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Encyclopedia > Halogenation

Halogenation is a chemical reaction that replaces a hydrogen atom with a halogen atom. More specific descriptions exist that specify the type of halogen: fluorination, chlorination, bromination, and iodination. A chemical reaction occurs when vapours of hydrogen chloride in a beaker and ammonia in a test tube meet to form a cloud of a new substance, ammonium chloride A chemical reaction is a process that results in the interconversion of chemical substances [1]. The substance or substances initially involved... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... The halogens are a chemical series of nonmetals. ...


In a Markovnikov addition reaction, a halogen like bromine is reacted with an alkene which causes the π-bond to break forming an haloalkane. This makes the hydrocarbon more reactive and bromine as it turns out, is a good leaving group in further chemical reactions such as nucleophilic aliphatic substitution reactions and elimination reactions In chemistry, Markovnikovs rule is an observation based on Zaitsevs rule. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ... Electron atomic and molecular orbitals, showing a Pi-bond at the bottom right of the picture In chemistry, pi bonds (Ï€ bonds) are bonds with a single nodal plane containing the line segment between the two atoms. ... The haloalkane (also known as halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane, with one or more halogens linked, such as chlorine or fluorine, making them a type of organic halide. ... Hydrocarbons are refined at oil refineries and processed at chemical plants A hydrocarbon is a chemical compound that consists only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... A leaving group is an atom or molecule that detaches from an organic molecule, which, after detachment, is called the residual or main part. ... In chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a class of substitution reaction in which an electron-rich nucleophile attacks a molecule and replaces a group or atom, called the leaving group. ... An elimination reaction is a type of organic reaction in which two substituents are removed from a molecule in either a one or two-step mechanism. ...


Several types of halogenation exist, including:

An example of halogenation can be found in the organic synthesis of the anesthetic halothane from trichloroethylene which involves a high temperature bromination in the second step [1]: This reaction is typical of alkanes and alkyl-substituted aromatics. ... In organic chemistry ketone halogenation is a special type of halogenation. ... In organic chemistry, an electrophilic aromatic halogenation is a type of halogenation. ... A halogen addition reaction is a simple organic reaction where a halogen molecule is added to the carbon-carbon double bond of an alkene functional group. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... Halothane vapour is an inhalational general anaesthetic. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ...

Image File history File links Halothane_synthesis. ...

Halogenation of Hydrocarbons

It has been shown that the reaction of bromine water, for instance, in ethene caused the formation of 2-bromoethanol. This formation of alcohol which has the same trends for other aliphatic hydrocarbons yielded the colorless mixture formed. The case was different in benzene and cyclohexane. When bromine water reacted with toluene it yielded a bromophenol which caused the faint yellow color of the upper layer.


See also

The haloalkane (also known as halogenoalkanes) are a group of chemical compounds, consisting of alkanes, such as methane or ethane, with one or more halogens linked, such as chlorine or fluorine, making them a type of organic halide. ... In organic chemistry, a Halogenoarene, Haloarene, or Aryl Halide, is an organic compound in which a halogen atom is bonded to a carbon atom which is part of an aromatic ring. ... A haloketone in organic chemistry is a functional group consisting of a ketone group with a α-halogen substituent. ... Electrophilic substitution reactions are chemical reactions in which an electrophile displaces another group, typically but not always hydrogen. ...

References

  1. ^ Synthesis of essential drugs, Ruben Vardanyan, Victor Hruby; Elsevier 2005 ISBN 0-444-52166-6

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