FACTOID # 22: South Dakota has the highest employment ratio in America, but the lowest median earnings of full-time male employees.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Halothane" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Halothane
Halothane chemical structure
Halothane
Systematic (IUPAC) name
2-bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoro-ethane
Identifiers
CAS number 151-67-7
ATC code N01AB01
PubChem 3562
DrugBank APRD00598
Chemical data
Formula C2HBrClF3
Mol. weight 197.381 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1108x1045, 12 KB) Summary Chemical structure of the anaesthetic halothane, self made in ChemDraw and Photoshop by Ben Benjah-bmm27 23:08, 3 March 2006 (UTC) Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Halothane User:Benjah-bmm27/Gallery... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1028x1170, 215 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Halothane ... IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules . ... DrugBank is a database available at the University of Alberta that provides information about thousands of products. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Metabolism (from Greek μεταβολισμός metabolismos) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status
Routes  ?

Halothane vapour is an inhalational general anaesthetic. Its systematic name is 2-Bromo-2-chloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane. It is colourless and pleasant-smelling, but unstable in light. It is packaged in dark-coloured bottles and contains 0.01% thymol as a stabilising agent. The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... A general anaesthetic drug is an anaesthetic (or anesthetic AE) drug that brings about a reversible loss of consciousness. ... There are millions of possible objects that can be described in science, too many to create common names for every one. ... Thymol is a phenol derivative of cymene, C10H13OH, isomeric with carvacrol, found in oil of thyme, and extracted as a white crystalline substance of a pleasant aromatic odor and strong antiseptic properties. ...


This halogenated hydrocarbon was first synthesized by C. W. Suckling of ICI in 1951 and was first used clinically by M. Johnstone in Manchester in 1956. Halothane became popular as a nonflammable general anaesthetic replacing other volatile anaesthetics such as as diethyl ether and cyclopropane. More recently halothane has been largely replaced by sevoflurane and desflurane for human use. It is still widely used somewhat in veterinary surgery and the Third World because of its lower cost. Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is any chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... Charles Suckling, was a British chemist who first synthesised the anaesthetic gas halothane when working for ICI in the 1950s. ... Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) is a British chemical company, based in London. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... The City of Manchester is a major city and metropolitan borough in the North of England, historically notable for its central role in the Industrial Revolution. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The volatile anaesthetics are a class of general anaesthetic drugs. ... Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ... Molecule structure formula of cyclopropane Cyclopropane is a cycloalkane molecule with the molecular formula C3H6 consisting of three carbon atoms linked to each other to form a ring, with each carbon atom bearing two hydrogen atoms. ... Sevoflurane (2, 2, 2-trifluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) ethyl ether), also called fluoromethyl, is a halogenated ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... Desflurane is a highly flourinated ether used for maintenance of general anaesthesia. ... Veterinary medicine is the application of medical, diagnostic, and therapeutic principles to companion, domestic, exotic, wildlife, and production animals. ... Intraoperative X-Ray of a Humerus fixated by Kirschner wires Surgery (from the Greek meaning hand work) is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ...


About 20% of inhaled halothane is metabolised by the liver and these products are excreted in the urine. Halothane rarely shows any ill effects when used once on a patient. Repeated exposures to halothane, however, are associated with a risk of severe liver damage, refered to as halothane hepatitis, in about 1 in 35,000 exposures. This is thought to result from the metabolism of halothane to trifluoroacetic acid via oxidative reactions in the liver. This syndrome has a high mortality rate of 30% to 70%. The risk of hepatic injury in children is lower than in adults. The liver is the largest internal organ of the human body. ... Trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) is a strong, hygroscopic, non-oxidizing, organic acid with a molecular formula C2HF3O2. ...


Chemically, halothane is not an ether. Attempts to find anaesthetics with less metabolism led to halogenated ethers such enflurane and isoflurane. The incidence of hepatic reactions with these agents is less. The hepatotoxic potential of enflurane is more controversial, although it is minimally metabolised. Isoflurane is essentially not metabolised and reports of associated liver injury are quite rare. Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... A Halogenated Ether is a subcategory of a larger group of chemicals known as ethers. ... Structural formula of enflurane Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluomethyl ether) is a halogenated ether that was commonly used for inhalational anesthesia during the 1970s and 1980s. ... Structural formula of isoflurane Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether used for inhalation anesthesia. ... Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) is chemical-driven liver damage. ...


Volatile anaesthetics such as halothane can trigger malignant hyperthermia in genetically susceptible individuals. The caffeine-halothane contracture test was developed to directly test muscle biopsy specimens for this susceptibility. It may be replaced by genetic testing in the future. Malignant hyperthermia (MH or MHS for malignant hyperthermia syndrome, or malignant hyperpyrexia due to anesthesia) is a life-threatening condition resulting from a genetic sensitivity of skeletal muscles to volatile anaesthetics and depolarizing neuromuscular blocking drugs that occurs during or after anaesthesia. ...


Halothane sensitizes cardiac muscle to the effects of norepinephrine. It is contraindicated in patients with increased catecholamines, such as those with pheochromocytoma. Norepinephrine (INN) or noradrenaline (BAN) is a catecholamine and a phenethylamine with chemical formula C8H11NO3. ... Catecholamines are chemical compounds derived from the amino acid tyrosine that act as hormones or neurotransmitters. ... A pheochromocytoma (also phaeochromocytoma, English spelling) is a tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands originating in the chromaffin cells, which secretes excessive amounts of catecholamines, usually epinephrine and norepinephrine. ...


Physical properties

Boiling point: 50.2 °C (at 101.325 kPa)
Density: 1.868 g/cm³ (at 20 °C)
Molecular Weight: 197.4 u
Vapor pressure: 244 mmHg (at 20 °C)
288 mmHg (at 24 °C)
MAC: 0.75 vol %
Blood:Gas Partition coefficient: 2.5
Oil:Gas Partition coefficient: 224

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid at a given pressure. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per volume. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The atomic mass unit (amu), unified atomic mass unit (u), or dalton (Da), is a small unit of mass used to express atomic masses and molecular masses. ... In chemistry and physics, Vapor pressure is the pressure of a vapor in equilibrium with its non-vapor phases. ... Minimum alveolar concentration or MAC is a concept anaesthetists use to compare the strengths of anaesthetic vapours; in simple terms, it is defined as the minimal concentration of the vapour in the lungs that is needed to prevent physical response to a noxious stimulus in 50% of subjects. ...

References

  • Atkinson, Rushman, Lee. A Synopsis of Anaesthesia. 1987.
  • Eger, Eisenkraft, Weiskopf. The Pharmacology of Inhaled Anesthetics. 2003.

External links

  • Link page to external chemical sources.


General anesthetics (N01A) edit
Ethers:

Diethyl ether, Vinyl ether In modern medical practice, general anaesthesia (AmE: anesthesia) is a state of total unconsciousness resulting from general anaesthetic drugs. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl groups. ... Diethyl ether, also known as ether and ethoxyethane, is a clear, colorless, and highly flammable liquid with a low boiling point and a characteristic smell. ...

Haloalkanes:

Chloroform, Desflurane, Enflurane, Halothane, Isoflurane, Methoxyflurane, Sevoflurane, Trichloroethylene The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane, with one or more halogens linked, such as chlorine or fluorine, making them a type of organic halide. ... Chloroform, also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride, is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. ... Desflurane is a highly flourinated ether used for maintenance of general anaesthesia. ... Structural formula of enflurane Enflurane (2-chloro-1,1,2,-trifluoroethyl-difluomethyl ether) is a halogenated ether that was commonly used for inhalational anesthesia during the 1970s and 1980s. ... Structural formula of isoflurane Isoflurane (1-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethyl difluoromethyl ether) is a halogenated ether used for inhalation anesthesia. ... Methoxyflurane (C3H4Cl2F2O) is an inhalation anesthetic used in the 1960s, but withdrawn because of detrimental effects on the kidneys. ... Sevoflurane (2, 2, 2-trifluoro-1-(trifluoromethyl) ethyl ether), also called fluoromethyl, is a halogenated ether used for induction and maintenance of general anesthesia. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ...

Barbiturates:

Hexobarbital, Methohexital, Narcobarbital, Thiopental Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system (CNS) depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Hexobarbital is a barbituate. ... Methohexital is a short-acting intravenous anaesthetic induction agent, that is, used to commence anaesthesia. ... Sodium thiopental (also called sodium pentothal (™ of Abbott Laboratories), thiopental (or thiopentone) sodium) is a rapid-onset, short-acting barbiturate general anesthetic. ...

Opioids:

Alfentanil, Anileridine, Fentanyl, Phenoperidine, Remifentanil, Sufentanil An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors, found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... Alfentanil (Alfenta) is a parenteral short-acting opioid painkiller, used for anaesthesia in surgery. ... Anileridine (Leritine®) is a synthetic opioid and strong analgesic medication. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Phenoperidine is an opiod general anesthetic. ... Remifentanil is a potent ultra short-acting synthetic opioid analgesic drug. ... Sufentanil is a drug that belongs to the class of drugs known as the opioid analgesic drugs. ...

Others:

Alfaxalone, Droperidol, Esketamine, Etomidate, Hydroxybutyric acid, Ketamine, Nitrous oxide, Propanidid, Propofol Droperidol (Dropletan®) is an antidopaminergic drug used as an antiemetic and antipsychotic. ... Etomidate is a short acting intravenous anaesthetic agent used for the induction of general anaesthesia and for sedation for short procedures such as reduction of dislocated joints and cardioversion. ... GHB redirects here. ... For the collaborative acoustic project, see Katamine. ... R-phrases S-phrases Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Propanidid is a phenylacetate general anesthetic. ... Propofol is an intravenous anesthetic agent used for the induction of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 3 years of age; maintenance of general anesthesia in adult patients and pediatric patients older than 2 months of age; and intensive care unit (ICU) sedation for intubated, mechanically...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Detail product description of halothane, from its composition to storage instructions (0 words)
The use of halothane is generally not recommended in obstetrics because of the increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage.
Halothane has a depressant action on the cardiovascular system and reduces blood pressure; signs of overdosage are bradycardia and profound hypotension.
Halothane reduces muscle tone in the pregnant uterus and generally its use is not recommended in obstetrics because of the increased risk.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m