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Encyclopedia > Hallucinogenic drug

Hallucinogenic drugs or hallucinogens are drugs that can alter sensory perceptions, elicit alternate states of consciousness, or cause hallucinations. This is a broad category that covers many disparate substances, the class of pharmacological agents which primarily change the subjective qualities of perception, thought or emotion. Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... A hallucination is a false sensory perception in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) is drug, and logos (λόγος) is science) is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... For the 1991 hit single from Mariah Carey, see Emotions (Mariah Carey song). ...


Hallucinogens act as neurotransmitter mimics, often as agonists or antagonists at neurotransmitter receptors. The effects of hallucinogens are clearly different from stimulants like cocaine or amphetamines, although hallucinogens do often increase alertness or activity. Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response by the cell. ... The antagonist is the character (or group of characters) of a story who represents the opposition against which the heroes and/or protagonists must contend. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... A stimulant is a drug which increases the activity of the sympathetic nervous system and produces a sense of euphoria or awakeness. ... Cocaine is a crystalline alkaloid that is obtained from the leaves of the coca plant. ... Amphetamine, also known as speed, is a synthetic drug originally studied (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ...


The broad term "hallucinogen" is often used as a synonym for the class of psychedelics (LSD, magic mushrooms, mescaline, or 2C-I), especially in the current scientific literature. Other classes include the Empathogen/Entactogens (MDMA), the deliriants (Datura, tropane alkaloids), or the dissociatives (DXM, PCP). This entry pertains to the word psychedelic, its origin and uses. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine family. ... 2C-I is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogenic phenethylamine that was developed and popularized by Alexander Shulgin. ... The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... Deliriants are a class of hallucinogens, used entheogenically throughout the world. ... Species see text Datura is a genus of herb and shrub plants belonging to the Solanaceae. ... Background: Alkaloids are plant metabolites that have a nitrogen-containing chemical ring structure, alkali-like chemical reactivity, and pharmacologic activity. ... Dissociative drugs are a class of psychedelic drugs characterized by intense feelings of depersonalization, derealization, and analgesia. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, disease phencyclidine, a drug also known as Angel Dust Probabilistically checkable proof, a notion in the theory of computational complexity theory Partido Comunista del Peru, a. ...

Contents

Etymology and alternative terms

A variety of different, imprecise terms have also been used to refer to drugs of this type. One of the first terms used in English to describe these substances was "Phantastica", coined in 1928 by Louis Lewin in his ground-breaking monograph of the same name. The term was applied to plants that "bring about evident cerebral excitation in the form of hallucinations, illusions and visions ... followed by unconsciousness or other symptoms of altered cerebral functioning." Lewin complained that the word "does not cover all that I should wish it to convey", and indeed with the advent of the discovery of LSD and the widespread scientific experimentation with it and similar drugs, numerous supposedly improved terms were constructed, including hallucinogen, psychedelic, psychotomimetic, psycholytic, schizophrenogenic, cataleptogenic, mysticomimetic and psychodysleptic. Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Louis Lewin was a German pharmacologist who published the first systematic study of the cactus (Anhalonium lewinii) in 1886. ... A monograph is a scholarly book or a treatise on a single subject, class of subjects, or person. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... This entry pertains to the word psychedelic, its origin and uses. ...


Of all the terms created, "hallucinogen", meaning roughly "generating delusions and false notions" (particularly in the form of sensory distortions), probably enjoys the most widespread and accepted usage. "Psychedelic", meaning "mind manifesting" and emphasizing the introspective potential of the drugs, and "entheogen", meaning "becoming divine within", are also widely used, particularly among those with positive attitudes towards their usage. In some cases, authors who otherwise use these terms have felt themselves pressured to use "hallucinogen" or "psychotomimetic" (meaning "mimicking psychosis") in scientific publications. The terms "empathogen" and "entactogen" (see Empathogen/Entactogen) are also applied to certain drugs (notably those similar to MDMA) that are also sometimes classed as hallucinogens. This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ...


History of use

Hallucinogenic drugs are among the oldest drugs used by humankind, as hallucinogens naturally occur in mushrooms, cacti, and various other plants. Whether the use of hallucinogens is encouraged, unregulated, regulated, or prohibited, and whether hallucinogens are used for recreational, medicinal, or spiritual purposes, varies from culture to culture and nation to nation. In most nations of the world, the possession of many hallucinogens, even those that are common in nature, is a crime punished by fines, imprisonment or in many countries, death. For some religious purposes, however, there are exceptions. For instance, though possession of peyote cactus is illegal for most purposes in the United States, American Courts have upheld the Constitutional right of Native Americans to grow and consume peyote. Basidiocarps (mushrooms) of the fungus Leucocoprinus sp. ... Genera Many, see text A cactus (plural, cacti or cactuses) is a type of (usually) succulent plant belonging to the dicotyledonous flowering plant family, Cactaceae. ... Divisions Green algae land plants (embryophytes) non-vascular embryophytes Hepatophyta - liverworts Anthocerophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses vascular plants (tracheophytes) seedless vascular plants Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongue ferns seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Gnetophyta - gnetae Magnoliophyta - flowering... Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished for crimes not committed in exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolitionist in Practice Red: Legal Form of Punishment Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered... Religion—sometimes used interchangeably with faith or belief system— is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the moral codes, practices and institutions associated with such belief. ... Binomial name Lophophora williamsii Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is a small spineless cactus whose native region extends from the southwestern United States (including the states of Texas and New Mexico) through central Mexico. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ...


Traditional religious and shamanic use (entheogens)

In human culture hallucinogens have historically most commonly been used in the setting of religious or shamanic rituals. In this context they are more precisely referred to as entheogens, and are used to facilitate healing, divination, communication with the spirits, and coming of age ceremonies. Evidence exists for the use of entheogens in prehistoric times, as well as in numerous ancient cultures, including the Ancient Egyptian, Mycenaean, Ancient Greek, Vedic, Maya, Inca and Aztec cultures. The rise of the Abrahamic religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) caused a decline of entheogen use in their area. Witness the destruction of the Eleusinian Mysteries, or the Great Witch Hunt of the Early Modern Age, in which practitioners of entheogenic rites in Western Europe were accused of associating with the Devil. Nevertheless, some (mainly tribal) cultures have survived this (ongoing) assault and still practise entheogen use. In others, non-religious hallucinogen use, while not exactly encouraged, is tolerated and not seen as uncommon. Present-day, historical and mythological aspects of entheogens are discussed in the entry entheogen. Shamanism is a range of traditional beliefs and practices that involve the ability to diagnose, cure, and sometimes cause human suffering by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits. ... A ritual is a formalised, predetermined set of symbolic actions generally performed in a particular environment at a regular, recurring interval. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... Prehistory (Greek words προ = before and ιστορία = history) is the period of human history prior to the advent of writing (which marks the beginning of recorded history). ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation, it is the quintessential example of a hydraulic empire. ... Mycenaean is the name given to the period of Greek history between the arrival of the Greeks in the Aegean area in about 1600 BC and about 1100 BC, the date usually asigned to the Dorian invasion, although some historians doubt that any such invasion took place. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... The adjective Vedic may refer to The Vedas, the oldest preserved Indo-Aryan texts. ... The word Maya or maya can refer to: The Maya – a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America the modern Maya people the pre-Columbian Maya civilization the Maya language Maya – a concept in Hindu/Vedic philosophy a state of misperception of reality the inherent force of... For other meanings of Inca, see Inca (disambiguation). ... The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th century. ... The Star of David, a common symbol of Jews and Judaism Judaism is the religion and culture of the Jewish people and one of the first recorded monotheistic faiths. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ... Islam (Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries were annual initiation ceremonies for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... A witch-hunt was traditionally a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, which could lead to a witchcraft trial involving the accused person. ... The Devil is the name given to a supernatural entity who, in most Western religions, is the central embodiment of evil. ... ǎ This article is on the social structure. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ...


Early scientific investigations

Although natural hallucinogenic drugs have been known to mankind for millennia, it was not until the early 20th century that they received extensive attention from Western science. Earlier beginnings include scientific studies of nitrous oxide in the late 18th century, and initial studies of the constituents of the peyote cactus in the late 19th century. Starting in 1927 with Kurt Beringer's Der Meskalinrausch (The Mescaline Intoxication), more intensive effort began to be focused on studies of psychoactive plants. Around the same time, Louis Lewin published his extensive survey of psychoactive plants, Phantastica (1928). Important developments in the years that followed included the re-discovery of Mexican magic mushrooms (in 1936 by Robert J. Weitlaner) and ololiuhqui (in 1939 by Richard Evans Schultes). Arguably the most important pre-World War II development was by Albert Hofmann's 1938 invention of the semi-synthetic drug LSD, which was later discovered to produce hallucinogenic effects, in 1943. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The term Western world can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... What is science? There are different theories of what science is. ... Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant slightly sweet odor. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Binomial name Lophophora williamsii Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is a small spineless cactus whose native region extends from the southwestern United States (including the states of Texas and New Mexico) through central Mexico. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Louis Lewin was a German pharmacologist who published the first systematic study of the cactus (Anhalonium lewinii) in 1886. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Binomial name Rivea corymbosa (L.)Hallier f. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Richard Evans Schultes (January 12, 1915–April 10, 2001) was a Harvard ethnobotanist, famed for his work in entheogenic and hallucinogenic drugs. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Dr. Albert Hofmann Dr. Albert Hofmann (born 11 January 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist and best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zurich. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Generally, synthetic means pertaining to synthesis, i. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ...


Hallucinogens after World War II

After World War II there was an explosion of interest in hallucinogenic drugs in psychiatry, owing mainly to the discovery of LSD. Interest in the drugs tended to focus on either the potential for psychotherapeutic applications of the drugs (see psychedelic psychotherapy), or on the use of hallucinogens to produce a "controlled psychosis", in order to understand psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. Between the mid 1950s and the mid 1960s over 1000 scholarly articles were published on hallucinogen research. Hallucinogens were also researched in several countries for their potential as agents of chemical warfare. Most famously, several tragic incidents associated with the CIA's MK-ULTRA mind control research project have been the topic of media attention and lawsuits. Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to cure or improve psychological and behavioral problems in humans. ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... Psychosis is a psychiatric classification for a mental state in which the perception of reality is distorted. ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... 1960 was a leap year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... CIA, see CIA (disambiguation). ... Project MKULTRA (also known as MK-ULTRA) was the code name for a CIA mind control research program lasting from the 1950s through the 1970s. ... Mind control (or thought control) has the premise that an outside source can control an individuals thinking, behavior or consciousness (either directly or more subtly). ...


At the beginning of the 1950s, the existence of hallucinogenic drugs was virtually unknown among the general public of the West. However this soon changed as several influential figures were introduced to the hallucinogenic experience. Aldous Huxley's 1953 essay The Doors of Perception, describing his experiences with mescaline, and R. Gordon Wasson's 1957 Life magazine article (Seeking the Magic Mushroom) brought the topic into the public limelight. In the early 1960s countercultural icons such as Timothy Leary, Allen Ginsberg and Ken Kesey advocated the drugs for their psychedelic effects, and a large subculture of psychedelic drug users was spawned. Many people argue that psychedelic drugs played a major role in catalyzing the vast social changes initiated in the 1960s. 1950 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Aldous Huxley Aldous Leonard Huxley (July 26, 1894 – November 22, 1963) was a British writer who emigrated to the United States. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The Doors of Perception is a 1954 book by Aldous Huxley detailing his hallucinatory experiences when taking mescaline. ... R. Gordon Wasson (born 22 September 1898, died 23 December 1986) was an author, amateur researcher and banker. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American writer, psychologist, and drug campaigner. ... Photo of Allen Ginsberg by Robert Birnbaum Irwin Allen Ginsberg (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American Beat poet born in Paterson, New Jersey. ... Ken Kesey (September 17, 1935 – November 10, 2001) was an American author, probably best known for his novel One Flew Over the Cuckoos Nest, and as a cultural icon who some consider a link between the beat generation of the 1950s and the hippies of the 1960s. ... This entry pertains to the word psychedelic, its origin and uses. ... In biology, a subculture in a population of a microorganism is when one microbe colony in such a population is transferred onto blank growth medium and allowed to freely reproduce. ... Woodstock: the iconic Sixties event The Sixties in its most obvious sense refers to the decade between 1960 and 1969 (see: 1960s), but the expression has taken on a wider meaning over the past 20 years. ...


As a result of the growing popularity of LSD, and, some contend, establishment disdain for the hippies with whom it was heavily associated, LSD was banned in the United States in 1967. Hippie (or sometimes hippy) is a term originally used to describe some of the rebellious youth of the 1960s and 1970s. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Social status of hallucinogens

After the fading from public sight of many elements of the 1960s counterculture, hallucinogen use took a less visible but nevertheless persistent role in Western society 1970s and 1980s. In the 1990s and 2000s something of a revival of interest in the drugs has occurred. There are probably several important contributing factors to the resurgence. One is the rise of dance-based rave and trance culture, in which participants frequently employ drugs such as the entactogen MDMA, and to a lesser extent, other hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD, magic mushrooms and ketamine, as an aid to inducing ecstatic or trance states of consciousness. A second major contributing factor to the revival of interest in hallucinogenic drugs has been the advent of the Internet and World Wide Web. This has made information pertaining to drugs much more accessible to the general public, provided a platform for advocacy that was not previously available, and has enabled otherwise isolated interested parties to communicate and exchange information and experiences. Some well-known contemporary authors of topics relating to hallucinogens include Terence McKenna, Alexander Shulgin, Jonathan Ott and Rick Strassman. Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... Events and trends Technology The World Wide Web was born at CERN Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft... Major controversy over U.S. presidential election, 2000 September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attack on New Yorks World Trade Center and Virginias Pentagon killing over 3000 people. ... A contemporary dancer rehearsing in a dance studio Dance (from Old French dance, further history unknown) generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression (see also body language) or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting. ... This article is about a form of party. ... Trance music is a subgenre of electronic dance music that developed in the 1990s. ... The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... ecstasy and religious ecstasy MDMA, most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Ketamine is a general dissociative anesthetic for human and veterinary use. ... ecstasy (drug) and religious ecstasy Ecstasy, from the Greek ekstasis, to be outside oneself, is a category of trance or trancelike states in which an individual transcends ordinary consciousness and as a result has a heightened capacity for exceptional thought or experience. ... Trance is an altered state of consciousness. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Graphic representation of the world wide web around Wikipedia The World Wide Web (WWW, or simply Web) is an information space in which the items of interest, referred to as resources, are identified by global identifiers called Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI). ... Advocacy is an umbrella term for organized activism related to a particular set of issues. ... Terence McKenna (November 16, 1946 - April 3, 2000) was a writer and philosopher. ... Alexander Sasha Shulgin (born June 17, 1925) is a pharmacologist, chemist and drug developer. ... Jonathan Ott is a prolific and highly regarded writer, translator, publisher, reviewer and pundit on virtually every aspect of entheogen botany, chemistry, pharmacology, bioassay, culture, and history. ... In 1990, Rick Strassman began the first new human research with psychedelic, or hallucinogenic, drugs in the United States in over 20 years. ...


Legal status

As of 2004, most hallucinogens are illegal in most Western countries. One notable exception to the current criminalization trend is in parts of Western Europe, especially in the Netherlands, where hallucinogenic mushrooms are considered to be so-called "soft drugs", along with cannabis. While the possession of soft drugs is technically illegal, the Dutch government has decided that using law enforcement to combat their use is largely a waste of resources. As a result, public "coffeeshops" in the Netherlands openly sell cannabis, and "smart shops" sell drugs like psilocybin mushrooms and ayahuasca for personal use (See Drug policy of the Netherlands). 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... The term soft drug is given sometimes to a range of drugs that are supposed to be less harmful than other drugs, called hard drugs. ... Marijuana leaves Some home-grown marijuana, or more precisely, cannabis bud, which is well-cured, i. ... The widely used Quechuan name Ayahuasca has two highly interrelated yet distinct meanings and referents: 1) an Amazonian giant vine native to the rainforest, generally Banisteriopsis caapi, and, by extension, 2) pharmacologically complex infusions prepared from it for shamanic, folk-medicinal, and neoreligious purposes. ... The drug policy of the Netherlands is based on two principles: Drug use is a public health issue, not a criminal matter A distinction between hard drugs and soft drugs exists It is a pragmatic policy. ...


Since the latter part of the twentieth century, this attitude has spread throughout Europe; many European countries no longer actively pursue anti-drug policies, and rarely enforce extant legal penalties for personal-use quantities of hallucinogenic drugs. This is especially true with mild hallucinogens such as cannabis, which is rapidly gaining acceptance in western Europe as a harmless and socially acceptable intoxicant, much as alcohol is considered throughout the West. Despite being scheduled as a controlled substance in the mid 1980s, ecstasy's popularity has been growing since that time in western Europe and in the United States. World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... Marijuana leaves Some home-grown marijuana, or more precisely, cannabis bud, which is well-cured, i. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ...


Attitudes towards hallucinogens other than cannabis have been slower to change. Several attempts to change the law on the grounds of freedom of religion have been made. Some of these have been successful, for example the Native American Church in the United States, and the international Santo Daime. Some people argue that a religious setting should not be necessary for the legitimacy of hallucinogenic drug use, and for this reason also criticize the euphemistic use of the term "entheogen". Non-religious reasons for the use of hallucinogens including spiritual, introspective, psychotherapeutic, recreational and even hedonistic motives, each subject to some degree of social disapproval, have all been defended as the legitimate exercising of civil liberties, including freedom of thought. Freedom of religion is the individuals right or freedom to hold whatever religious beliefs he or she wishes, or none at all. ... Native American Church, also called Peyotism or Peyote religion, is the most widespread indigenous religion among Native Americans. ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... Spirituality, in a broad sense a concern with matters of the spirit, is a wide term with many available readings. ... Introspection is the direct observation or rumination of ones own heart, mind and/or soul and its processes, as opposed to extrospection, the observation of things external to ones self. ... Psychotherapy is a set of techniques intended to cure or improve psychological and behavioral problems in humans. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... Hedonism ([[Greek: hēdonē pleasure + –ism)describes any way of thinking that gives pleasure a central role. ... Civil liberties are protections from the power of governments. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience) is the freedom of an individual to hold a viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ...


Pharmacology

Hallucinogens can be classified by quality of action, mechanisms of action, or by chemical structure. These classifications often correlate to some extent. The classification system below attempts to blend these three approaches in order to create a balanced and simple overview that is as clear and easy to grasp as possible.


Almost all hallucinogens contain nitrogen and are classified as alkaloids. THC and Salvinorin A are exceptions. Many hallucinogens often have chemical structures similar to those of human neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, and temporarily interfere with the action of neurotransmitters and/or receptor sites. General Name, Symbol, Number Nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 2, p Density 1. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum (diviners sage, Mexican mint). ... Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are used to relay, amplify and modulate electrical signals between a presynaptic and a postsynaptic neuron. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ...


A classical classification is that of Lewin (Phantastica, 1928):
Class I Phantastica roughly correspond to the psychedelics, which is a more modern term usually used as synonym to "hallucinogen" by people with positive attitudes towards them. Here the term is used a bit differently to discriminate one particular class of hallucinogens which it seems to describe best. They typically have no sedative effects (sometimes the opposite) and there is usually a clearcut memory to their effects. This entry pertains to the word psychedelic, its origin and uses. ...


Class II Phantastica correspond to the other classes in this scheme. They tend to sedate in addition to their hallucinogenic properties and there often is an impaired memory trace after the effects wear off.


Pharmacological classes of hallucinogens, and their general subjective effects

Entries marked with a # are naturally occurring.


Psychedelics (serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonists)

Commentary: The tryptamines, LSD, and phenethylamines cause more or less identical effects despite their different chemical structure. At lower doses, these include sensory distortions such as the warping of surfaces, shape suggestibility, and color variations. Users often report intense colors that they have not previously experienced, and repetitive geometric shapes are common. Higher doses often cause intense and fundamental distortions of sensory perception such as synaesthesia or the experience of additional spatial, temporal, or time dimensions. Some compounds, such as 2C-B, have extremely tight "dose curves," meaning the difference between a non-event and an overwhelming disconnection from reality can be very slight. This entry pertains to the word psychedelic, its origin and uses. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... Dimethyltryptamine, also known as DMT or N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is an indole, similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin, created during normal metabolism in low amounts by the human body (secreted by the pineal gland). ... 5_MeO_DMT is one of the most potent psychedelic entheogens known to man. ... Bufotenin, also spelled bufotenine, is also known under the names 5_hydroxy_DMT (5-OH-DMT) or dimethyl-serotonin and is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. ... α-methyl-tryptamine, also known as AMT or IT-290, is a synthetic drug of the tryptamine family. ... 5-MeO-AMT is an entheogenic drug soluble in alcohol. ... Dipropyltryptamine (DPT) is a psychedelic and entheogenic hallucinogenic drug belonging to the tryptamine family. ... DIPT or diisopropyltryptamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the tryptamine family that has a unique effect. ... 5_MeO_DiPT is a tryptamine also known as Foxy Methoxy due to its supposed aphrodisiac-like effects, although it is primarily used recreationally as a psychedelic. ... Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ... Psilocin is a mushroom alkaloid and derivative of the psychedelic hallucinogenic drug psilocybin. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Categories: Fungi stubs | Hallucinogen stubs | Herbal & fungal hallucinogens | Entheogens | Hallucinogenic tryptamine carriers ... External links 4-Hydroxy-DIPT information at Erowid Categories: Stub | Tryptamines ... Harmala is a blanket term for the group of naturally occurring beta-carbolines including harmine, harmaline, and others. ... β-Carboline (9H-pyrid-[3,4-b]-indole) is an organic amine that is the prototype of a class of compounds known as β_Carbolines. ... The widely used Quechuan name Ayahuasca has two highly interrelated yet distinct meanings and referents: 1) an Amazonian giant vine native to the rainforest, generally Banisteriopsis caapi, and, by extension, 2) pharmacologically complex infusions prepared from it for shamanic, folk-medicinal, and neoreligious purposes. ... Dimethyltryptamine, also known as DMT or N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is an indole, similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin, created during normal metabolism in low amounts by the human body (secreted by the pineal gland). ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Alkaloids | Amines | Aromatic compounds | Hallucinogens | Heterocyclic bases ... Categories: Stub | Flowers ... Binomial name Argyreia nervosa (Burm. ... Ergonovine is an ergot derivative, and a member of the Ergoline family. ... Phenethylamine is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine family. ... Binomial name Lophophora williamsii Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is a small spineless cactus whose native region extends from the southwestern United States (including the states of Texas and New Mexico) through central Mexico. ... 2C-B is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-C is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-I is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogenic phenethylamine that was developed and popularized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-T-2, also known as Rosy, is a psychedelic entheogen presumably first synthesized in 1981 by Alexander Shulgin, and has structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drugs Mescaline, MDMA, and 2C-B. In Shulgins book PIHKAL (Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved), the dosage range is listed... 2C-T-4 or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(i)-propylthiophenethylamine is a psychedelic entheogen presumably first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin that has some structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drug MDMA, and even more similarities with the drugs mescaline, 2C-B, and 2C-T-7. ... 2C-T-7 (Sulfurous Samadhi) is a psychedelic phenethylamine presumably first synthesized in 1986 by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen; it has structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drugs Mescaline, MDMA, and 2C-B. In Shulgins book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved), the dosage... 2C-T-21 is a psychedelic entheogen first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... Amphetamine, also known as speed, is a synthetic drug originally studied (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... DOM (STP) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen . ... DOB (or Bromo-DMA) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... DOI or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... Bromo-DragonFLY is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... Phenethylamine is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... Does a form of synaesthesia exist in everyone? It appears that people may not attach sounds to shapes arbitrarily. ... 2C-B is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974, sometimes used as an entheogen. ...


Empathogens and/or Entactogens (serotonin releasers)

The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter synthesised in serotonergic neurons in the central nervous system and enterochromaffin cells in the gastrointestinal tract. ... Amphetamine, also known as speed, is a synthetic drug originally studied (and still used) as an appetite suppressant. ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ... 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, or MDA, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... An uncommon hallucinogenic phenethylamine, closely related to MDMA. It was first synthesized by David Nichols. ... MDEA stands for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine. ...

Dissociatives

Commentary: These three groups of dissociatives have slightly different effects but also share similarities separating them from other classes of hallucinogens. They are markedly different from psychedelics such as LSD, where alert and fully conscious users experience cognitive distortion while simultaneously interacting with the "real world". Hallucinations from these dissociatives are generally only experienced in dark rooms or with eyes closed, unless at very high doses above what is normally consumed recreationally. Nitrous oxide has very different effects however, and even at low doses includes auditory distortions. Unlike with many other psychedelic chemicals, salvia users are generally not ambulatory and the experience is frequently dissociative. Often a very brief trance is entered, where the user experiences an intense and very realistic dream state. On the other hand, the effect of salvia on emotion has been reported to be less marked than that of true psychedelics. Dissociative drugs are a class of psychedelic drugs characterized by intense feelings of depersonalization, derealization, and analgesia. ... NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid) is an amino acid derivative acting as specific agonist at the NMDA receptor, and therefore mimics the action of the neurotransmitter glutamate on that receptor. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Ketamine is a general dissociative anesthetic for human and veterinary use. ... Phencyclidine (also called PCP or Angel dust) is a dissociative/anaesthetic drug that was commercially developed in the 1950s by the Parke-Davis pharmaceutical company. ... Opioid receptors are a group of G-protein coupled receptors with opioids as ligands. ... Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum (diviners sage, Mexican mint). ... Binomial name Salvia divinorum Salvia divinorum (also known as diviners sage or simply salvia) is a psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and the Lamiaceae (mint) family. ... Binomial name Salvia divinorum Salvia divinorum (also known as diviners sage or simply salvia) is a psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and the Lamiaceae (mint) family. ... Nitrous oxide, also known as dinitrogen oxide or dinitrogen monoxide, is a chemical compound with chemical formula N2O. Under room conditions it is a colourless non-flammable gas, with a pleasant slightly sweet odor. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... Dissociative drugs are a class of psychedelic drugs characterized by intense feelings of depersonalization, derealization, and analgesia. ... For the 1991 hit single from Mariah Carey, see Emotions (Mariah Carey song). ...


Deliriants (anticholinergics)

Commentary: Anticholinergics are sometimes called "true hallucinogens". These substances are the most likely to produce what is traditionally thought of as a hallucination, namely seeing and hearing fully realistic objects, persons, and sounds that are not truly there, as opposed to color changes or other distortions in vision. However, they have a great number of strong, unpleasant and possibly life-threatening physiological effects as well, and thus are used very rarely for their hallucinogenic properties. Deliriants are a class of hallucinogens, used entheogenically throughout the world. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Background: Alkaloids are plant metabolites that have a nitrogen-containing chemical ring structure, alkali-like chemical reactivity, and pharmacologic activity. ... Atropine is an alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is an alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the Solanaceae family (Nightshade), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura stramonium). ...


Antihistaminics

Dimenhydrinate, also known by the trade names Dramamine and Gravol, is a close chemical cousin to diphenhydramine HCl. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl®, or Dimedrol outside the US) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine and sedative. ...

Cannabinoids (CB-1 cannabinoid receptor agonists)

Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabis is a plant also known as Cannabis sativa, hemp, or marijuana. ...

Other

Commentary: Although muscimol does not usually cause normal hallucinations, it has a tendency to put the user to sleep, during which the user is able to have very vivid dreams with good dream recall. Categories: Stub ... Categories: Stub | Amino acids ... Binomial name Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. ...


Other (hallucinogenic activity questioned)

Myristicin is a chemical present in nutmeg. ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... FAMILY : Lythraceae (Loosestrife) GENUS : Heimia SPECIES : salicifolia, myrtifolia COMMON NAMES : Sun Opener, Sinicuichi, Shrubby Yellowcrest IDENTIFICATION : Heimia salicifolia grows to 10 feet while Heimia myrtifolia grows about 3 feet. ...

Hallucinogenic plants, fungi, and animals

Among the most well-known hallucinogenic plants and fungi are:


Plants

Psychedelics

The widely used Quechuan name Ayahuasca has two highly interrelated yet distinct meanings and referents: 1) an Amazonian giant vine native to the rainforest, generally Banisteriopsis caapi, and, by extension, 2) pharmacologically complex infusions prepared from it for shamanic, folk-medicinal, and neoreligious purposes. ... DMT is a TLA which may stand for Desoxymethyltestosterone Digital Monetary Trust Dimethyltryptamine Discrete multitone modulation Discrete monitor timing (a VESA standard for computer displays) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs prescribed for the treatment of depression. ... Binomial name Banisteriopsis caapi Banisteriopsis caapi, also known as Ayahuasca, Caapi or Yage, is a South American jungle vine of the family Malpighiaceae. ... Binomial name Psychotria viridis Psychotria viridis is a shrub from the coffee family, Rubiaceae. ... Species many species, including: Virola calophylla Virola colophylloidea Virola theiodora Virola, also known as Epená, is a genus of medium-sized tree native to the South American rainforest and closely related to other Myristicaceae, such as nutmeg. ... 5_MeO_DMT is one of the most potent psychedelic entheogens known to man. ... DMT is a TLA which may stand for Desoxymethyltestosterone Digital Monetary Trust Dimethyltryptamine Discrete multitone modulation Discrete monitor timing (a VESA standard for computer displays) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Binomial name Argyreia nervosa (Burm. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Alkaloids | Amines | Aromatic compounds | Hallucinogens | Heterocyclic bases ... Binomial name Rivea corymbosa (L.)Hallier f. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Alkaloids | Amines | Aromatic compounds | Hallucinogens | Heterocyclic bases ... Binomial nomenclature Ipomoea violacea L. Ipomoea violacea is a species of morning glory that occurs throughout the tropics. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Alkaloids | Amines | Aromatic compounds | Hallucinogens | Heterocyclic bases ...

Cacti psychedelics

Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine family. ... Binomial name Lophophora williamsii Peyote (Lophophora williamsii) is a small spineless cactus whose native region extends from the southwestern United States (including the states of Texas and New Mexico) through central Mexico. ... Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine family. ... Binomial name Trichocereus pachanoi San Pedro cactus (Trichocereus pachanoi) is a fast-growing cactus native to the Andes of Peru, Ecuador and Bolivia. ... Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine family. ...

Deliriants

  • Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) (contains tropane alkaloids)
  • Floripondio (Brugmansia sp.) (contains tropane alkaloids)
  • Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) (contains tropane alkaloids)
  • Mandrake (Mandragora sp.) (contains tropane alkaloids)
  • Thorn Apple/Jimson Weed (Datura sp.) (contains tropane alkaloids)

For information on the erotic actress Belladonna see: Belladonna. ... Binomial name Brugmansia candida Brugmansia is a genus of one of two related plants known as Angels trumpets, the other genus being Datura. ... Binomial name Hyoscyamos niger Henbane (Hyoscyamos niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... Species Mandragora autumnalis Mandragora officinarum Mandragora turcomanica Mandragora caulescens Mandrake is the common name for members of the plant genus Mandragora belonging to the nightshades family (Solanaceae). ... Binomial name Datura stramonium Datura stramonium is the name of a poisonous weed, sometimes used as a hallucinogen. ...

Misc.

Binomial name Tabernanthe iboga Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga) is the species of plant from which ibogaine is derived. ... Ibogaine is a psychoactive indole alkaloid derived from the rootbark of an African plant, Tabernanthe iboga. ... Binomial name Cannabis sativa Linnaeus see text Cannabis, also known as hemp, is a genus of hardy, dioecious, annual herb. ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Binomial name Salvia divinorum Salvia divinorum (also known as diviners sage or simply salvia) is a psychoactive plant, a member of the sage genus and the Lamiaceae (mint) family. ... Salvinorin A is the main active psychotropic constituent of the plant Salvia divinorum (diviners sage, Mexican mint). ... FAMILY : Lythraceae (Loosestrife) GENUS : Heimia SPECIES : salicifolia, myrtifolia COMMON NAMES : Sun Opener, Sinicuichi, Shrubby Yellowcrest IDENTIFICATION : Heimia salicifolia grows to 10 feet while Heimia myrtifolia grows about 3 feet. ... Species About 100 species, including: Myristica argentea Myristica fragrans Myristica malabarica The nutmegs Myristica are a genus of evergreen trees indigenous to tropical southeast Asia and Australasia. ...

Fungi

Psychedelics

Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ... Psilocin is a mushroom alkaloid and derivative of the psychedelic hallucinogenic drug psilocybin. ... An ergot kernel occurs when a normal grain kernel is replaced by a sclerotium, or fungal body, as a result of infection by the Claviceps purpurea fungus. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ...

Misc.

Binomial name Amanita muscaria Amanita muscaria is a basidiomycete mushroom of the genus Amanita. ... Categories: Stub ...

Animal psychedelics

Psychoactive toads is a name used for toads from which psychoactive substances can be derived. ... 5_MeO_DMT is one of the most potent psychedelic entheogens known to man. ... Bufotenin, also spelled bufotenine, is also known under the names 5_hydroxy_DMT (5-OH-DMT) or dimethyl-serotonin and is a tryptamine related to the neurotransmitter serotonin. ...

See also

The term empathogen was coined in 1983 by Ralph Metzner to denote chemical agents inducing feelings of empathy. ... Entactogen is a descriptive name applied to psychoactive drugs with effects similar to those of MDMA. The term was coined by David E. Nichols as an alternative to empathogen, owing to the potential for improper association of the latter with negative concepts related to the Greek root pathos (suffering). ... This entry covers entheogens in the strict sense of the word (i. ... Magic mushrooms are also known as sacred mushrooms, psychedelic mushrooms, and, more generally, hallucinogenic mushrooms. ... This entry pertains to the word psychedelic, its origin and uses. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... A psychoactive drug or psychotropic substance is a chemical that alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness, or behaviour. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon (φάρμακον) is drug, and logos (λόγος) is science) is the study of how chemical substances interact with living systems. ... Psychedelic psychotherapy refers to psychotherapeutic practices involving the use of psychedelic drugs. ... This article covers research chemicals in the sense of legal or quasi-legal psychoactive drugs. ... Set and setting is a term coined by Timothy Leary to describe an important aspect of psychedelic or hallucinogenic experiences. ...

External links

  • Erowid (http://www.erowid.org/)
  • How hallucinogens affect you (http://www.nevdgp.org.au/geninf/adf/hdayha.htm)
  • DXM Harm Reduction Project (http://www.dextromethorphan.ws/), exclusively about DXM.
  • Coricidin (Dextromethorphan + Chlorpheniramine Maleate) Harm Reduction (http://www.coricidin.org/), devoted exclusively to risks of Coricidin abuse.
  • Richard Evans Schultes and Albert Hofmann, Plants of the Gods
  • Psychedelic Drugs in the Twentieth Century (Grinspoon) (http://www.psychedelic-library.org/grinspoo.htm)
  • PsychedelicJones (http://www.psychedelicjones.com/) One man's experiences exploring psychedelic consiousness with magic mushrooms, salvia divinorum and other substances.
  • Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics (http://www.cognitiveliberty.org)
  • Spirit Plants (http://www.spiritplants.com/)
  • Growing Entheogenic Plants (Plot55.com) (http://www.plot55.com/growing/)

Richard Evans Schultes (January 12, 1915–April 10, 2001) was a Harvard ethnobotanist, famed for his work in entheogenic and hallucinogenic drugs. ... Dr. Albert Hofmann Dr. Albert Hofmann (born 11 January 1906) is a prominent Swiss scientist and best known as the father of LSD. He was born in Baden, Switzerland, and studied chemistry at the University of Zurich. ...

Research


Hallucinogens edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Hallucinogens&action=edit)
Hallucinogenic tryptamines edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Hallucinogenic_tryptamines&action=edit)

5-MeO-AMT 5-MeO-DIPT 5-MeO-DMT AMT Bufotenin DET DIPT DMT DPT Ethocin Iprocin Psilocin Psilocybin Tryptamine (3-(2-aminoethyl)indole) is a monoamine compound that is widespread in nature. ... 5-MeO-AMT is an entheogenic drug soluble in alcohol. ... 5_MeO_DiPT is a tryptamine also known as Foxy Methoxy due to its supposed aphrodisiac-like effects, although it is primarily used recreationally as a psychedelic. ... 5_MeO_DMT is one of the most potent psychedelic entheogens known to man. ... α-methyl-tryptamine, also known as AMT or IT-290, is a synthetic drug of the tryptamine family. ... Bufotenin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... DET or diethyl-tryptamine is an orally active hallucinogenic drug and psychedelic compound of moderate duration. ... DIPT or diisopropyltryptamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the tryptamine family that has a unique effect. ... Dimethyltryptamine, also known as DMT or N,N-dimethyltryptamine, is an indole, similar in structure to the neurotransmitter serotonin, created during normal metabolism in low amounts by the human body (secreted by the pineal gland). ... Dipropyltryptamine (DPT) is a psychedelic and entheogenic hallucinogenic drug belonging to the tryptamine family. ... 4-HO-DET, also known as 4-hydroxy-diethyl-tryptamine, CZ-74, or ethocin, is an hallucinogenic drug and psychedelic compound of moderate duration. ... External links 4-Hydroxy-DIPT information at Erowid Categories: Stub | Tryptamines ... Psilocin is a mushroom alkaloid and derivative of the psychedelic hallucinogenic drug psilocybin. ... Psilocybin (4-phosphoryloxy-N, N-dimethyltryptamine) is a psychedelic alkaloid of the tryptamine family. ...

Hallucinogenic phenethylamines edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Hallucinogenic_phenethylamines&action=edit)

{2C-B} {2C-C} {2C-D} {2C-E} {2C-I} {2C-N} {2C-P} {2C-T-2} {2C-T-21} {2C-T-4} {2C-T-7} {2C-T-8} {3C-E} {Br-DFLY} {DOB} {DOI} {DOM} {Escaline} {MDA} {MDBD} {MDEA} {Mescaline} {TMA} Phenethylamine is an alkaloid and monoamine. ... 2C-B is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in 1974, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-C is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-D is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... 2C-I is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogenic phenethylamine that was developed and popularized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-N is a psychedelic entheogen first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-P is an entheogenic phenethylamine first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-T-2, also known as Rosy, is a psychedelic entheogen presumably first synthesized in 1981 by Alexander Shulgin, and has structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drugs Mescaline, MDMA, and 2C-B. In Shulgins book PIHKAL (Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved), the dosage range is listed... 2C-T-21 is a psychedelic entheogen first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 2C-T-4 or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-(i)-propylthiophenethylamine is a psychedelic entheogen presumably first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin that has some structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drug MDMA, and even more similarities with the drugs mescaline, 2C-B, and 2C-T-7. ... 2C-T-7 (Sulfurous Samadhi) is a psychedelic phenethylamine presumably first synthesized in 1986 by Alexander Shulgin, sometimes used as an entheogen; it has structural and pharmacodynamic properties similar to the drugs Mescaline, MDMA, and 2C-B. In Shulgins book PiHKAL (Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved), the dosage... 2C-T-8 is a psychedelic entheogen first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin. ... 3C-E is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine class of compounds. ... Bromo-DragonFLY is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... DOB (or Bromo-DMA) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen. ... DOI or 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine family. ... DOM (STP) is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug of the phenethylamine class of compounds, sometimes used as an entheogen . ... Escaline is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine class of compounds. ... 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, or MDA, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... An uncommon hallucinogenic phenethylamine, closely related to MDMA. It was first synthesized by David Nichols. ... MDEA stands for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine. ... Mescaline or 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entheogen of the phenethylamine family. ... TMAs, also known as trimethoxyamphetamines, are a family of isomeric psychedelic hallucinogenic drugs. ...

Hallucinogenic lysergamides edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Hallucinogenic_lysergamides&action=edit)

{LSD} {Ergine} {Ergoline} {Ergonovine} Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... LSD blotter paper D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, commonly called acid, LSD, or LSD-25, is a powerful semisynthetic hallucinogen and psychedelic entheogen. ... Categories: Chemistry stubs | Alkaloids | Amines | Aromatic compounds | Hallucinogens | Heterocyclic bases ... Chemical structure of ergoline Ergoline is a chemical compound whose structure serves as the skeleton for a diverse range of alkaloids and synthetic drugs. ... Ergonovine is an ergot derivative, and a member of the Ergoline family. ...


Empathogen/Entactogens edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Entactogens&action=edit)

{AET} {MBDB} {MDEA} {MDA} {MDMA} The terms empathogen and entactogen are different terms used to describe one class of hallucinogens that function as serotonin releasers; most of these are phenethylamines. ... Alpha-ethyltryptamine - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... An uncommon hallucinogenic phenethylamine, closely related to MDMA. It was first synthesized by David Nichols. ... MDEA stands for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine. ... 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, or MDA, is a psychedelic hallucinogenic drug and entactogen of the phenethylamine family. ... MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine), most commonly known today by the street name ecstasy, is a synthetic entactogen of the phenethylamine family whose primary effect is to stimulate the brain to rapidly secrete large amounts of serotonin, causing a general sense of openness, empathy, energy, euphoria, and well-being. ...


Deliriants (anticholinergic hallucinogens) edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Deliriants&action=edit)

{Atropine} {Dimenhydrinate} {Diphenhydramine} {Scopolamine} Deliriants are a class of hallucinogens, used entheogenically throughout the world. ... An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. ... Atropine is an alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... Dimenhydrinate, also known by the trade names Dramamine and Gravol, is a close chemical cousin to diphenhydramine HCl. ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl®, or Dimedrol outside the US) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine and sedative. ... Scopolamine, also known as hyoscine, is an alkaloid drug obtained from plants of the Solanaceae family (Nightshade), such as henbane or jimson weed (Datura stramonium). ...


Cannabinoids edit (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Template:Cannabinoids&action=edit)

{Anandamide} {CBD} {CBDV} {CBN} {CBV} {CP 55,940} {THC} {THCV} Cannabinoids are a group of chemicals which activate the bodys cannabinoid receptors. ... Anandamide, also known as arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA, is a naturally occurring endogenous cannabinoid neurotransmitter found in the brain of animals, as well as other organs. ... Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabidivarine, also known as cannabidivarol or CBDV, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabinol, also known as CBN, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Cannabivarin, also known as cannabivarol or CBV, is a non_psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Created by Pfizer in 1974, CP-55940 is a cannabinoid which mimics the effects of naturally occurring THC (The psychoactive compound found in marijuana). ... Tetrahydrocannabinol, also known as THC, Δ9-THC, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol), Δ1-tetrahydrocannabinol (using an older numbering scheme), or dronabinol, is the main psychoactive substance found in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ... Tetrahydrocannabivarin, also known as tetrahydrocannabivarol, THCV, or THV, is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in minor amounts in the hemp plant Cannabis sativa. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Shroomery - How Hallucinogenic Drugs Work (3399 words)
Although hallucinogenic drugs are grouped together by their tendency to elicit common psychic, somatic, and sensory-perceptual effects and by their display of cross-tolerance, they differ in molecular structure.
In his neurochemical studies he reported that the administration of hallucinogenic drugs to animals increased the level of brain serotonin and decreased the level of serotonin's metabolic by-products (11).
The indole nucleus structure of the serotonin molecule is similar to that of the hallucinogenic drugs LSD, psilocin, and DMT shown in Figure 2.
The Effects of Hallucinogenic Drugs on The Brain (1061 words)
Early on in the reasearch on hallucinogens, it was determined that hallucinogenic drugs structurally resemble serotonin (5-HT) Serotonin is found in specific neurons in the brain that mediate chemical neurotransmission in the brain.
Hallucinogenic drugs cause an increase in the level of brain serotonin, but they inhibit the rapid firing of neurons containing serotonin.
Hallucinogenic drugs directly affect the serotonin receptors(specifically the serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT2), which is what eventually results in a complex pattern of action potentials and activity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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