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Encyclopedia > Halocarbon

Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine. There are also compounds such as methylammonium chloride that include carbon atoms and noncovalent halogen atoms, also called inorganic halogens. Unlike halocarbon halogens, noncovalent halogen atoms will usually dissociate and ionize in water. Halocarbons are a class of organic compounds containing covalently bonded fluorine, chlorine, bromine, or iodine. A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number fluorine, F, 9 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 2, p Appearance Yellowish brown gas Atomic mass 18. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Noncovalent bonding refers to a variety of interactions, that are not covalent in nature, between molecules or parts of molecules that provide force to hold the molecules or parts of molecules together usually in a specific orientation or conformation. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... A dissociative is a drug which reduces (or blocks) signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain, typically (but not necessarily, or limited to) the physical senses. ... ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Many synthetic organic compounds such as plastic polymers, and a few natural ones, contain halogen atoms; they are known as halogenated compounds. Chlorine is by far the most abundant of the halogens, and the only one needed in relatively large amounts (as chloride ions) by humans. For example, chloride ions play a key role in brain function by mediating the action of the inhibitory transmitter GABA and are also used by the body to produce stomach acid. Iodine is needed in trace amounts for the production of thyroid hormones such as thyroxine. On the other hand, neither fluorine nor bromine are believed to be really essential for humans, although small amounts of fluoride does make teeth enamel somewhat more resistant to attack. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A polymer is a long, repeating chain of atoms, formed through the linkage of many molecules called monomers. ... Gaba may refer to: Gabâ or gabaa (Philippines), the concept of negative karma of the Cebuano people GABA, the gamma-amino-butyric acid neurotransmitter GABA receptor, in biology, receptors with GABA as their endogenous ligand Gaba 1 to 1, an English conversational school in Japan Marianne Gaba, a US model... Thyroxine, or 3:5,3:5 tetra­iodothyronine (often abbreviated as T4) is the major hormone secreted by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland. ...

Contents

Chemical families

Halocarbons are typically classified in the same ways as the similarly structured organic compounds that have hydrogen atoms occupying the molecular sites of the halogen atoms in halocarbons. Among the chemical families are: Chemical structure refers to the spatial arrangement of atoms in a molecule and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. ... Benzene is the simplest of the arenes, a family of organic compounds An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen; therefore, carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon are not organic (see below for more on the definition controversy... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... In science, a molecule is the smallest particle of a pure chemical substance that still retains its chemical composition and properties. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ...

The halogen atoms in halocarbon molecules are often called "substituents," as though those atoms had been substituted for hydrogen atoms. However halocarbons are prepared in many ways that do not involve direct substitution of halogens for hydrogens. Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... A chemical bond is the physical process responsible for the attractive interactions between atoms and molecules, and that which confers stability to diatomic and polyatomic chemical compounds. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... In organic chemistry, a halogenoarene, haloarene, or aryl halide, is an organic compound in which a halogen atom is bonded to a carbon atom which is part of an aromatic ring. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding characterized by the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between atoms, in order to produce a mutual attraction, which holds the resultant molecule together. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning indivisible) is the smallest particle still characterizing a chemical element. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... In organic chemistry, a substituent is an atom or group of atoms substituted in place of a hydrogen atom on the parent chain of a hydrocarbon. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...


Origins

A few halocarbons, including methyl chloride, are produced in large amounts by natural interactions between halogen salts and debris from plants and animals, but most are created in anything more than minuscule traces only through human efforts. English and French chemists, among others, began to synthesize halocarbons in the 1820s and 1830s and soon discovered halocarbon polymers as well, molecules with long chains of halocarbon groups linked by covalent bonds. Chloromethane or Methyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used as a refrigerant. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... For other uses, see Salt (disambiguation). ... A chemist pours from a round-bottom flask. ... A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... In science, a molecule is a group of atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical bonds. ... Covalent bonding is a form of chemical bonding that is characterized by the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. ...


Uses

Common uses for halocarbons have been as solvents, pesticides, refrigerants, fire-resistant oils, ingredients of elastomers, adhesives and sealants, electrically insulating coatings, plasticizers, and plastics. Many halocarbons have specialized uses in industry. A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... The term elastomer is often used interchangeably with the term rubber, and is preferred when referring to vulcanisates. ... An adhesive is a compound that adheres or bonds two items together. ... Plasticizers are additives that soften the materials (usually a plastic or a concrete mix) they are added to. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Before they became strictly regulated, the general public often encountered haloalkanes as paint and cleaning solvents such as trichloroethane (1,1,1-trichloroethane) and carbon tetrachloride (tetrachloromethane), pesticides like 1,2-dibromoethane (EDB, ethylene dibromide), and refrigerants like Freon-22 (duPont trademark for chlorodifluoromethane). Some haloalkanes are still widely used for industrial cleaning, such as methylene chloride (dichloromethane), and as refrigerants, such as R-143a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane). Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... The chemical compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that was until recently widely used as an industrial solvent. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point non flammable RTECS number FG4900000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... 1,2-Dibromoethane is a manufactured chemical. ... Refrigeration (from the Latin frigus, frost) is generally the cooling of a body by the transfer of a portion of its heat away from it. ... Freon is a trade name for a group of chlorofluorocarbons used primarily as a refrigerant. ... This article is about the DuPont company. ... Dichloromethane or Methylene chloride is a chemical compound widely used as a solvent for organic materials. ... 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane, also called simply tetrafluoroethane, R-134a or HFC-134a, is a refrigerant without an ozone depletion potential and thermodynamic properties similar to R-12 (dichlorodifluoromethane). ...


Haloalkenes have also been used as solvents, including perchloroethylene (Perc, tetrachloroethene), widespread in dry cleaning, and trichloroethylene (TCE, 1,1,2-trichloroethene). Other haloalkenes have been chemical building blocks of plastics such as polyvinyl chloride ("vinyl" or PVC, polymerized chloroethene) and Teflon (duPont trademark for polymerized tetrafluoroethene, PTFE). A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. ... The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... Polyvinyl chloride PVC, (IUPAC Polychloroethene) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a widely used thermoplastic polymer. ... Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ... This article is about the DuPont company. ...


Haloaromatics include the former Aroclors (Monsanto trademark for polychlorinated biphenyls, PCBs), once widely used in power transformers and capacitors and in building caulk, the former Halowaxes (Union Carbide trademark for polychlorinated naphthalenes, PCNs), once used for electrical insulation, and the chlorobenzenes and their derivatives, used for disinfectants, pesticides such as dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane), herbicides such as 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid), askarel dielectrics (mixed with PCBs, no longer used in most countries), and chemical feedstocks. Labelling transformers containing PCBs Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic compounds with 1 to 10 chlorine atoms attached to biphenyl and a general structure of C12H10-xClx. ... The Monsanto Company (NYSE: MON) is a multinational agricultural biotechnology corporation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). ... Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) products are made by chemically binding chlorine with naphthalene, a soft, pungent solid made from coal or petroleum and often used for mothproofing. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) products are made by chemically binding chlorine with naphthalene, a soft, pungent solid made from coal or petroleum and often used for mothproofing. ... Chlorobenzene is an aromatic organic compound with the chemical formula C6H5Cl. ... Disinfection of a floor using a mop Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy microorganisms, the process of which is known as disinfection. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... A herbicide is a pesticide used to kill unwanted plants. ... 2,4-D (or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a common systemic herbicide used in the control of broadleaf weeds. ... A dielectric, or electrical insulator, is a substance that is highly resistant to electric current. ...


A few halocarbons, including acid halides like acetyl chloride, are highly reactive; these are rarely found outside chemical processing. The widespread uses of halocarbons were often driven by observations that most of them were more stable than other substances. They may be less affected by acids or alkalis; they may not burn as readily; they may not be attacked by bacteria or molds; or they may not be affected as much by sun exposure. Acetyl chloride, also known as ethanoyl chloride, is an acid chloride derived from acetic acid. ... This article is about electronics. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ...


Hazards

The stability of halocarbons tended to encourage beliefs that they were mostly harmless, although in the mid-1920s physicians reported workers in PCN manufacturing suffering from chloracne (Teleky 1927), and by the late 1930s it was known that workers exposed to PCNs could die from liver disease (Flinn & Jarvik 1936) and that DDT would kill mosquitos and other insects (Müller 1948). By the 1950s, there had been several reports and investigations of workplace hazards. In 1956, for example, after testing hydraulic oils containing PCBs, the U.S. Navy found that skin contact caused fatal liver disease in animals and rejected them as "too toxic for use in a submarine" (Owens v. Monsanto 2001). PCN may refer to: Pennsylvania Cable Network, non-profit cable television network of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Polychlorinated naphthalene, an organic pollutant Party of National Conciliation, political party of El Salvador (in Spanish, Partido de Conciliación Nacional) Pacific Investment Management PCN (stock symbol), PIMCO Corporate Income Fund of Allianz... Chloracne is an acne-like eruption of blackheads, cysts, and pustules associated with over-exposure to certain halogenic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans. ... PCN may refer to: Pennsylvania Cable Network, non-profit cable television network of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. Polychlorinated naphthalene, an organic pollutant Party of National Conciliation, political party of El Salvador (in Spanish, Partido de Conciliación Nacional) Pacific Investment Management PCN (stock symbol), PIMCO Corporate Income Fund of Allianz... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... Diversity 41 genera Genera See text. ... {{Taxobox | color = pink | name = Insects | fossil_range = Carboniferous - Recent | image = European honey bee extracts nectar. ... Hydraulics is a branch of science and engineering concerned with the use of liquids to perform mechanical tasks. ... PCB may refer to: Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) Communist Party of Bolivia (in Spanish, Partido Comunista de Bolivia) Pakistan Cricket Board PCBoard, a bulletin board system software Police Complaints Board, which oversaw the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales until... The liver is an organ in vertebrates including humans. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ...


In 1962 a book by U.S. biologist Rachel Carson (Carson 1962) started a storm of concerns about environmental pollution, first focused on DDT and other pesticides, some of them also halocarbons. These concerns were amplified when in 1966 Swedish chemist Soren Jensen reported widespread residues of PCBs among Arctic and sub-Arctic fish and birds (Jensen 1966). In 1974, U.S. chemists Mario Molina and Sherwood Rowland predicted that common halocarbon refrigerants, the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), would accumulate in the upper atmosphere and destroy protective ozone (Molina & Rowland 1974). Within a few years, ozone depletion was being observed above Antarctica, leading to bans on production and use of chlorofluorocarbons in many countries. In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said halocarbons were a direct cause of global warming.[1] Rachel Louise Carson (27 May 1907 — 14 April 1964) was an American marine biologist whose landmark book, Silent Spring, is often credited with having launched the global environmental movement. ... It has been suggested that Pollutant be merged into this article or section. ... DDT or Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane is the first modern pesticide and is one of the best known synthetic pesticides. ... A cropduster spreading pesticide. ... PCB may refer to: Brazilian Communist Party (in Portuguese, Partido Comunista Brasileiro) Communist Party of Bolivia (in Spanish, Partido Comunista de Bolivia) Pakistan Cricket Board PCBoard, a bulletin board system software Police Complaints Board, which oversaw the system for handling complaints made against police forces in England and Wales until... Mario J. Molina (born March 19, 1943) was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his role in elucidating the threat to the Earths ozone layer of chlorofluorocarbon gases (or CFCs). ... Franklin Sherwood Rowland (born June 28, 1927) is a Nobel laureate and a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Irvine. ... A refrigerant is a compound used in a heat cycle that undergoes a phase change from a gas to a liquid and back. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... View of Jupiters active atmosphere, including the Great Red Spot. ... It has been suggested that Ozone generator be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Ozone generator be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see CFC (disambiguation). ... Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of such reports. ...


Since the 1970s there have been longstanding, unresolved controversies over potential health hazards of trichloroethylene (TCE) and other halocarbon solvents that had been widely used for industrial cleaning (Anderson v. Grace 1986) (Scott & Cogliano 2000) (U.S. National Academies of Science 2004) (United States 2004). More recently perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a precursor in the most common manufacturing process for Teflon and also used to make coatings for fabrics and food packaging, has become a health and environmental concern (United States 2006), suggesting that halocarbons thought to be among the most inert may also present hazards. The chemical compound trichloroethylene is a chlorinated hydrocarbon commonly used as an industrial solvent. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), also known as C8, is an artificial acid that has many industrial uses. ... Teflon is polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), a polymer of fluorinated ethylene. ...


Halocarbons, including those that might not be hazards in themselves, can present waste disposal issues. Because they do not readily degrade in natural environments, halocarbons tend to accumulate. Incineration and accidental fires can create corrosive byproducts like hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid and poisons like halogenated dioxins and furans. Waste management is literally the process of managing waste materials (normally those produced as a result of human activities). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Corrosion is the destructive reaction of a metal with another material, e. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. ... The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ... Space-filling model of 2,3,7,8- tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Structure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) Dioxin is the popular name for the family of halogenated organic compounds, the most common consisting of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs). ... Furan, also known as furane and furfuran, is a heterocyclic organic compound, produced when wood, especially pine-wood, is distilled. ...


See also

Halogenation is a chemical reaction that replaces a hydrogen atom with a halogen atom. ...

References

  • Anderson v. Grace, Massachusetts, USA (1986), 628 F. Supp. 1219, settled between the parties, reviewed in Harr, J., Ed. & M., Ed. Asher (1996), A Civil Action, Minneapolis, MN, USA: Sagebrush Education Resources
  • Carson, R. (1962), Silent Spring, Boston, MA, USA: Houghton Mifflin
  • Flinn, F.B. & N.E. Jarvik (1936), "Action of certain chlorinated naphthalenes on the liver", Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 35: 118
  • Jensen, S. (1966), "Report of a new chemical hazard", New Scientist 32: 612
  • Molina, M.J. & F.S. Rowland (1974), "Stratospheric sink for chlorofluoromethanes: chlorine atom-catalysed destruction of ozone", Nature 249: 810
  • Müller, P.H. (1948), "Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane and newer insecticides", Nobel Lecture
  • Owens v. Monsanto, Alabama, USA (2001), 96-CV-440, Exhibit 3A03F, cited in Chemical Industry Archives, Anniston Case, by Environmental Working Group, Washington, DC, 2002
  • Scott, C.S., Ed. & V.J., Ed. Cogliano (2000), "Trichloroethylene Health Risks--State of the Science", Environmental Health Perspectives 108(S2)
  • Teleky, L. (1927), "Die pernakrankheit", Klinische Wochenschrift (Berlin: Springer) Jahrgänge 6: 845
  • U.S. National Academies of Science, Current Projects System (2004), Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene
  • United States, Environmental Protection Agency (2004), Integrated Risk Information System, Trichloroethylene (CASRN 79-01-6)
  • United States, Environmental Protection Agency (2006), PFOA Stewardship Program

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Halocarbon (396 words)
Halocarbon compounds are chemicals in which one or more carbon atoms are linked by covalent bonds with one or more halogen atoms: fluorine, chlorine, bromine or iodine.
The aims of this project were therefore to contribute to the knowledge of the occurrence, distribution and dynamics of biogenic halogenated gases in seawater, and to test the hypothesis that the ocean is a source of the light alkyl nitrates.
Halocarbons that contain chlorine (CFCs and HCFCs) and bromine (halons) cause ozone depletion, and their emissions are controlled under the Montreal Protocol and its Adjustment and Amendments.
IC Knowledge - Glossary - H (852 words)
Halocarbon 14 does not have a formally established TLV but 1,000ppm is recommended.
Halocarbon 14 is used as an etch gas.
Halocarbon 23 does not have a formally established TLV but 1,000ppm is recommended.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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