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Encyclopedia > Hamas
 
Hamas
حركة المقاومة الاسلامية
 
 
Leader Khaled Mashaal,
Ismail Haniyah,
Mahmoud Zahar
 
Founded 1987
Headquarters Gaza
 
Ideology Sunni Islamism, Nationalism
 
Website
www.palestine-info.com www.filistinetkinlik.com

Ḥamas (حركة حماس; acronym: حركة المقاومة الاسلامية, or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or "Islamic Resistance Movement"[citation needed]) is a democratically-elected Palestinian Sunni Islamist[1] militant organization and political party which currently holds a majority of seats in the legislative council of the Palestinian Authority.[1] Hamas Logo from the Hamas web site: www. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (b. ... Ismail Haniya (more frequently Haniyeh) (born 1962) (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية) is the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Mahmoud al-Zahar (Arabic: محمود الزهار) is a co-founder of Hamas, and a member of Hamass leadership in the Gaza Strip. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... This is an overview of the ideologies of parties. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... For the term Palestinian as applied to Jews, see Palestinian Jew. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... The word militant has come to refer to any individual or party engaged in aggressive physical or verbal combat, normally for a cause. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ...


Hamas was created in 1987 by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin of the Gaza wing of the Muslim Brotherhood at the beginning of the First Intifada. They are known for multiple suicide bombings and other attacks[2] directed against civilians and Israeli military and security forces targets. Hamas also runs extensive social services in Palestine. Hamas' charter calls for the destruction of the State of Israel and its replacement with a Palestinian Islamic state in the area that is now Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip.[3] Although Hamas claims its conflict with Israel is political and not religious[4], the organization has been described as antisemitic,[5] a charge the organisation itself rejects.[6] Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish name Garza or the Egyptian town of Giza. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimÅ«n, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... Combatants  Israel Unified National Leadership ot the Uprising Commanders Yitzhak Shamir Yasser Arafat Casualties 160 (5 children) 1,162 (241 children) The First Intifada (1987 - 1993) (also intifada and war of the stones) was a mass Palestinian uprising against Israeli rule[1] that began in Jabalia refugee camp and quickly... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism, also known as judeophobia) is prejudice and hostility toward Jews as a religious, racial, or ethnic group. ...


Hamas is listed as a terrorist organization by Canada,[7] Israel,[8] Japan,[9] and the United States,[10] and is banned in Jordan.[11] Australia[12] and the United Kingdom[13] list only the military wing of Hamas, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, as a terrorist organization. The European Union lists Hamas as a group 'involved in terrorist attacks' and has implemented restrictive measures against Hamas.[14] Terrorist redirects here. ... Hamas, acronym of Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas is also Arabic for zeal or courage) is a Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization, regarded by some as a militant organization and by others as a terrorist group. ...


Since the death of Palestine Liberation Organization leader Yasser Arafat, Hamas's political wing has entered and won many local elections in Gaza, Qalqilya, and Nablus. In January 2006, Hamas won a surprise victory in the Palestinian parliamentary elections, taking 76 of the 132 seats in the chamber, while the ruling Fatah party took 43.[15] The Hamas charter states: "There is no solution for the Palestinian question except through Jihad,"[16] and this stance has found a receptive audience among Palestinians; many perceived the preceding Fatah government as corrupt and ineffective, and Hamas's supporters see it as an "armed resistance"[17] movement defending Palestinians from the Israeli occupation of Palestinian territories.[18] Hamas has further gained popularity by establishing hospitals, education systems, libraries and social services[19] throughout the West Bank and Gaza Strip.[20] The Palestinian territories have experienced internal conflicts for many years; since Hamas's election victory, particularly sharp infighting has occurred between Hamas and Fatah, leading to many Palestinian deaths.[21][22] PLO redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Qalqīlyah (Arabic قلقيلية; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is an Arab city in the West Bank. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ...


After coming to power, Some of Hamas leaders have announced Hamas was giving up suicide attacks and "offered a 10-year truce [with Israel] in return for a complete Israeli withdrawal from the occupied Palestinian territories: the West Bank, Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem."[23][24][25] Hamas also declared a unilateral ceasefire with Israel which, after Israeli air strikes in response to Hamas smuggling weapons into Gaza, was formally renounced.[26]


Following the Battle for Gaza in June 2007, when Hamas used force to take control of the Gaza Strip after Fatah refused to hand over control to the new government, elected Hamas officials were ousted from their positions in the Palestinian National Authority government in the West Bank and were replaced by rival Fatah members as well as independents.[27][28] On June 18, 2007, Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas (Fatah) issued a decree outlawing the Hamas militia and executive force.[1][2] Combatants Hamas Fatah Casualties 22 killed 77 killed 17 killed (civilians) [1] The Battle for Gaza (Arabic: ) took place between June 12 and June 14, 2007 and resulted in Hamas taking control of the Gaza Strip. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ...


According to the US State Department, the group is funded by Saudi Arabia, Iran, Palestinian expatriates, and private benefactors in other Arab states.[10] Department of State redirects here. ...

Contents

Name

Some disagreement exists over the meaning of the word "Ḥamas" itself. Ḥamas is an acronym of the Arabic phrase حركة المقاومة الاسلامية, or Ḥarakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or "Islamic Resistance Movement". In Hebrew hamas means "violence".[29] The initial consonant is not the ordinary /h/ of English, but a slightly more rasping sound, the voiceless pharyngeal fricative transcribed as [ḥ]. Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


The military wing of Hamas, formed in 1992, is known as the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades to commemorate Sheikh Izz ad-Din al-Qassam, the father of modern Arab resistance, killed by the British in 1935. Armed Hamas cells also sometimes refer to themselves as "Students of Ayyash", "Students of the Engineer", or "Yahya Ayyash Units",[30] to commemorate Yahya Ayyash, an early Hamas bomb-maker killed in 1996.[15] Hamas, acronym of Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas is also Arabic for zeal or courage) is a Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization, regarded by some as a militant organization and by others as a terrorist group. ... -1... Yahya Abdal-Tif Ayyash (يحيى عياش; February 22, 1966 - January 5, 1996) was the chief bombmaker of Hamas and the leader of the Samaria battalion of the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades. ...


History

Main article: History of Hamas

Sheikh Ahmed Yassin founded Hamas in 1987 as an offshoot him of Egypt's Muslim Brotherhood. The acronym "Hamas" first appeared in 1987 in a leaflet that accused the Israeli intelligence services of undermining the moral fiber of Palestinian youth as part of Mossad's recruitment of what Hamas termed "collaborators". The Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, the military branch, was created in 1992, a year before the Oslo Accords. During the 1990s and 2000s it became best known in the Western world for its suicide bombings[2] and other attacks directed against civilians, including the Dolphinarium and the Passover suicide bombings. The History of Hamas is an account of the Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more others. ... Hamas, acronym of Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas is also Arabic for zeal or courage) is a Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization, regarded by some as a militant organization and by others as a terrorist group. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Occident redirects here. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ...


On January 26, 2004, senior Hamas official Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi offered a 10-year truce, or hudna, in return for a complete withdrawal by Israel from the territories captured in the Six Day War, and the establishment of a Palestinian state (it remade the same offer after winning the majority in the PLC, accepting the 2002 Arab Peace Initiative[31]). Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin stated that the group could accept a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. Rantissi confirmed that Hamas had come to the conclusion that it was "difficult to liberate all our land at this stage, so we accept a phased liberation." He said the truce could last 10 years, though "not more than 10 years". is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ... Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... PLC may stand for: Palestinian Legislative Council, law-making body of the Palestinian Authority Parti Libéral du Canada, the term in French for the Liberal Party of Canada Partido Liberal Constitucionalista (or Constitutional Liberal Party), a major political party in Nicaragua Phospholipase C Platoon Leaders Class Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth... The Arab Peace Initiative (Arabic Language: مبادرة السلام العربية) is a peace initiative first proposed by Abdullah of Saudi Arabia, then crown prince, in the Beirut Summit. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ...


From the time of an attack on the Israeli southern town of Be'er Sheva in August 2004, in which 15 people were killed and 125 wounded, the truce was generally observed. Hamas violated once, in August 2005, with an attack on the same bus station, wounding seven. Also in 2005, a group claiming to be aligned with Hamas were involved in several attacks on Israelis in the Hebron area of the West Bank, killing six.[32][33] Beer Sheva is a city in Israel and the largest city of the Negev desert, often known as the Capital of the Negev. In 2004, Beer Sheva had a population of 184,500 making it the fifth largest city in Israel. ...


While Hamas had boycotted the January 2005 presidential election, during which Mahmoud Abbas was elected to replace Yasser Arafat, it did participate in the municipal elections held between January and May 2005, in which it took control of Beit Lahia and Rafah in the Gaza Strip and Qalqilyah in the West Bank. The January 2006 legislative elections marked another victory for Hamas, which gained the majority of seats in the first fair and democratic elections held in Palestine,[34] defeating the ruling Fatah party. The "List of Change and Reform", as Hamas presented itself, obtained 42.9% of the vote and 74 of the 132 seats.[35] The 2005 Palestinian presidential election — the first to be held since 1996 — took place on January 9, 2005 in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... The January-May 2005 Palestinian local (municipal) election were organized by President of the Palestinian Authority Yasser Arafat before his death on November 11, 2004. ... Beit Lahia (Arabic: ) is a town under Palestinian Authority of about 40,000 people in the northern Gaza Strip. ... Rafah (Arabic: رفح Hebrew: רפיח) is a town in the Gaza Strip, on the Egyptian border, and a nearby town on the Egyptian side of the border, on the Sinai Peninsula. ... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ...


Hamas omitted its call for the destruction of Israel from its election manifesto, calling instead for "the establishment of an independent state whose capital is Jerusalem."[36][37] For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


On February 13, 2006, in an interview in Russian newspaper Nezavisimaya Gazeta,[38] the same Khaled Mashal declared that if Israel wants "peace", it must recognize the 1967 borders, withdraw itself from all Palestinian occupied territories (including the West Bank and East Jerusalem) and recognize Palestinian rights that would include the "right of return". Mashal would not acknowledge the Road map for peace, adopted by the Quartet in June 2003, because "The problem is not Hamas' stance, but Israel's stance. It is in fact not honoring the Road Map".[39] The Road map projected the establishment of an independent Palestinian state in 2005.[40] Nezavisimaya Gazeta (Независимая Газета; independent newspaper) is a Russian language daily newspaper, published by Izvestiya. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In May 2006, during demonstrations in the West Bank and Gaza Strip in support of Hamas and agains US-led sanctions, Hamas leaders threatened a new Intifada, as well as to "chop off" the head of anyone who tried to bring down their cabinet.[41] Furthermore, Hamas took a flexible stance that renewed support for the 2002 Arab peace initiative offering to restore normal relations with Israel in exchange for the creation of a Palestinian state.[42]


After the formation of the Hamas cabinet on March 20, 2006, tensions have progressively risen in the Gaza strip between Fatah and Hamas militants, leading to demonstrations and violence, along with repeated attempts at a truce.[43]


On June 27, 2006 Hamas and Fatah reached an agreement which included the forming of a national unity government. On February 8, 2007, Hamas and Fatah signed a deal to end factional warfare that had killed nearly 200 Palestinians and to form a coalition, hoping this would lead Western powers to lift crippling sanctions imposed on the Hamas-led government.[44] is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Combatants Hamas Fatah Strength 10,000 (mostly in Gaza)[1] 60,000 (mostly in the W. Bank)[2] Casualties 39 killed 74 killed 29 civilians killed 354 wounded on both sides (at least) The Palestinian factional violence began after the ruling Hamas party accused Fatah of trying to kill the...


The events leading to the 2006 Israel-Gaza conflict began on June 9, 2006. During an Israeli artillery operation, an explosion occurred on a busy Gaza beach, killing eight Palestinian civilians.[45][46] It was initially assumed that Israeli shellings were responsible for the killings, although Israeli government officials later denied this. Hamas formally withdrew from its 16-month ceasefire on June 10, taking responsibility for the subsequent Qassam rocket attacks launched from Gaza into Israel.[3] Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gaza beach blast[1] was an event on June 9, 2006 in which eight Palestinians were killed — including the entire family of seven year old Huda Ghaliya — and at least thirty others injured in an explosion at a beach near the municipality of Beit Lahia in the Gaza Strip. ... A ceasefire is a temporary stoppage of a war or any armed conflict, where each side of the conflict agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On June 29, Israel captured 64 Hamas officials. Amongst them were eight Palestinian Authority cabinet ministers and up to twenty members of the Palestinian Legislative Council,[47] as well as heads of regional councils, and the mayor of Qalqilyah and his deputy. At least a third of the Hamas cabinet was captured and held by Israel. On 6 August Israeli forces detained the Hamas' Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council, Aziz Dweik, at his home in the West Bank. is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The West Bank The Palestinian National Authority (PNA or PA) is a semi-autonomous state institution nominally governing the bulk of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (which it calls the Palestinian Territories). It was established as a part of Oslo accords between the PLO and Israel. ... The Palestinian Legislative Council, (sometimes referred to to as the Palestinan Parliament) the legislature of the Palestinian Authority, is a unicameral body with 88 members, elected from 16 electoral districts in the West Bank and Gaza. ... Qalqilyah (Arabic قلقيلية ; Standard Hebrew קלקיליה Qalqilya) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council is the chairman of the Palestinian Legislative Council. ... Abdel Aziz Duwaik (Arabic: عبد العزيز دويك) is a member of Hamas and the new Speaker of the Palestinian Legislative Council and member from the West Bank. ...


In June, renewed fighting broke out between Hamas and Fatah. As of June 14, 2007, the current Palestinian government has been dissolved. President Mahmoud Abbas has dismissed the Hamas-led Palestinian Authority government. [4]. is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


There was a brief war in which Hamas seized control of Gaza and the Palestinian Authority was effectively split in two: Hamas controlling of Gaza and Fatah controlling the West Bank. It is reported that violence continued as of June 16th, 2007. Combatants Hamas Fatah Casualties 22 killed 77 killed 17 non-combatants killed,[1][2] including 2 UN personnel[3] Fatah-Hamas conflict Gaza The Battle of Gaza (Arabic: ) was a military conflict between Hamas and Fatah which took place between June 7 and June 15, 2007 in the Gaza Strip. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Leaders of Hamas and Fatah met in the Yemeni capital San‘a’ on 23 March 2008 and agreed to the tentative "Sana'a Declaration" to resume concillatory talks.[48] Building in San‘a’ Clay houses in San‘a’ The residence of Imam Yahya in the Wadi Dhar near San‘a’. Backstreet in Yemen (Arabic: ‎ , sometimes spelled Sanaa or Sanaa) is the capital of Yemen and the centre of San‘a’ Governorate. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Beliefs

A flag, with the Shahadah, frequently used by Hamas supporters

Founded in 1987, Hamas was the Gaza Strip affiliate of the Islamic Muslim Brotherhood movement founded in Egypt. Image File history File links Flag_of_Hamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hamas. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political...


Hamas, whose members largely come from the squalid refugee camps of Gaza from persons displaced from Israel's 1948 war of independence, has been far less accommodating with the occupation than has their competitor Fatah, with one Hamas parliamentarian denouncing the 1993 Oslo Accords as "not a peace process" and "a process of deception and cheating, lies which enabled Israel to truncate our homeland with settlements, separation walls, roadblocks, and closed military zones."[49] In 2004 Hamas offered a 10-year truce, or hudna, in exchange for several conditions including a complete withdrawal from Israeli-occupied territories (see below) this call was also mentioned in an interview with Hamas leader Khaled Meshaal in Foreign Policy Magazine, Meshaal stated that Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ... The Golan Heights plateau overlooking the site of the ancient city of Hippos The Israeli-occupied territories is one of a number of terms used to describe areas captured by Israel from Egypt, Jordan, and Syria during the Six-Day War of 1967. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (b. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ...

"Hamas is prepared to offer a hudna [broad cease-fire] to Israel if it [Israel] withdraws from the lands occupied in 1967 and respects all the Palestinian rights."[50] Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ...

Hamas considers all of pre-1948 Palestine to be the Palestinian homeland. This includes present-day State of Israel — as well as the Gaza Strip and the West Bank — as an inalienable Islamic waqf or religious bequest, which can never be surrendered to non-Muslims. It asserts that struggle (jihad) to regain control of the land from Israel is the religious duty of every Muslim (fard `ain). This article is about the religious endowment. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic scholars. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...


Hamas does not recognize Israel as a sovereign state, unlike the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), which has recognized it since 1988, and calls it the "Zionist entity". Its charter calls for an end to Israel. During the election campaign, Hamas did not mention its call for the destruction of Israel in its electoral manifesto.[36] But several Hamas candidates insist that the charter is still in force and often called for Israel to be "wiped off the map" in campaign speeches. On January 25, 2006, after winning the Palestinian elections, Hamas leader Mahmoud al-Zahar gave an interview to Al-Manar TV denouncing foreign demands that Hamas recognize Israel's right to exist.[51] After the establishment of Hamas government, Dr Al-Zahar stated his "dreams of hanging a huge map of the world on the wall at my Gaza home which does not show Israel on it...I hope that our dream to have our independent state on all historic Palestine (including Israel). This dream will become real one day. I'm certain of this because there is no place for the state of Israel on this land". He also "didn't rule out the possibility of having Jews, Muslims and Christians living under the sovereignty of an Islamic state, adding that the Palestinians never hated the Jews and that only the Israeli occupation was their enemy".[52] PLO redirects here. ... See also Alternative political spellings and the list of pejorative political puns. ... Mahmoud al-Zahar (Arabic: محمود الزهار) (born 1945) is a co-founder of Hamas, and a member of Hamass leadership in the Gaza Strip. ... Al-Manar (Arabic: ; The Beacon) is the satellite television station of Hezbollah, broadcasting from Beirut, Lebanon and offering a rich menu of high production news, commentary, and entertainment in the service of what Hezbollah believes is Islamic unity and resistance. ...


Hamas's charter calls for the eventual creation of an Islamic Republic in their historic homeland of Palestine, in place of Israel.[53] Hamas sees this view as an Islamic religious duty and prophesy that comes directly from Hadith. In 1999, late Hamas co-founder Sheikh Ahmed Yassin mentioned the year 2027 as the possible date for the "disappearance" of Israel.[54][55] The group has not issued a clear statement about how it would deal with the current population of Israel, should it succeed in overthrowing Israeli and secular Palestinian government. Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi, one of its co-founders, stated that the movement's goal is "to remove Israel from the map".[56] On February 13, 2005, Hamas leader Khaled Mashal declared that Hamas would stop armed struggle against Israel if Israel recognized the 1967 borders, withdrew from all Palestinian territories and accept the demand for Palestinian "Right of Return" (see below). Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (Arabic: خالد مشعل) (b. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Israels 1949 Green Line (dark green) and demilitarized zones (light green). ... Many Palestinian refugees in Arab nations and elsewhere claim a Right of Return to lands which they or their families had held in Israel prior to the Palestinian Exodus. ...


According to the Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Hamas views the Arab-Israeli conflict as "a religious struggle between Islam and Judaism that can only be resolved by the destruction of the State of Israel".[57]. Hamas uses both political activities and violence to pursue its goal of establishing an Islamic Palestinian state in place of Israel and the secular Palestinian Authority. Israeli military operations during the al-Aqsa Intifada in 2002 put pressure on Hamas in the West Bank following several bombings in Israel for which Hamas claimed responsibility. Hamas has also engaged in peaceful political activities, including running candidates in West Bank Chamber of commerce elections. Washington Institute for Near East Policy (WINEP) is a Jewish organization founded in 1985 by Martin Indyk, previously research director of the leading pro-Israel lobby, the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (Aipac). ... Belligerents Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel, Palestine and the... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Palestinian state is recognised by around 100 countries. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Chambers of commerce are business advocacy groups which are usually not associated with government. ...


During the election campaign the organization toned down criticism of Israel in its election manifesto, stating only that it was prepared to use "armed resistance to end the occupation".[58]


The slogan of Hamas is "God is its target, the Prophet is its model, the Qur'an its constitution: Jihad is its path and death for the sake of God is the loftiest of its wishes." Hamas states that its objective is to support the oppressed and wronged and "to bring about justice and defeat injustice, in word and deed." Hamas believes that "the land of Palestine is an Islamic Waqf (trust) consecrated for future Muslim generations until Judgement Day," and as such, the land cannot be negotiated away by any political leader. Hamas rejects "so-called peaceful solutions and international conferences" as "in contradiction to the principles of the Islamic Resistance Movement", stating "there is no solution for the Palestinian question except through Jihad".[citation needed] Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about the religious endowment. ... Yawm al-Qīyāmah (Arabic: literally: Day of the Resurrection) is the Last Judgement in Islam. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ...


The Possibility of a Ceasefire with Israel

Hamas omitted its call for the destruction of Israel from its election manifesto, calling instead for "the establishment of an independent state whose capital is Jerusalem."[36][37] On February 8, Hamas head Khaled Mashal speaking in Cairo had clarified that "Anyone who thinks Hamas will change is wrong", stating that while Hamas is willing for a ceasefire with Israel, its long term goal remains: Israel must withdraw from all land occupied in 1967.[59] For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (Arabic: خالد مشعل) (b. ...


On February 13, 2006, in an interview in Russian newspaper Nezavisimaya Gazeta,[60] Mashal declared that Hamas would stop armed struggle against Israel if it recognized the 1967 borders, withdrew itself from all Palestinian occupied territories (including the West Bank and East Jerusalem) and recognized Palestinian rights that would include the "right of return". He reaffirmed this stance in a March 5, 2008 interview with Al Jazeera English,[61] citing Hamas's signing of the 2005 Cairo Declaration and the National Reconciliation Document, and denied any rejectionist stance. Critics of this offer[who?] suggest that Israel would never accept the Palestinian refugees right of return, as it would create a demographic majority to Muslims in Israel, and thus cancel its Jewish nature. Hamas does not feel bound by the "Road Map to Peace" promoted by the Diplomatic Quartet, since in its view Israel is not abiding by it.[62] Hamas rejects the establishment of a "Palestinian entity [...] with no true sovereignty, whose principal duty is to maintain Israel's security."[61] Nezavisimaya Gazeta (Независимая Газета; independent newspaper) is a Russian language daily newspaper, published by Izvestiya. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... East Jerusalem is that part of Jerusalem which was held by Jordan from the 1948 Arab-Israeli War until the Six-Day War in 1967. ... Al Jazeera English is a 24-hour English-language news and current affairs TV channel headquartered in Doha, Qatar. ... The Quartet on the Middle East, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international entities involved in mediating the peace process between Israel and the Palestinian People. ...


According to the New York Times Steven Erlanger, Hamas excludes the possibility of long term reconciliation with Israel. "Since the Prophet Muhammad made a temporary hudna, or truce, with the Jews about 1,400 years ago, Hamas allows the idea. But no one in Hamas says he would make a peace treaty with Israel or permanently give up any part of Palestine."[5]. Mkhaimer Abusada, a political scientist at Al Azhar University explains that “They(Hamas) talk of hudna, not of peace or reconciliation with Israel. They believe over time they will be strong enough to liberate all historic Palestine.”[6] Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ...


On April 21st, 2008, former U.S. President and 2002 Nobel Peace Prize laureate Jimmy Carter met with Hamas Leader Khaled Meshal and reached an agreement that Hamas will respect the creation of a Palestinian state in the West Bank and Gaza Strip areas seized by Israel in the Six-Day War of 1967, provided this be ratified by the Palestinian people in a referendum. Carter had made several other requests, but these were turned down. Hamas later announced publicly an offer for a 10 year hudna with Israel, should they decide to return to their 1967 borders and allow the return of all Palestinian refugees. Several nations originally rejected the plan, but Israel is yet to respond.[63][64] Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (b. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Hudna (هدنة) is an Arabic term meaning truce or armistice as well as calm or quiet, in order to rearm for the next battle, although the latter part of the definition is often lost in the media. ...


The Covenant of Hamas

See also: wikisource:Hamas Covenant

The 1988 Hamas Covenant (or Charter) states that the organization's goal is to "raise the banner of God over every inch of Palestine," in order to establish an Islamic Republic. Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... An Islamic republic, in its modern context, has come to mean several different things, some contradictory to others. ...


The thirty-six articles of the Covenant detail the movement's Islamist beliefs regarding the primacy of Islam in all aspects of life. The Covenant identifies Hamas as the Muslim Brotherhood in Palestine and considers its members to be Muslims who "fear God and raise the banner of Jihad in the face of the oppressors." Hamas describes resisting and quelling the enemy as the individual duty of every Muslim and prescribes vigilant roles for all members of society; including men and women, professionals, scientists and students.


The Covenant outlines the organization's position on various issues, including social and economic development and ideological influences, education, as well as its position regarding Israel. Amongst many other things, it reiterates the group's rejection of the coexistence principle of the peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The UN Partition Plan Map of the State of Israel today The Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict has taken shape over the years, despite the ongoing violence in the Middle East. ...


Activities

Provision of social welfare and education

Hamas is particularly popular among Palestinians in the Gaza Strip, though it also has a following in the West Bank, and to a lesser extent in other Middle Eastern countries. Since its formation in 1987, Hamas has conducted numerous social, political, and military actions. Its popularity stems in part from its welfare and social services to Palestinians in the occupied territories, including school and hospital construction. The group devotes much of its estimated $70 million annual budget to an extensive social services network, running many relief and education programs, and funds schools, orphanages, mosques, healthcare clinics, soup kitchens, and sports leagues. According to the Israeli scholar Reuven Paz "approximately 90 percent of the organization's work is in social, welfare, cultural, and educational activities".[65] ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Reuven Paz(born 14 November 1950) is an Israeli scholar specializing in Islam and Islamic movements in the Arab and Muslim world, the Arab minority in Israel and Islamic Fundamentalism. ...


In 1973, the Islamic center 'Mujamma' was established in Gaza and started to offer clinics, blood banks, day care, medical treatment, meals and youth clubs. The centre plays an important role for providing social care to the people, particularly those living in refugee camps. It also extended financial aid and scholarships to young people who wanted to study in Saudi Arabia and the West.[66] In particular, Hamas funded health services where people could receive free or inexpensive medical treatment. Hamas greatly contributed to the health sector, and facilitated hospital and physician services in the Palestinian territory. On the other hand, Hamas’s use of hospitals is sometimes criticised as purportedly serving the promotion of suicide bombings and other forms of violence against Israel. Hamas also funded education as well as the health service, and built Islamic charities, libraries, mosques, education centers for women. They also built nurseries, kindergartens and supervised religious schools that provide free meals to children. When children attend their schools and mosques, parents are required to sign oaths of allegiance. Refugees, as well as those left without homes, are able to claim financial and technical assistance from Hamas.[67]


In any case, Hamas has significantly increased literacy in areas where it is active[citation needed]. Hamas also funds a number of other charitable activities, primarily in the Gaza Strip[citation needed]. These include religious institutions, medical facilities, and social needs of the area's residents.[citation needed] The work of Hamas in these fields supplements that provided by the United Nations Relief Works Agency (UNRWA). Hamas is also well regarded by Palestinians for its efficiency and perceived lack of corruption compared to Fatah.[68][69] The United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a controversial relief and human development agency, providing education, healthcare, social services and emergency aid to over four million Palestinian refugees living in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria. ...


Funding

The majority of Hamas funding comes from Saudi Arabia.[70][71] According to the U.S. State Dept,[10] Hamas is also funded by Iran (led by a Shi'i Islamic regime), Palestinian expatriates, and private benefactors in other Arab states. The party is known to support families of suicide bombers after their deaths. Some believe the financial support includes a monthly allowance.[72] Various sources, among them United Press International,[73] Le Canard enchaîné, Bill Baar, Gérard Chaliand[74] and L'Humanité[75] have highlighted that Hamas' early growth had been supported by the Mossad as a "counterbalance to the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)". Furthermore, the French investigative newspaper Le Canard enchaîné stated that Shin Bet had also supported Hamas as a counterweight to the PLO and Fatah, in an attempt to give "a religious slant to the conflict, in order to make the West believe that the conflict was between Jews and Muslims", thus supporting the controversial thesis of a "clash of civilizations".[76] Department of State redirects here. ... Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... Front of UPI Headquarters, Washington, D.C. “UPI” redirects here. ... Le Canard enchaîné is a satirical newspaper published weekly in France, founded in 1915, featuring investigative journalism and leaks from sources inside the French government, the French political world and the French business world, as well as a large number of jokes and humorous cartoons. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... PLO redirects here. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not include all significant viewpoints. ... Cover of The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order The Clash of Civilizations is a theory, proposed by political scientist Samuel P. Huntington, that peoples cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. ...


The charitable trust Holy Land Foundation for Relief and Development was accused in December 2001 of funding Hamas[citation needed]. A charitable trust is a trust established for charitable purposes. ... The Holy Land Foundation is an Islamic charity in the United States and claims to be the largest in that country. ...


Other

The main website of Hamas provides translations of official communiqués in Persian language, Urdu, Malay, Russian, English, and Arabic. Farsi redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Not to be confused with the Malayalam language, spoken in India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


In 2005, Hamas announced its intention to launch an experimental TV channel, "Al-Aqsa". The station was launched on January 7, 2006, less than three weeks before the Palestinian legislative elections.[77] It included a TV show for children. The Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is not to be confused with the Dome of the Rock The Al-Aqsa Mosque (Arabic: المسجد الاقصى, Masjid Al-Aqsa, literally farthest mosque) is part of the complex of religious buildings in Jerusalem known as either the Majed Mount or Al-Haram ash... Wikinews has news related to this article: Hamas wins Palestinian election On January 25, 2006, elections were held for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC), the legislature of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA). ...


Controversies

Antisemitism

See also: Antisemitism in the Arab world

Article 22 of the Hamas Covenant claims that the French revolution, the Russian revolution, colonialism and both world wars were created by the Zionists. It also claims the Freemasons and Rotary clubs are Zionist fronts.

You may speak as much as you want about regional and world wars. They were behind World War I, when they were able to destroy the Islamic Caliphate, making financial gains and controlling resources. They obtained the Balfour Declaration, formed the League of Nations through which they could rule the world. They were behind World War II, through which they made huge financial gains by trading in armaments, and paved the way for the establishment of their state. It was they who instigated the replacement of the League of Nations with the United Nations and the Security Council to enable them to rule the world through them. There is no war going on anywhere, without having their finger in it.[78]

Furthermore, Article 32 of the Covenant makes reference to The Protocols of the Elders of Zion: For the 2005 documentary film by Marc Levin, see Protocols of Zion (film). ...

Today it is Palestine, tomorrow it will be one country or another. The Zionist plan is limitless. After Palestine, the Zionists aspire to expand from the Nile to the Euphrates. When they will have digested the region they overtook, they will aspire to further expansion, and so on. Their plan is embodied in the "Protocols of the Elders of Zion", and their present conduct is the best proof of what we are saying.

However, in 1998, Esther Webman of the Project for the Study of Anti-Semitism at the Tel Aviv University wrote: The Engineering Faculty Boulevard The Smolarz Auditorium Tel Aviv University (TAU, אוניברסיטת תל אביב, אתא) is one of Israels major universities. ...

....the anti-Semitic rhetoric in Hamas leaflets is frequent and intense. Nevertheless, anti-Semitism is not the main tenet of Hamas ideology. Generally no differentiation was made in the leaflets between Jew and Zionist, in as much as Judaism was perceived as embracing Zionism, although in other Hamas publications and in interviews with its leaders attempts at this differentiation have been made."[79]

In an editorial in The Guardian in January 2006, Khaled Meshaal, the chief of Hamas's political bureau denied antisemitism: For other uses, see Guardian. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (b. ...

"Our message to the Israelis is this: We do not fight you because you belong to a certain faith or culture. Jews have lived in the Muslim world for 13 centuries in peace and harmony; they are in our religion "the people of the book" who have a covenant from God and his messenger, Muhammad (peace be upon him), to be respected and protected."
"Our conflict with you is not religious but political. We have no problem with Jews who have not attacked us — our problem is with those who came to our land, imposed themselves on us by force, destroyed our society and banished our people."[4]

Children's web site

Al Fateh is Hamas' web site for children. The site says it is for "the young builders of the future"[citation needed] and it has a link to the official web site.[80] Several Israeli reviews and news coverages of the site describe it as hate-mongering and accuse it of glorifying death and suicide for God [81] [82]


According to CAMERA and others, "Issue number 38 of Al-Fateh, includes a photograph of the decapitated head of a female suicide bomber."[83] [84][80] The Committee for Accuracy in Middle East Reporting in America (CAMERA) is a Boston-based, non-profit, pro-Israel[2] media watch organization[3] which was founded in 1982 to respond to perceived anti-Israel bias in The Washington Post. ...


Crackdown on dissent and on the Press

Human rights groups and ordinary Gazans accuse Hamas of forcefully suppressing dissent. An August 26, 2007 article from British conservative newspaper The Telegraph accuses Hamas of using criminal means, including torture, political detentions, and firing on unarmed protesters who object to Hamas policies.[85] This article concerns the British newspaper. ...


Hamas members have also been harassing and arresting Palestinian journalists in Gaza [7],[8]. On August 29, 2007 Palestinian health officials reported that Hamas had been shutting down Gaza clinics in retaliation for doctor strikes - Hamas confirmed that "punitive measure against doctors" who, according to Hamas, "incite others to strike and suspend services" have been taken. [9] is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


On September 3rd, 2007 Hamas disbanded the Gaza Strip branch of the pro-Fatah Union of Palestinian Journalists, a move that was criticised by Reporters without borders. [86] Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...


On September 7th, 2007 Hamas banned public prayers, after Fatah supporters began holding worship sessions that quickly escalated into raucous protests against Hamas rule. Hamas security forces beat several gathering supporters and journalists. [87] Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ...


On November 14, 2007 Hamas arrested a British journalist and canceled all press cards in Gaza. No news photography is allowed without a license from Hamas. [10], [11]


On Feb 8, 2008 Hamas banned distribution of Al-Ayyam newspaper and closure of its offices in the Gaza Strip due to a caricature that mocked legislators loyal to Hamas[12],[13]. Hamas had later issued an arrest request for the editor[14].


Militancy and terrorism

Suicide attacks

Suicide attacks are the main element of what the group sees as its asymmetric warfare against Israel. Since the group considers all Israel to be a "militarized society" Hamas condones attacks on civilian targets.[citation needed] The group's willingness to target civilian facilities including buses, supermarkets, and restaurants is the reason why some governments classify it as a terrorist movement (although Hamas claims being a national liberation movement). Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors or groups whose relative power differs significantly. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ... Wars of national liberation were conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in an attempt to remove that powers influence. ...


Hamas' first use of suicide bombing occurred on April 16, 1993 when a suicide bomber driving an explosive-laden van detonated between two buses parked at a restaurant. It was Hamas' 19th known attack since 1989 (the others being shootings, kidnappings and knife attacks).[88] A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ...


Hamas continued to launch suicide attacks during the Oslo Accords period (see List of Hamas suicide attacks). It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: NPOV: similar articles on one-sided violence committed by Israelis have been deleted for being NPOV fork. ...


During the second Intifada, Hamas, along with the Islamic Jihad Movement, spearheaded the violence through the years of the Palestinian uprising.[89] Since then Hamas has conducted many attacks on Israel, mainly through its military wing — the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades. These attacks have included large-scale suicide bombings against Israeli civilian targets, the most deadly of which was the bombing of a Netanya hotel on March 27, 2002, in which 30 people were killed and 140 were wounded. This attack has also been referred to as the Passover massacre since it took place on the first night of the Jewish festival of Passover. Overall, from November 2000 to April 2004, 377 Israeli citizens and soldiers were killed and 2,076 wounded in 425 attacks by Hamas. (Source: IDF website.) The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs maintains a comprehensive list of Hamas attacks. March 2004.htm For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of Israel superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... Hamas, acronym of Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas is also Arabic for zeal or courage) is a Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization, regarded by some as a militant organization and by others as a terrorist group. ... A suicide bombing is an attack using a bomb in which the individual(s) carrying the explosive materials composing the bomb intend(s) and expect(s) to die upon detonation (see suicide). ... Early morning in Netanya, Israel Netanya (Hebrew: נְתַנְיָה, Standard Hebrew NÉ™tanya) is a city in the Center District of Israel and is the capital of the Sharon plain. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Netanya suicide attack (also known as the Netanya bombing and the Passover massacre) was a Palestinian suicide bombing in Park Hotel at Netanya on March 27, 2002. ... This article is about the Jewish holiday. ...


In a 2002 report, Human Rights Watch stated that Hamas' leaders "should be held accountable for the war crimes and crimes against humanity" that have been committed by its members.[90] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


A few female suicide bombers, including a mother of six and a mother of two children under the age of 10 have also executed suicide bombings. Abdel Aziz Rantisi has said, Though the majority of suicide bombers were and are male, female suicide bombers have carried out a number of attacks since 1985. ... Dr. Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi (in the Arabic script عبدالعزيز الرنتيسي) (October 23, 1947 - April 17, 2004) was the co-founder of the Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization Hamas. ...

"The Hamas movement is prepared to stop terror against Israeli civilians if Israel stops killing Palestinian civilians ... We have told (Palestinian Authority Prime Minister) Abu Mazen in our meetings that there is an opportunity to stop targeting Israeli civilians if the Israelis stop assassinations and raids and stop brutalizing Palestinian civilians."[91]

In May 2006 Israel arrested Hamas top official Ibrahim Hamed whom Israeli security officials claim was responsible for dozens of suicide bombings and other attacks on Israelis.[92] Ibrahim Hamed is a Hamas military commander in the West Bank who ordered suicide bombing attacks during the Al-Aqsa Intifada[1] until he was apprehended by Israeli security sources on May 23, 2006. ... A suicide bombing is a bomb attack on people or property, committed by a person who knows the explosion will cause his or her own death (see suicide, suicide weapons). ...


On Feb 7, 2008 Hamas resumed the suicide bombings against civilian targets inside Israel killing an 74 year old woman and wounding her husband and other civilians[15],[16],[17],[18],[19]


On March 5, 2008 various news services reported that Hamas had claimed responsibility for the killing of 8 Yeshiva students in Jerusalem. [93] A spokesman for Hamas has rebutted the claim, stating that it is "an honour we have not claimed yet", and the official position is that the attack has been attributed to the "Free Men of Galilee", who are affiliated with Hezbollah. [94] This article is about the Jewish male educational system. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Shelling and rocket attacks on civilians

Since 2002, militants have used homemade Qassam rockets to hit Israeli towns in the Negev, such as Sderot. Although Hamas does not claim responsibility for the attacks, it has condoned them. These attacks are outlined in the List of Qassam rocket attacks. The introduction of the Qassam-2 rocket has allowed militants to reach large Israeli cities such as Ashkelon, bringing great concern to the Israeli populace and many attempts by the Israeli military to stop the proliferation and use of the rockets. On March 2008 a Hamas politburo member sent a letter to Arab leaders urging them not to condem attacks on civilians[20] The remnants of an exploded Qassam rocket that was fired from the Gaza Strip at Israel. ... :For the light machine gun see IMI Negev. ... Hebrew Arabic سديروت Name Meaning Boulevards Founded in 1953 Government City (from 1996) District South Population 19,800 (2006) Jurisdiction 5,000 dunams (5 km²) Mayor Eli Moyal Sderot (Hebrew: ‎, Arabic: ) is a city in the western Negev, in the South District of Israel. ... Most Qassam rockets hit Sderot in Israel This is a list of Qassam rocket attacks where someone has been killed, five or more people have been injured in one attack, or the circumstances of the rocket attack itself were exceptional. ... Hebrew אַשְׁקְלוֹן (Standard) AÅ¡qÉ™lon Arabic عسقلان Founded in 1951 Government City Also Spelled Ashqelon (officially) District South Population 105,100 (2004) Jurisdiction 55,000 dunams (55 km²) Mayor Roni Mahatzri Ashkelon (Hebrew: ‎; Tiberian Hebrew ʾAÅ¡qÉ™lôn; Arabic: ‎  ; Latin: Ascalon) is a city in the western Negev, in the...


Guerilla warfare

Two Hamas militants with Yasin Rocket-propelled grenade.

Hamas has made great use of guerrilla tactics in the Gaza Strip and to a lesser degree the West Bank.[95] Hamas has successfully adapted these techniques over the years since its inception. According to a 2006 report by rival Fatah party, Hamas had smuggled "between several hundred and 1,300 tons" of advanced rockets, along with other weaponry, into Gaza. Some Israelis and some Gazans both noted similarities in Hamas's military buildup to that of Hezbollah in the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war.[95] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Yasin (disambiguation). ... A rocket propelled grenade (RPG) is a man-portable, shoulder-launched weapon capable of firing an explosive device longer distances than an otherwise unassisted soldier could throw. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ...


Hamas has used IEDs and anti-tank rockets against the IDF in Gaza. The latter include standard RPG-7 warheads and home-made rockets such as the Al-Bana, Al-Batar and Al-Yasin. The home-made rockets proved ineffective against Israeli armor[citation needed], while Popular Resistance Committees' IEDs destroyed 3 Israeli tanks in 2002. The IDF has a difficult, if not impossible time trying to find hidden weapons caches in Palestinian areas — this is due to the high local support base Hamas enjoys.[96] Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... Similar to the rocket-propelled grenade (RPG), this weapon propels an explosive projectile. ... The RPG-7 (Russian: ) is a widely-produced, portable, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket propelled grenade weapon. ... The al-Bana (Arabic: البنا) rocket launcher is a weapon developed by Hamass Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades under the direction of Adnan al-Ghoul and Mohammed Deif. ... The Batar (Arabic: البتار) rocket launcher is a weapon developed by the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, the military wing of Palestinian militant group Hamas during the Al-Aqsa intifada. ... For other uses, see Yasin (disambiguation). ... Emblem of the Popular Resistance Committees The Popular Resistance Committees (PRC) are various Palestinian militant organizations which operate in the Gaza Strip and are regarded as terrorist organizations by Israel and the United States. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Others attacked

In addition to killing Israeli civilians, Hamas has also attacked Israeli military and security forces (occasionally inside Israel), suspected Palestinian collaborators, and Fatah rivals.[97] Collaboration, literally, consists of working together with one or more others. ... Not to be confused with Fatah Revolutionary Council or Fatah al-Islam. ...


On February 2007, members of the Palestinian Red Crescent, speaking on conditions on anonymity, said that Hamas had confiscated their humanitarian supply convoys that were destined for Palestinian civilians. Hamas claims the supplies were heading to former members of Fatah. [98] The terms Red Cross and Red Crescent are often used as short names for the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, or its two leading international organs, the ICRC and the IFRCS. This page is about the symbol itself, see respective articles for information about the organizations and movements. ...


Hamas and the United States

See also: Israel–United States relations

It has been alleged[who?] that Hamas threatens the United States through covert cells on U.S. soil, and that the FBI and United States Department of Justice are aware of these cells.[99][100] According to Steven Emerson, A covert cell structure is a method for organizing a group in such a way that it can more effectively resist penetration by an opposing organization. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... Steven Emerson is an American investigative journalist specializing in national security, terrorism, and Islamic extremism. ...

Hamas has an extensive infrastructure in the US mostly revolving around the activities of fundraising, recruiting and training members, directing operations against Israel, organizing political support and operating through human-rights front groups. While Hamas has not acted outside Israel, it has the capability of carrying out attacks in America if it decided to enlarge the scope of its operations.[101]

FBI director Robert Mueller has testified to the Senate Intelligence Committee that, The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence is a select committee of the United States Senate dedicated to overseeing the American Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the U.S. federal government who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches. ...

It is the FBI's assessment, at this time, that there is a limited threat of a coordinated terrorist attack in the U.S. from Palestinian terrorist organizations, such as HAMAS, the Palestine Islamic Jihad, and the al-Aqsa Martyr's Brigade. These groups have maintained a longstanding policy of focusing their attacks on Israeli targets in Israel and the Palestinian territories. We believe that the primary interest of Palestinian terrorist groups in the U.S. remains the raising of funds to support their regional goals. [...] Of all the Palestinian groups, HAMAS has the largest presence in the U.S. with a robust infrastructure, primarily focused on fundraising, propaganda for the Palestinian cause, and proselytizing. Although it would be a major strategic shift for HAMAS, its U.S. network is theoretically capable of facilitating acts of terrorism in the U.S.[102]

On November 8, 2006, after Israeli artillery shells killed 19 Palestinian civilians, Hamas's military wing released a statement condemning both Israel and America. "America is offering political, financial and logistic cover for the Zionist occupation crimes, and it is responsible for the Beit Hanoun massacre. Therefore, the people and the [Islamic] nation all over the globe are required to teach the American enemy tough lessons," Hamas said in a statement sent to The Associated Press. Ghazi Hamad, spokesman for the Hamas-led Palestinian government denied any involvement with the statement, saying "Our battle is against the occupation on the Palestinian land. We have no interest to transfer the battle." Hamas militants have historically directed their suicide bombings and rocket attacks only against Israeli targets.[103][104] is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The November 2006 Beit Hanoun incident occurred on 8 November 2006 when the Israel Defense Forces, responding to Qassam rockets fired by Palestinian militants at Israeli towns shelled the Gaza Strip town of Beit Hanoun, killing 20 Palestinians and wounding more than 40. ...


Summary executions

Human Rights Watch has cited a number of summary executions as particular examples of violations of the rules of warfare, including the case of Muhammad Swairki, 28, a cook for Palestinian Authority Chairman Mahmoud Abbas's presidential guard, who was thrown to his death, with his hands and legs tied, from a 15-story apartment building in Gaza City. [21],[22],[23] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Hamas and other Palestinian militant groups frequently extrajudicially execute or otherwise punish those they consider collaborators with Israel. Frequent killings of unarmed people have also occurred during Hamas-Fatah clashes.[24],[25], [26],[27],[28]


2008 protests

Thousands of angry Hamas loyalists marched February 24, 2008 at the funeral of a Muslim preacher who died in Palestinian custody, turning the ceremony into a rare show of defiance against President Mahmoud Abbas. Angered by preacher's death, protesters stand against Abbas. is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... The historic Philistines (see note Philistines below) were a people that inhabited the southern coast of Canaan around the time of the arrival of the Israelites, their territory being named Philistia in later contexts. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ...


International perception of Hamas

According to National Public Radio, a non-commercial broadcasting organization in the U.S., "Israel and many Western powers have struggled with how best to interact with a group that is at once labeled terrorist and, at the same time, is the legitimately elected leadership of the Palestinian National Authority."[105] NPR redirects here. ...


Canada describes Hamas as a "a radical Sunni Muslim terrorist organization".[7][106]


China has expressed its support for Hamas as recent as 2006, when the Palestinian Foreign Minister Mahmed al-Zahar visited China.[citation needed] However, China has more recently announced its support for the (now ruling) rival Fatah government, and as such, the exact nature of their continuing relationship is unclear.[citation needed]


The European Union lists Hamas among its list of entities against which it applies restrictions in order to combat terrorism.[14]


Israel's ministry of foreign affairs claims that "Hamas maintains a terrorist infrastructure in Gaza and the West Bank, and acts to carry out terrorist attacks in the territories and Israel."[107] In February 2008 an Haaretz poll indicated that 64% of Israelis favour their government holding direct talks with Hamas in Gaza about a cease-fire and the release of captives.[108] Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ...


Japan stated in 2005 that it froze the assets of "terrorist organizations, including... Hamas."[109]


The United States lists HAMAS as a "Foreign Terrorist Organization".[10] According to the US State Department, the group is funded by Iran, Palestinian expatriates, and private benefactors in Saudi Arabia and other Arab states.[10] Department of State redirects here. ...


Jordan has banned Hamas.[11]


The military wing of Hamas, the Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades, is listed as a terrorist organization by Australia,[12] and the United Kingdom.[13] Hamas, acronym of Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas is also Arabic for zeal or courage) is a Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization, regarded by some as a militant organization and by others as a terrorist group. ...


In a 2007 Pew Global Attitudes Survey, 62% of Palestinians have a favorable opinion of Hamas, as do majorities or pluralities in Jordan and Morocco. Opinions of Hamas are divided in Egypt and Kuwait, and Hamas is viewed negatively in Turkey and Lebanon.[110] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Legal action against Hamas

In a 2002 report, Human Rights Watch stated that Hamas' leaders "should be held accountable for the war crimes and crimes against humanity" that have been committed by its members.[90] Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article is in need of attention. ...


In 2004, a federal court in the United States found Hamas liable in a civil lawsuit for the 1996 murders of Yaron and Efrat Ungar near Bet Shemesh, Israel. Hamas has been ordered to pay the families of the Ungars $116 million.[111] On July 5, 2004, the court issued a default judgment against the PNA and the PLO regarding the Ungars' claim that the Palestinian Authority and the PLO provide safe haven to Hamas. Beth-shemesh is the name of several ancient Biblical towns. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Palestinian government” redirects here. ... PLO redirects here. ...


On August 20, 2004, three Palestinians, one a naturalized American citizen, were charged with a "lengthy racketeering conspiracy to provide money for terrorist acts in Israel." The indicted include Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook, senior member of Hamas, believed to be currently in Damascus, Syria and considered a fugitive by the U.S.. is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Mousa Mohammed Abu Marzook (Arabic: مازن عصفو) (February 9, 1951 - ) is a senior member of the Palestinian organization Hamas. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Look up fugitive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On 1 February 2007, two men were acquitted of contravening US law by supporting Hamas.[29] Both men argued that they helped move money for Palestinian causes aimed at helping the Palestinian people and not to promote terrorism. is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Hamas
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Hamas Covenant

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: NPOV: similar articles on one-sided violence committed by Israelis have been deleted for being NPOV fork. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... Ismail Haniya of Hamas. ... The Holy Land Foundation is an Islamic charity in the United States and claims to be the largest in that country. ... The remnants of an exploded Qassam rocket that was fired from the Gaza Strip at Israel. ... Many Hamas and activists in Hebron came from the local Qawasameh tribe. ... Palestinian terrorism refers to acts of violence committed for political reasons by Palestinians or Palestinian militant groups. ... Islamic fundamentalism is a term used to describe religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. ... One issue in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the charge that the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), the main political organization of the Palestinians, is allied with Hamas, a Palestinian fundamentalist paramilitary and political organization, which is accused of organizing suicide bombers and other attacks against Israel, often targeting civilians. ... The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood or MB) is a world-wide Sunni Islamist movement and the worlds largest, most influential Islamist group[1]. The MB is the largest political... A political party is a political organization subscribing to a certain ideology or formed around very special issues with the aim to participate in power, usually by participating in elections. ... This article outlines the human rights record of the Palestinian Authority leadership in the West Bank and Gaza. ... Combatants Hamas Fatah Commanders Ismail Haniya Khaled Meshaal Mohammed Deif Mahmoud Abbas Mohammed Dahlan Strength Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades: 15,000 Executive Force: 6,000[1][2] National Security: 30,000 Police and Preventive Security: 30,000 General Intelligence: 5,000 Presidential Guard: 4,200 Al Aqsa Martyrs... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... Hamas, acronym of Harakat al-Muqawamah al-Islamiyyah (Arabic: Islamic Resistance Movement, Hamas is also Arabic for zeal or courage) is a Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization, regarded by some as a militant organization and by others as a terrorist group. ...

Sources

  • Hawala. An Informal Payment System and Its Use to Finance Terrorism, Sebastian R. Müller (Dec. 2006), ISBN: ISBN-10: 3865506569, ISBN-13: 978-3865506566
  • [30] Hamas militants fire rockets at Israel

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b "Hamas sweeps to election victory", BBC News.
  2. ^ a b Best known for suicide bombings/attacks:
    • "Among the various organizations that emerged during the intifada were two that continue to challenge the dominance of the PLO over the Palestinian national movement: the Islamic Resistance Movement (better known by its acronym, Hamas) and its counterpart, Islamic Jihad. These organizations are best known for having injected a new lethality into the struggle between Israelis and Palestinians - the tactic of suicide bombings." (James L. Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p. 221 ISBN 0521852897)
    • "Best known for the violence it launched against Israel through suicide bombings and rocket attacks... " (Murphy, John. "Hamas aims for political might", The Baltimore Sun, January 22, 2006)
    • "Defined as a terrorist organization by Israel, the U.S. and the European Union because of its suicide attacks on Israeli civilians..." (Karon, Tony., "Hamas Explained", Time Magazine, December 11, 2001)
    • "Hamas is best known abroad for the scores of suicide bombings it has carried out and its commitment to the destruction of Israel." (Barzak, Ibrahim. "Israel blames Iran, Syria for bombings", ABC News, January 20, 2006, p. 2)
    • "...the militant organization, best known abroad for its attacks against Israeli civilians..." (Musharbash, Yassin. "Could Victory be Undoing of Hamas", Der Spiegel, January 27, 2006)
    • "Although Hamas is best known for its suicide attacks..." ("Palestinian Political Organizations", PBS FRONTLINE, April 4, 2002)
    • "...is perhaps best known for its suicide bombings against Israeli targets." (Lynfield, Ben. Hamas gains grassroots edge, Christian Science Monitor, December 27, 2004)
    • "...it was best known in Israel and abroad for the suicide attacks it used..." ("After the Hamas earthquake", The Guardian, January 27, 2006).
    • "Hamas, an organisation best known for its suicide bombings but which also runs social services, capitalised on widespread dissatisfaction with the status quo of economic, political and security instability to gain a stunning 76 seats out of the 132-member parliament." (Lynfield, Ben. "Shock result prompts calls to end policy of violence", The Scotsman, January 27, 2006.
    • "But the group is best known for its suicide bombing attacks." (Levitt, Matthew. Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad, Yale University Press, 2006, ISBN 0300122586, p. 17.)
    • "Best known for its suicide attacks, Hamas has won over the Palestinian public in its first run for the legislature by focusing on domestic concerns, halting government corruption and restoring law and order to the chaotic West Bank and Gaza Strip." (""Israeli leaders brace for Hamas dominating Palestinian elections", Associated Press, January 22, 2006.)
    • "The armed faction, best known for sending suicide bombers to attack Israelis..." Verma, Sonia. ("Hamas win puts Mideast on edge", Newsday, January 27, 2006.
    Infamous for suicide attacks:
    • "But his organization, Hamas, is of course dedicated to the destruction of an entire country and infamous for its suicide attacks." (Mann, Jonathan. "Reaction to Killing of Sheikh Ahmed Yassin", CNN, March 22, 2004.
    • "This dismal place was (and remains) a breeding ground for Hamas, the fundamentalist group now infamous for their suicide bombings." (Andersen, Mark. All the Power: Revolution Without Illusion, Punk Planet Books, 2004, ISBN 1888451726, p. 178)
    • "And Hamas, infamous for suicide bombings and other attacks that killed more than 250 Israelis in recent years, rejected Abbas' appeal for peace with Israel, and threatened to continue its campaign of violence." (Tiebel, Amy. "Analysis: Tough Mideast Bargaining Ahead", Associated Press, November 27, 2007.)
    Best known and infamous for suicide attacks:
    • "To the outside world, Hamas is best-known — infamous — for its reliance on suicide bombers." (Palestinian territories:Inside Hamas,PBS FRONTLINE:World, May 9, 2006)
  3. ^ Calls for the destruction of Israel:
    • "Underlying that theme, [Hamas leader] Zahar promised that Hamas 'will not change a single word in its covenant,' which calls for the destruction of Israel."[[Levitt, Matthew. Hamas: Politics, Charity, and Terrorism in the Service of Jihad, Yale University Press, 2006, ISBN 0300122586, p. 248.
    • "The Hamas charter calls for Israel to be destroyed and replaced by an Islamic state." Myre, Gred. "Israeli Official Says Hamas Has Made Abbas Irrelevant" The New York Times, February 27, 2006.
    • "Hamas, whose charter calls for Israel's destruction" Dinnick, Wilf. "High-Stakes Political Poker: Forcing Hamas' Hand", ABC News, June 6, 2006.
    • "Hamas's charter uncompromisingly seeks Israel's destruction." "Palestinian Rivals: Fatah & Hamas", BBC News, May 25, 2006.
  4. ^ a b "'We shall never recognize... a Zionist state on our soil'", The Guardian, January 31, 2006. 
  5. ^ Antisemitic:
    • "As noted, the Hamas view of the Jewish people is not drawn solely from the pages of the Qur'an and hadith. Its myopia is also the product of Western anti-Semitic influences. While Hamas, like other modern-day Islamists, has developed its argument on the Jewish question by relying on Qur'anic and other Islamic sources, it also, as Nettler notes, makes it 'modern by appropriate commentary, and supplemented by felicitous borrowing from such classical Western anti-Semitic sources as The Protocols of the Elders of Zion '. Such opinions are influenced by the most bizarre form of Gentile paranoid conspiracy theory." Beverley Milton-Edwards, Islamic Politics in Palestine, I.B. Tauris, 1996, ISBN 1860644759, p. 188
    • Anti-Semitism at Core of Hamas Charter, Anti-Defamation League, February 27, 2006. Accessed April 17, 2007.
    • "Hamas, which is deeply engaged in teaching anti-Semitic, and anti-Christian hate in schools," Puder, Joseph. Levitt Can't Strike Hopeful Note About Hamas, The Bulletin, March 27, 2007.
    • "Hamas refuses to recognize Israel, claims the whole of Palestine as an Islamic endowment, has issued virulently antisemitic leaflets,..." Laurence F. Bove, Laura Duhan Kaplan, From the Eye of the Storm: Regional Conflicts and the Philosophy of Peace, Rodopi Press, 1995, ISBN 9051838700, p. 217.
    • "But of all the anti-Jewish screeds, it is the Protocols of the Elders of Zion that emboldens and empowers antisemites. While other antisemitic works may have a sharper intellectual base, it is the conspiratorial imagery of the Protocols that has fuled the imagination and hatred of Jews and Judaism, from the captains of industry like Henry Ford, to teenage Hamas homicide bombers." Mark Weitzman, Steven Leonard Jacobs, Dismantling the Big Lie: the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, KTAV Publishing House, 2003, ISBN 0881257850, p. xi.
    • "There is certainly very clear evidence of antisemitism in the writings and manifestos of organizations like Hamas and Hizbullah..." Human Rights Implications of the Resurgence of Racism and Anti-Semitism, United States Congress, House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on International Security, International Organizations and Human Rights - 1993, p. 122.
    • "In calling for holy war against Israel, the covenant of Hamas, drawn up in 1998, also employs the language elecquention of the Protocols." Frederick M. Schweitzer, Marvin Perry, Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0312165617, p. 116.
    • "The demonization of the Jews/Zionists by the Hamas organization is also heavily shaped by European Christian anti-Semitism. This prejudice began to infiltrate the Arab world, most notably in the circulation of the 1926 Arabic translation of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion... Reliance upon the document is evidenced in the group's charter... The Protocols of the Elders of Zion also informs Hamas's belief that Israel has hegemonic aspirations that extend beyond Palestinian land. As described in the charter, the counterfeit document identifies the Zionists' wish to expand their reign from the Nile River to the Euphrates." Michael P. Arena, Bruce A. Arrigo, The Terrorist Identity: Explaining the Terrorist Threat, NYU Press, 2006, ISBN 0814707165, pp. 133-134.
    • "Standard anti-Semitic themes have become commonplace in the propaganda of Arab Islamic movements like Hizballah and Hamas..." Bernard Lewis, Semites and Anti-Semites: An Inquiry Into Conflict and Prejudice, W. W. Norton & Company, 1999, ISBN 0393318397, p. 266.
    • "From the beginning, Hamas espoused the antisemitism of the Muslim Brotherhood's leading thinkers, Hasah al-Banna and Sayyid Qutb. This fact is clear from its own ideological credo formulated as the Islamic covenant in 1988, which not only calls for Islam to eliminate Israel but also states "our struggle against the Jews is extremely wide-ranging and grave." It cites the Hadith... in noting that at the end of time, Muslims will fight the Jews and kill them. The covenant and other Hamas publications draw on the libels of the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, accusing Jews of a universal conspiracy for world domination... Some of the antisemitic canards are backed in the covenant by koranic proof texts." Levy, Richard S. Antisemitism: A Historical Encyclopedia of Prejudice and Persecution, ABL_CLIO, 2005, p. 289.ISBN 1851094393
    • "Hamas, like most Islamist groups, is fundamentally anti-Semitic (in the commonly understood sense of the word). This is seen in at least two ways. First, the Hamas discourse refers primarily to "Jewish" (al-yahud), less so "Zionists" (al-sahyunuyiun), and almost never to "Israelies" (al-isriliyun)... However, Hamas is properly termed anti-Semitic for propogating the slander of Jewish control of the world, particularly the world's financial health." Glenn E. Robinson, "Hamas as Social Movement", in Quintan Wiktorowicz, Mark Tessler. Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach, Indiana University Press, 2004, p. 131. ISBN 0253216214
    • "In addition, classically anti-Semitic texts coming from pre-Holocaust Christian Europe, such as the Protocols of the Elders of Zion, also inform the ideals and philosophy of HAMAS members and their views of Jews and Judaism." Thomas M. Leonard, Encyclopedia of the Developing World, Routledge, 2005, p. 742. ISBN 1579583881
    • "Hamas hardened the conventional tone among Arab nationalists toward the Jews, adopting anti-Semitic charges based on The Protocols of the Elders of Zion concerning a Jewish conspiracy for world domination." Shaul Mishal, Avraham Sela. The Palestinian Hamas: Vision, Violence, and Coexistence, Columbia University Press, 2000, p. 45. ISBN 0231116756
    • "Hamas.... was founded in 1987 as an overtly antisemitic organization." David Matas, Aftershock: Anti-Zionism and Anti-Semitism, Dundurn Press, 2005, p. 227. ISBN 1550025538
  6. ^ Hamas offers truce, Al-Ahram Weekly, 21 - 27 October 1999, Issue No. 452
  7. ^ a b Keeping Canadians Safe, Public Security and Emergency Preparedness Canada, National Security, Listed entities. Accessed July 31, 2006.
  8. ^ The Financial Sources of the Hamas Terror Organization (Israel MFA)
  9. ^ Japan's Diplomatic Bluebook 2005 states that it has frozen the assets of "terrorist organizations, including... Hamas."
  10. ^ a b c d e "Country reports on terrorism 2005", United States Department of State. Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. US Dept. of State Publication 11324. Released April 2006
  11. ^ a b Karmi, Omar. "What does the Hamas victory mean for nearby Jordan?", The Daily Star, February 18, 2006
  12. ^ a b Listing of Terrorist Organisations, Australian Government Attorney-General's Department, 27 January 2006. Accessed July 31, 2006.
  13. ^ a b " United Kingdom Home Security Office. Terrorism Act 2000. Proscribed terrorist groups
  14. ^ a b "Council Decision" Council of the European Union, December 21, 2005
  15. ^ a b "Who are Hamas?", BBC News, January 26, 2006. 
  16. ^ "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas)", MidEast Web, August 18, 1988; "The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement", The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, retrieved April 22, 2006.
  17. ^ Kristen Ess. "Why Hamas Won" ZNet. Palestine, January 31, 2006.
  18. ^ "Who are Hamas?", BBC News, January 26, 2006. 
  19. ^ "Palestinian election raises varying opinions within U". The Minnesota Daily. January 31, 2006
  20. ^ Hamas activities Council on Foreign Relations
  21. ^ "The Gangs of Gaza", Newsweek, June 26, 2006.
  22. ^ "...they find themselves on the brink of civil war in a power struggle between the governing Hamas movement and President Mahmoud Abbas's Fatah group. In two days of fighting between the two rival and well-armed factions, 12 Palestinians have been killed and more than 100 wounded, and there are few signs the months-long political dispute at the centre of the violence is about to die down." al-Mughrabi, Nidal and Assadi, Mohammed. Palestinian in-fighting provokes despair, frustration, Reuters, October 3, 2006.
  23. ^ "Who are Hamas?" BBC News. January 27, 2007.
  24. ^ Ali Abunimah, author of "One Country: A Bold Proposal to End the Israeli-Palestinian Impasse," states: "It had observed the unilateral truce with Israel. It had given up suicide attacks against Israeli civilians. And there was no response to that. On the contrary." "As Hamas Seizes Full Control of Gaza and US Prepares Further Isolation, What Next for Palestinians?" Democracy Now!. June 15, 2007.
  25. ^ "Hope for a Mideast resolution could grow with Hamas leadership" Christian Science Monitor. January 31, 2006.
  26. ^ "Hamas threatens to break ceasefire after Israeli air strikes" Telegraph.co.uk. October 17, 2006.
  27. ^ Carter: Stop favoring Fatah over Hamas The Jerusalem Post June 19, 2007
  28. ^ Exposing the bitter truth of Gaza carnage The Age June 23, 2007
  29. ^ hamas - injustice; plunder; violence. Ben Yehuda's Pocket English-Hebrew, Hebrew-English Dictionary, Washington Square Press, 1971.
  30. ^ Kushner, Harvey W. (2002). Encyclopedia of Terrorism, p.160 Sage Publications, ISBN 0-7619-2408-6
  31. ^ (French) "Le Quartet cherche une solution à la banqueroute palestinienne", Le Monde, May 9, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-05-09. 
  32. ^ "Deadly Hebron cell caught", Y Net News, February 6, 2006. 
  33. ^ "Shin Bet cracks Hamas terror cell", The Jerusalem Post, February 6, 2006. 
  34. ^ Carter: Stop favoring Fatah over Hamas, The Jerusalem Post, June 19, 2007
  35. ^ The CEC announces the final results of the second PLC elections
  36. ^ a b c "Hamas drops call for destruction of Israel from manifesto", The Guardian, January 12, 2006. 
  37. ^ a b "Hamas: Ceasefire for return to 1967 border", Y Net News, January 30, 2006. 
  38. ^ Peace with Israel for withdrawal to ’67 borders, ynetnews March 3, 2006
  39. ^ Hamas delegation arrives in Moscow, ynetnews March 3, 2006
  40. ^ "Hamas will end armed struggle if Israel quits territories — leader", AFX News Limited, February 12, 2006. 
  41. ^ Abu Toameh, Khaled. Hamas armed force readies for action, The Jerusalem Post, May 6, 2006.
  42. ^ Le Monde Diplomatique, July 2007, http://mondediplo.com/2007/07/05palestine
  43. ^ Mahnaimi, Uzi. Israel foils plot to kill Palestinian president, The Sunday Times, May 7, 2006.
  44. ^ Saud Abu Ramadan and David Rosenberg. Palestinians Reach Accord on Forging Unity Government". Bloomberg, February 9, 2007.
  45. ^ "Death on the Beach: Seven Palestinians killed as Israeli shells hit family picnic", The Guardian, 2006-06-10. 
  46. ^ "Palestinian Child Buries Slain Family", IslamOnline.net, 2006-06-11. 
  47. ^ "ISRAELIS, PALESTINIANS URGED TO 'STEP BACK FROM THE BRINK', AVERT FULL-SCALE CONFLICT, AS SECURITY COUNCIL DEBATES EVENTS IN GAZA", UN, 2006-06-30. 
  48. ^ "Fatah and Hamas agree on Yemeni plan to resume talks (Roundup)", m&c, 2008-03-23. 
  49. ^ Khalid Amayreh. "'Cartoons reflect Europe's Islamophobia'". Interview with Aziz Duwaik. Al Jazeera English. February 6, 2006.
  50. ^ Foreign Policy: Seven Questions: The World According to Hamas
  51. ^ "Hamas Leader Mahmoud Al-Zahhar: We Will Not Give Up the Resistance; We Will Not Give Up a Single Inch of Palestine; We Will Not Recognize Israel's Right to Exist", The Middle East Media Research Institute (MEMRI), January 25, 2006. 
  52. ^ Khaled Abu Toameh (April 2, 2006). 'I dream of a map without Israel'. Jerusalem Post.
  53. ^ The Covenant of the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas). MidEast Web (August 18, 1988).
  54. ^ Arnon Regular. The Palestinian media dream a possible dream. Haaretz. Retrieved on 2006-04-10.
  55. ^ "Arab Statesmanship's Fatal Flaw: Backward Political Decision-Making" The Middle East Media Research Institute. June 5, 2003.
  56. ^ "New-look Hamas spends £100k on an image makeover", The Guardian, January 20, 2006. 
  57. ^ Hamas: The Fundamentalist Challenge to the PLO (April, 1992).
  58. ^ Madelene Axelsson (January 27, 2006). Islamistisk politik vinner mark. Stockholms Fria Tidning. (Swedish)
  59. ^ "Hamas offers deal if Israel pulls out", The Telegraph, 2006-02-09. 
  60. ^ Peace with Israel for withdrawal to ’67 borders, ynetnews March 3, 2006
  61. ^ a b YouTube - Talk to Jazeera - Khaled Meshaal - 05 Mar 08 - Pt. 1
  62. ^ "Hamas will end armed struggle if Israel quits territories — leader", AFX News Limited, February 12, 2006. 
  63. ^ "Carter Says Hamas and Syria Are Open For Peace" http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/22/world/middleeast/22mideast.html?hp
  64. ^ "Hamas Offers Israel 10-Year Truce" http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/24235665
  65. ^ Hamas: Background Q&A. Council on Foreign Relations (March 16, 2006).
  66. ^ "Is It really So Surprising? — Hamas Victory In Palestine", 8 January, 2006. 
  67. ^ Peter Hilsenrath "HEALTH POLICY AS COUNTER-TERRORISM: HEALTH SERVICES AND THE PALESTINIANS", October, 2005. 
  68. ^ "Why Rising Popularity Poses a Dilemma for Hamas", Time, January 23, 2006. 
  69. ^ "The Palestinian Authority held a democratic election and Israel and the rest of the world must accept that Hamas was the victor", Jewish Virtual Library, No date. 
  70. ^ Combating Terrorist Financing, "Jerusalem Centre For Public affairs", August 14, 2003
  71. ^ A Hamas Headquarters in Saudi Arabia?, The Washington Institute, September 28, 2005
  72. ^ Matthew A. Levitt. "Hamas from cradle to grave", The Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2004. 
  73. ^ "Hamas history tied to Israel", United Press International, June 18, 2002
  74. ^ Gérard Chaliand: « En Irak, l'insurrection armée montre sa terrible efficacité face à la meilleure armée du monde », April 2006 interview with Gérard Chaliand, renowned specialist of guerrillas movements and international politics (French)
  75. ^ (English)/(French)"Hamas is a creation of Mossad (English translation)", L'Humanité, Summer 2002. Retrieved on 2006-05-02. ; French original version: "Hamas, le produit du Mossad", L'Humanité, December 14, 2001. Retrieved on 2006-05-03. 
  76. ^ Les très secrètes 'relations' Israël-Hamas (The very secret Israel-Hamas 'relations'), Le Canard Enchaîné, February 1, 2006 (issue n°4449) (French)
  77. ^ "Hamas launches “Al-Aqsa”, an experimental TV channel intended to improve its propaganda and indoctrination capabilities", Center for Special Studies, January 22, 2006. 
  78. ^ Hamas Covenant 1988
  79. ^ Anti-semitic motifs in Hamas leaflets, 1987–1992. The Institute for Counter-Terrorism (July 9, 1998).
  80. ^ a b "Online Terrorists Prey on the Vulnerable"
  81. ^ "Hamas website: Kids, die for Allah"
  82. ^ "On CAMERA Column: Ignoring Hamas Hate-Indoctrination"
  83. ^ "Hamas Website: High-Tech Hate for Kids"
  84. ^ [http://www.intelligence.org.il/Eng/sib/11_04/edu.htm "Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center at the Center for Special Studies (C.S.S)"]
  85. ^ Levinson, Charles (2007-08-26). Hamas honeymoon ends with torture. The Telegraph. Retrieved on 2008-05-17.
  86. ^ Hamas disbands journalists union amid continuing incidents, Reporters without borders, 6 September 2007
  87. ^ Hamas blocks Fatah protests in Gaza, ynetnews, 7 September 2007
  88. ^ Hamas attacks (1988–2002) The Institute for Counter-Terrorism
  89. ^ "Victory leaves Hamas with a dilemma (Opinion)", The Telegraph, January 27, 2006. 
  90. ^ a b Erased In A Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks Against Israeli Civilians V. Structures and Strategies of the Perpetrator Organizations, Human Rights Watch, October, 2002. ISBN 1-56432-280-7
  91. ^ Arnon Regular. Ha'reetz (May 25, 2003).
  92. ^ Top Hamas fugitive nabbed. ynetnews.com (May 23, 2006).
  93. ^ "Hamas claims responsibility for Israel shooting "
  94. ^ Israel attack linked to Hezbollah CNN March 7, 2008
  95. ^ a b "Report: Hamas weighing large-scale conflict with Israel", Ynet News, October 3 2006. 
  96. ^ Hamas and Palestinian Nationalism (October 3 2006).
  97. ^ Fatah, Hamas gunbattles kill 7 (Toronto Star) October 1, 2006
  98. ^ Hamas Seizes Palestinian Red Crescent Aid Convoy RTTNews 2/7/2008
  99. ^ United States v. Abu Marzook. No. 03 CR 978 12. IL District Ct. 2005.
  100. ^ Lake, Eli. "Hamas Agents Lurking in U.S., FBI Warns." New York Sun. 29 April 2004. 10 December 2006.
  101. ^ "Hamas threatens attacks on US", Yedioth Ahronoth, 24 December 2006. 
  102. ^ FBI Press Room: Testimony of Robert S. Mueller, III, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation, before the Senate Committee on Intelligence of the United States Senate. February 16, 2005
  103. ^ "Hamas to Muslims: Attack US targets", The Jerusalem Post, November 8 2006. 
  104. ^ "Israeli Shells Kill 18; Hamas Calls for Retaliation", The New York Times, November 8 2006. 
  105. ^ "Hamas: Government or Terrorist Organization?". NPR.org. December 6, 2006.
  106. ^ "Hamas is listed as a terrorist group in the Criminal Code of Canada." Tibbetts, Janice. Canada shuts out Hamas ,The Montreal Gazette, March 30, 2006.
  107. ^ The Financial Sources of the Hamas Terror Organization, 2003-07-30
  108. ^ Yossi Verter. "Poll: Most Israelis back direct talks with Hamas on Shalit", Haaretz, 27/02/2008. Retrieved on 2008-02-27. 
  109. ^ Japan's Diplomatic Bluebook 2005 (2005). Retrieved on [[2008-01-26]]. “Japan has implemented UN Security Council resolutions concerning anti-terrorist sanctions. In accordance with the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law, it has frozen the assets of a total of 472 terrorists and terrorist organizations, including Al-Qaeda and Taliban members, such as Usama bin Laden and Mullah Mohammed Omar, as well as those of Hamas, ...”
  110. ^ Pew Research Center Global Attitues Survey: Global Unease With Major World Powers, June 27, 2007
  111. ^ $116m awarded in terrorism suit - The Boston Globe

James Gelvin is an American scholar of Middle Eastern history. ... The Sun is the newspaper of record for Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of 247,193 copies and a Sunday run of 418,670 copies (9/30/05 Audit Bureau of Circulations report). ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... FRONTLINE is a public affairs television program of varying length produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... The Anti-Defamation League (or ADL) is an interest group founded in 1913 by Bnai Brith in the United States whose stated aim is to stop, by appeals to reason and conscience and, if necessary, by appeals to law, the defamation of the Jewish people. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For the song by the Thievery Corporation, see Le Monde (song). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... The Sunday Times is a Sunday broadsheet newspaper distributed in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, published by Times Newspapers Ltd, a subsidiary of News International which is in turn owned by News Corporation. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Islamonline. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Middle East Media Research Institute, abbreviated MEMRI (Hebrew name המכון לחקר התקשורת המזרח התיכון, abbreviated ממרי) is a nonprofit organization located in Washington DC, with branch offices in Jerusalem, Berlin, Brussels, Moscow, and London, and a Media Center in Jerusalem. ... The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli newspaper in the English language. ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... 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The May 16, 1948 Palestine Post headline announcing the creation of the state of Israel The Jerusalem Post is an Israeli daily English language broadsheet newspaper, originally founded on December 1, 1932, by American journalist-turned-newspaper-editor Gershon Agron as the The Palestine Post. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Gazette, often called The Montreal Gazette to avoid ambiguity, is a major English-language daily newspaper published in Montreal, Quebec. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Hamas
  • Hamas Tv Live Broadcast
  • Britannica
  • Encarta
  • "Hamas and the PLO: Hostile Takeover of a Shell Company" Analysis by the Reut Institute(Dec 05)
  • Fatah Hamas Unity: End to Political Process or New Opportunity? Analysis by the Reut Institute (Dec 07)
  • "The Growing Hamas-Al Qaeda Connection" published by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
  • "Understanding the Direction of the New Hamas Government: Between Tactical Pragmatism and Al-Qaeda Jihadism" published by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
  • "Hamas' Determination to Perpetuate the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: The Critical Role of Hate Indoctrination" published by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs
  • Hamas Charter
  • Hamas leaders explain their goal
  • Who are Hamas (Al-Jazeera)
  • Website for the study of the ideas of Hamas, not the official website. (Arabic)
  • "A “New Hamas” through Its New Documents" by Khaled Hroub, Journal of Palestine Studies, issue 140, Summer 2006
  • Hamas in its own words
  • "The Palestinian Information Center" Mideast news from the Hamas point of view. In English.
  • Hamas at the Institute for Counter-Terrorism at the Interdisciplinary Center Herzliya, Israel
  • The Hamas organization is responsible for more than 425 terror attacks in Israel from November 6, 2000 to April 17, 2004 at IDF official website.
  • Suicide Bomber's Father: Let Hamas and Jihad Leaders Send Their Own Sons a letter to the editor of the London Arabic-language daily Al-Hayat. October 8, 2002
  • Hamas Fact Sheet and Hamas in Their Own Words at ADL
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Hamas at ABC News
  • Springtime for Hamas by Diane West at The Jewish World Review, April 22, 2005
  • Hamas vs. America by Daniel Pipes. Published in The New York Sun on May 3, 2005
  • Hamas terrorist infrastructures in the regions of Hebron and Ramallah exposed by The Israel Security Agency, October 12, 2005
  • Hamas Without Veils. No more hiding behind the PA by Emanuele Ottolenghi in National Review, January 26, 2006
  • Political earthquake strikes as Hamas wins landslide by Kevin Simpson on CWI Website, January 29, 2006
  • BBC: Hamas urges EU not to end funding
  • The EU's new Palestine dilemma by Khaled Diab
  • Checkmate: the Hamas victory
  • Russia is Ready for Dialogue With HAMAS
  • Give Hamas Nothing for Free by Dennis Ross. (The Washington Post, p. B07. February 5, 2006)
  • Hamas Triumphant: Implications for Security, Politics, Economy, and Strategy.PDF (557 KiB) February 2006
  • A Hamas Government: Isolate or Engage? U.S. Institute of Peace Briefing, March 2006
  • Living Conditions Poll after a couple of months of hamas in government
  • Analysis: A year after elections, Hamas riding high by Khaled Abu Toameh, Jerusalem Post, January 25, 2007
  • List and review of Hamas publications in the UK
  • NYT document Hamas views on Jews and incitement against Israel and Jews
  • "Hamas is not the IRA" op ed in IHT about the Hamas Charter
  • Hamas, the Islamic Resistance Movement fact file in ynet


  Results from FactBites:
 
Hamas (2351 words)
Due to the elimination of the leadership of the Hamas in the West Bank by Israeli forces in 2002-2003, the Hamas leadership in Gaza perceives itself as the central headquarters, and as such, directs and is responsible for terrorist attacks through Hamas operatives in the West Bank.
Hamas in Gaza takes advantage of the fact that the IDF does not have the presence in the Gaza Strip as it does in the West Bank, and thus Hamas continues with its widespread terrorist activity in Gaza.
Hamas founder Sheikh Ahmed Yassin was assassinated by the IDF on March 22, 2004.
Encyclopedia4U - Hamas - Encyclopedia Article (1017 words)
Hamas formed in late 1987 as an outgrowth of the Palestinian branch of the Muslim Brotherhood.
Hamas is an abbreviation of Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiya (Arabic: the Islamic Resistance Movement), and the name itself is colloquial Arabic for "enthusiasm".
Hamas was funded directly and indirectly during the 1970s and 1980s by various states including Saudi Arabia and Syria.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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