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Encyclopedia > Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture was the predominant Central European culture during the local Bronze Age, and introduced the Iron Age. It is named for its type site, Hallstatt, a lakeside village in the Austrian Salzkammergut southeast of Salzburg. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (630 × 801 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) De: Zeichnung eines Hallstätter Gräberfeldes von Johann Georg Ramsauer (1795-1874) PD due to age. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (630 × 801 pixel, file size: 66 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) De: Zeichnung eines Hallstätter Gräberfeldes von Johann Georg Ramsauer (1795-1874) PD due to age. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... In archaeology a type site (also known as a type-site or typesite) is a site that is considered the model of a particular archaeological culture. ... Hallstatt (), Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. ... The Salzkammergut is a resort area east of Salzburg, Austria, spanning the federal states of Upper Austria, Salzburg, and Styria. ... This page is for the city of Salzburg. ...


Hallstatt site

In 1846, Johann Georg Ramsauer discovered a large prehistoric cemetery near Halstatt, which he excavated during the second half of the nineteenth century. Eventually the excavation would yield 1,045 burials. 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Prehistoric man. ... Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ...


The community at Hallstatt exploited the salt mines in the area, which had been worked from time to time since the Neolithic, from the eighth century to fifth century BCE. The style and decoration of the grave goods found in the cemetery are very distinctive, and artifacts made in this style are widespread in Europe. A salt mine is an operation involved in the extraction of salt. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Hallstatt culture

The Hallstatt culture, extending from about 1200 BCE until around 500 BCE, is divided by archaeologists into four phases: Hallstatt A and B correspond to the late Bronze Age (c.1200–800 BCE), while Hallstatt C refers to the very early Iron Age (c.800–600 BCE) and is characterized by the first appearance of iron swords mixed amongst the bronze ones. For the final phase, Hallstatt D, only daggers are found in graves ranging from c.600–500 BCE. There are also differences in pottery and the brooches. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Aquamarine, platinum and diamond brooch/pendant worn by Mrs. ...


An eastern Hallstatt cultural zone including Croatia, Slovenia, western Hungary, Austria, Moravia region of the Czech Republic, and Slovakia had a settlement at the Burgstallkogel in the Sulm valley (southern Styria, west of Leibnitz, Austria) as a major center during the Hallstatt C period. Parts of the huge necropolis (which originally consisted of more than 1,100 grave hills) surrounding this settlement can be seen today near Gleinstätten. From this eastern zone a western Hallstatt zone can be distinguished which includes northern Italy, Switzerland, eastern France, southern Germany, and the Bohemia region of the Czech Republic. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Styria (Steiermark in German, Štajerska in Slovenian) can refer to: Styria - a federal state of Austria Styria - an informal province in Slovenia Styria - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria-Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Leibnitz is a town in the Austrian province of Styria and has about 6,892 inhabitants (census of population 2001). ... For the record label, see Necropolis Records. ... Gleinstätten is a market community in southern Austria (province Styria, district Leibnitz) which had 1,526 inhabitants according to the most recent census in 2001. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ...


Trade and population movements (very probably both) spread the Hallstatt cultural complex into the western half of the Iberian peninsula, Great Britain, and Ireland. It is probable that some if not all of this diffusion took place in a Celtic-speaking context[citation needed]. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ...


Trade with Greece is attested by finds of Attic black-figure pottery in the élite graves of the late Hallstatt period. It was probably imported via Massilia (Marseille). Other imported luxuries include amber, ivory (Gräfenbühl) and probably wine. Recent analyses have shown that the reputed silk in the barrow at Hohmichele was misidentified. Red dye (cochineal) was imported from the south as well (Hochdorf burial). Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... The black-figure pottery technique is a style of ancient Greek pottery painting in which the decoration appears as black silhouettes on a red background. ... http://www. ... Amber pendants. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A glass of red wine This article is about the alcoholic beverage. ... Silk dresses Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Binomial name Dactylopius coccus Costa, 1835 Synonyms Coccus cacti Linnaeus, 1758 Pseudococcus cacti Burmeister, 1839 Cochineal is the name of both crimson or carmine dye and the cochineal insect (Dactylopius coccus), a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the dye is derived. ...


In the central Hallstatt regions toward the end of the period, very rich graves of high-status individuals under large tumuli are found near the remains of fortified hilltop settlements. They often contain chariots and horse bits or yokes. Well known chariot burials include Býčí Skála, Vix and Hochdorf. A model of a chariot made from lead has been found in Frögg, Carinthia. A tumulus (plural tumuli or tumuluses, from the Latin word for mound or small hill) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... The entrance of the cave Location of the cave in the Czech Republic Býčí skála Cave (in Czech Býčí skála, in English The Bull Rock Cave) is part of the second longest cave system in the Czech Republic. ... VIX Index from inception to Jan. ... Hochdorf is a district in the Canton of Lucerne in Switzerland (Amt Hochdorf); a part of the town of Eberdingen (Baden-Württemberg/Germany) with a Celtic princely grave barrow; a part of the town of Plochingen (Baden-Württemberg/Germany). ... Carinthia (German: Kärnten, Italian: Carinzia, Slovenian: KoroÅ¡ka) is an Austrian state or Land, located in the south of Austria. ...


The defended sites frequently include the workshops of bronze-, silver-, and goldsmiths. Typical sites are the Heuneburg on the upper Danube surrounded by nine very large grave tumuli, Mont Lassois in eastern France near Châtillon-sur-Seine with, at its foot, the very rich grave at Vix, and the hill fort at Molpir in the Slovakia. The Heuneburg is the site of a large early Iron Age (Hallstatt culture) hill fort near Riedlingen, Württemberg, in Germany. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Châtillon-sur-Seine is a commune of the Côte-dOr département, Bourgogne région, France. ... VIX Index from inception to Jan. ...


Artwork includes elaborate jewellery made of bronze and gold, and stone stelae, like the famous warrior of Hirschlanden. The Warrior of Hirschlanden is a statue of a nude ithyphallic warrior made of sandstone, the first known iron age life-size anthropomorphic statue north of the alps. ...


The succeeding culture in much of Central Europe is the La Tène culture. The La Tène culture was an Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchatel in Switzerland, where a rich trove of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857. ...


Bibliography

  • Barth, F.E., J. Biel, et al. Vierrädrige Wagen der Hallstattzeit ("The Hallstatt four-wheeled wagons" at Mainz). Mainz: Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum; 1987. ISBN 3-88467-016-6
  • Bichler, P. (ed.) "Hallstatt textiles: technical analysis, scientific investigation and experiment on Iron Age textiles." Oxford: Archaeopress; 2005. ISBN 1-84171-697-9
  • Eibner, A. "Music during the Hallstatt period. Observations on Mousike as depicted on Iron Age circumalpine vessels." Paris: Maison des sciences de l'homme; 1996. ISBN 2-7351-0577-6
  • Potrebica, H. "Some Remarks on the Contacts Between the Greek and the Hallstatt Culture Considering the Area of the Northern Croatia in the Early Iron Age." Oxford: Archaeopress; 1998. ISBN 0-86054-894-5
  • Pydyn, A. "Exchange and cultural interactions : a study of long-distance trade and cross-cultural contacts in the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age in Central and Eastern Europe." Oxford: Archaeopress; 1999. ISBN 1-84171-026-1
  • Rom, W. "AMS 14C Dating of Equipment from the Iceman and of Spruce Logs from the Prehistoric Salt Mines of Hallstatt." from Radiocarbon 41, #2; 1999: 183 (16 pp.) ISSN 0033-8222
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Hallstatt culture

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Hallstatt Culture - Search Results - MSN Encarta (112 words)
Hallstatt Culture, an early Iron Age culture in central and western Europe and the Balkans.
The people who developed Villanovan culture, which is similar to the Hallstatt culture of Austria, are believed to have come from central Europe.
The Hallstatt Culture is characterized not only by long iron swords and horse trappings but also by rich chieftain burials under large barrows.
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