage — Latin-America Days [31]: December
    • Spanische Filmtage — Spanish Days [32]: July
    • Lesbian & Gay Film Festival Hamburg [33]: October
  • Arts and exhibitions
    • International Fireworks Festival: August
    • Kirschblütenfest — Grand fireworks and Japanese culture: May
    • Lange Nacht der Museen — one ticket, 40 of Hamburg's museums open until midnight: May
    • PHP Unconference — Yearly two-day PHP Conference [34]: April
    • Theme nights (jungle, romantic, Asian) at Hagenbeck's zoo [35]: Saturdays in summer
  • Music
    • Fleetinselfest — Music and international artists open air [36]: July
    • G-Move — Techno parade (until 2005, since 2006 taking place at the city of Kiel)
    • Schlagermove — German 1960s / 1970s music parade [37]: July
    • Reeperbahn Festival — huge Indoor Musicfestival in many Clubs of the Red-Light-District in St. Pauli, mostly Rock, Alternative and Indie-music: September [38]
  • Fun / Street festivals
    • Alstervergnügen [39] — Alster fair: first weekend of September
    • Christopher Street Day (Gay Pride Parade) [40]: June
    • Hamburger Dom [41] — considered the largest funfair in northern Germany: three times a year
    • Hafengeburtstag [42] — Hamburg's harbour birthday: May
    • Motorradgottesdienst — Biker's divine service in Hamburg's largest church St. Michaelis: June

Modern day marathon runners The word marathon refers to a long-distance road running event of 42. ... A more specific term for dragon boat as a sport is dragon boat race, which is a team paddling sport on water, using very long and very narrow painted boats to which are attached decorative dragon heads and tails. ... This article is about a type of athletic competition. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... The President of the German Bundestag (Parliament), Wolfgang Thierse, addresses the crowd at CSD Berlin 2001. ...

Sister cities

More information: Hamburg sister cities (in German only) Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nicaragua. ... Cathedral of San Pedro, c. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... City flag Coat of arms Motto: By her great deeds, the city of Massilia shines The Old Port of Marseille Location Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Coordinates Administration Country Region Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur Department Bouches-du-Rhône (13) Subdivisions 16 arrondissements (in 8 secteurs) Intercommunality Urban... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... For other uses, see Prague (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For other uses, see Shanghai (disambiguation). ...


Famous people born in Hamburg

  • Sportspeople
    • Andreas Brehme, born in 1960, football coach and former football defender
    • Stefan Effenberg, born in 1968, former soccer player and football player
    • Tommy Haas, born in 1978, tennis player
    • Max Schmeling, 1905–2005, German boxer and heavyweight champion
    • Uwe Seeler, born in 1936, football manager and former football player
  • Writers
    • Rudolf Augstein, 1923–2002, writer
    • Wolfgang Borchert, 1921–1947, author and playwright
    • Marion Dönhoff, 1909–2002, writer
    • Henri Nannen, 1913–1996, writer
  • Scientists
    • Michael Artin, born in 1934, mathematician, professor at MIT
    • Heinrich Rudolf Hertz, 1857–1894, physicist and electronic engineer

Andreas Brehme (born November 9, 1960 in Hamburg) is a German football coach and former football defender. ... Stefan Effenberg (born August 2, 1968 in Hamburg, West Germany) is a former German soccer player. ... Thomas Mario Haas (born April 3, 1978 in Hamburg) is a German tennis player who plays right handed. ... Maximillian Adolph Otto Siegfried Schmeling (September 28, 1905 – February 2, 2005) was a German boxer whose two fights with Joe Louis transcended boxing and became worldwide social events because of their racial and national associations. ... Uwe Seeler (born November 5, 1936 in Hamburg) is a German football player. ... For the parapsychologist, see Helmut Schmidt (parapsychologist). ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...   (IPA: ) (born Angela Dorothea Kasner, 17 July 1954, in Hamburg, Germany), is the Chancellor of Germany. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ... Fatih Akın holding the Golden Bear Fatih Akın (August 25, 1973 in Hamburg) is a German film director of Turkish descent. ... Hans Albers Hans Albers (September 22, 1891 Hamburg - July 24, 1960 Starnberg) was a German actor and singer. ... Samuel Sorge (born December 19, 1977 in Hamburg), commonly known as Samy Deluxe,The Big Baus of the Nauf and Wickeda MC, is a German hip hop artist and producer from Hamburg. ... Felix Mendelssohn wrote his first symphony at the young age of fifteen. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Oliver Hirschbiegel (born 26 March 1957) is a German film director. ... Astrid Kirchherr (born 20 May 1938) is a German photographer and artist, and is well-known for her association with The Beatles (along with her friends Klaus Voorman and Jürgen Vollmer) and her photographs of The Beatles while they were in Hamburg. ... Oliver Uckermann is a German musician who is the founder and male vocalist for the German musical group Stillste Stund. ... Stillste Stund (German: Stillest Hour) is a German musical group. ... Vocalist Michael Kiske was (born January 24, 1968 in Hamburg, Germany), best known as the lead vocalist for the German power metal band Helloween from 1987 to 1993. ... Michael Ingo Joachim Weikath is the guitarist of the Power metal band called Helloween. ... Kai Michael Hansen (born January 17, 1963, in Hamburg, Germany) is a power metal guitarist and vocalist. ... Ingo Schwichtenberg (May 18, 1965 - March 8, 1995) was one of the founding members of German power metal band Helloween and was famous for his high-energy drumming and ear-to-ear smile. ... Markus Großkopf Markus Großkopf (Born in Hamburg, Germany on September 21st, 1965) is the Bass player for the german power metal band Helloween. ... This article is about the power metal band. ... Rudolf Karl Augstein (November 5, 1923 - November 7, 2002) was one of the most influential German journalists, founder and part-owner of Der Spiegel magazine. ... Wolfgang Borchert (May 20, 1921 – November 20, 1947) was a German author and playwright whose work was affected by his experience of dictatorship and his service in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War. ... The Countess Marion Dönhoff (Marion Hedda Ilse Gräfin Dönhoff) (December 2, 1909 – March 11, 2002) was a German journalist who participated in the resistance to mad injustice of Hitlers National Socialists under the Counts von Moltke, Yorck von Wartenburg, and Stauffenberg. ... Henri Nannen (born December 25, 1913 in Emden, Lower Saxony, Germany, died October 13, 1996 in Hanover, Lower Saxony, Germany) was a famous German journalist. ... Karl Lagerfeld (born Karl Otto Lagerfeldt on September 10, 1933) is widely recognized as one of the most influential fashion designers of the late 20th century He has collaborated with a variety of different fashion labels, with Chloé, Fendi and Chanel the most notable. ... Michael Artin Michael Artin (born 1934) is an American mathematician and a professor at MIT, known for his contributions to algebraic geometry. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom the hertz, an SI unit, is named. ... Daniel Richter is an artist who lives and works in Germany. ... Albert Ballin ca. ... Paul Carl Beiersdorf (1836-1896) was a German pharmacist and founder of Beiersdorf AG in Hamburg. ... Helmuth Hübener (8 January 1925 – 27 October 1942) was the youngest opponent of the Third Reich to be sentenced to death by the Volksgerichtshof and executed (though a number of younger people were summarily executed by the Nazis). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hamburg
  • Official Hamburg website — In many languages
  • Hamburg 2020
  • HafenCity
  • Hamburg at the Open Directory Project
  • The City-Guide for Hamburg
  • Hamburg travel guide — Wikitravel
  • Alternative guide to Hamburg - Extrageographic Magazine
  • [43] Urban District Collective Red Winterhude — English
  • Paysage
  • Virtual Tour
  • Pinocchio in Hamburg: An illustrated guidebook to Hamburg by Lamberto Bozzi
  • "36 Hours in Hamburg", The New York Times

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...

References

  1. ^ State population. Portal of the Federal Statistics Office Germany. Retrieved on 2007-04-25.
  2. ^ Richard Ungewitter (German author) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  3. ^ Auf dem Rathausmarkt
  4. ^ Van Marle, Gavin. "Europe Terminals stretched to limit", Lloyds List Daily Commercial News, 2008-01-31, pp. 8-9. 


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