FACTOID # 18: Alaska spends more money per capita on elementary and secondary education than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Halloween" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Halloween
Halloween
Hallowe'en

A jack-o'-lantern
Also called All Hallows Eve
All Saints' Eve
Samhain
Hallowed End
Observed by United Kingdom, United States, Ireland, Canada, sometimes Australia and New Zealand and many Latin American countries where it is known as Noche de las Brujas (Night of the Witches)[1]
Type Religious, Cultural (celebrated mostly irrespective of religion)
Significance There are many sources of Halloween's significance
Date October 31
Celebrations Trick-or-treating, ghost tours, bobbing for apples, costume parties, carving jack-o'-lanterns, bonfires, and fireworks (in Ireland)
Look up Halloween in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Halloween, or Hallowe'en, is a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31.[1] Halloween activities include trick-or-treating, ghost tours, bonfires, costume parties, visiting "haunted houses" and carving jack-o-lanterns. Irish immigrants carried versions of the tradition to North America in the nineteenth century. Other western countries embraced the holiday in the late twentieth century. Halloween is celebrated in several countries of the Western world, most commonly in Ireland, the United States, Canada, Puerto Rico, the United Kingdom, and occasionally in parts of Australia and New Zealand. Halloween is a tradition celebrated on the night of October 31, also known as Halloween, All-hallow-even, All Hallows Eve, Hallow Eve, and All Saints Eve. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1042x1024, 148 KB) A Jack o Lantern made for the Holywell Manor Halloween celebrations in 2003. ... Jack-o-lanterns may be carved with a friendly face, above, a menacing sawtooth scowl, or any look in between. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... This article is part of the Witchcraft series. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trick or treat redirects here. ... Haunted locations or haunted places are sites of reported ghost activity. ... Bobbing for apples is a game customarily played on Halloween. ... Halloween costumes A costume party (chiefly in the U.S. and Canada) or a fancy dress party (chiefly in Britain and Australia), mainly in contemporary Western culture, is a type of party where guests dress up in a costume. ... Jack-o-lanterns may be carved with a friendly face, above, a menacing sawtooth scowl, or any look in between. ... For the AC/DC box set, see Bonfire (album). ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Vacation redirects here. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trick or treat redirects here. ... Haunted locations or haunted places are sites of reported ghost activity. ... For the AC/DC box set, see Bonfire (album). ... Halloween costumes A costume party (chiefly in the U.S. and Canada) or a fancy dress party (chiefly in Britain and Australia), mainly in contemporary Western culture, is a type of party where guests dress up in a costume. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jack-o-lanterns may be carved with a friendly face, above, a menacing sawtooth scowl, or any look in between. ... Occident redirects here. ...

Contents

History

The modern holiday of Halloween has its origins in the ancient Celtic festival known as Samhain (Irish pronunciation: [ˈsˠaunʲ]; from the Old Irish samain).[2] The festival of Samhain is a celebration of the end of the harvest season in Gaelic culture, and is sometimes erroneously[3] regarded as the "Celtic New Year".[4] Traditionally, the festival was a time used by the ancient pagans to take stock of supplies and slaughter livestock for winter stores. The ancient Gaels believed that on October 31, the boundary between the alive and the deceased dissolved, and the dead become dangerous for the living by causing problems such as sickness or damaged crops. The festivals would frequently involve bonfires, where the bones of slaughtered livestock were thrown. Costumes and masks were also worn at the festivals in an attempt to mimic the evil spirits or placate them.[5][6] This article is about the European people. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... Look up Harvest in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Mask (disambiguation). ...


History of name

The term Halloween (and its alternative rendering Hallowe'en) is shortened from All-hallow-even, as it is the eve of "All Hallows' Day",[7] which is now also known as All Saints' Day. It was a day of religious festivities in various northern European Pagan traditions,[4] until Popes Gregory III and Gregory IV moved the old Christian feast of All Saints' Day from May 13 (which had itself been the date of a pagan holiday, the Feast of the Lemures) to November 1. In the ninth century, the Church measured the day as starting at sunset, in accordance with the Florentine calendar. Although All Saints' Day is now considered to occur one day after Halloween, the two holidays were, at that time, celebrated on the same day. Liturgically, the Church traditionally celebrated that day as the Vigil of All Saints, and, until 1970, a day of fasting as well. Like other vigils, it was celebrated on the previous day if it fell on a Sunday, although secular celebrations of the holiday remained on the 31st. The Vigil was suppressed in 1955, but was later restored in the post-Vatican II calendar. This article is about the Christian holiday. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Saint Gregory III, pope (731-741), a Syrian by birth, succeeded Gregory II in March 731. ... Gregory IV, pope (827-844), was chosen to succeed Valentinus in December 827, on which occasion he recognized the supremacy of the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious in the most unequivocal manner. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Roman religion, the Feast of the Lemures, called the Lemuralia or Lemuria, was a feast during which the ancient Romans performed rites to exorcise the malevolent and fearful ghosts of the dead from their homes. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Florentine calendar was used in Italy in the Middle Ages. ... Vigil, tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) This article is about the period of sleeplessness. ...


Symbols

A toy Jack-o'-lantern sits among an array of other Halloween items.

The carved pumpkin, lit by a candle inside, is one of Halloween's most prominent symbols. These lanterns are usually carved from a turnip or swede (or more uncommonly a mangelwurzel). The jack-o'-lantern can be traced back to the Irish legend of Stingy Jack,[8] a greedy, gambling, hard-drinking old farmer. He tricked the devil into climbing a tree and trapped him by carving a cross into the tree trunk. In revenge, the devil placed a curse on Jack, condemning him to forever wander the earth at night. This story has been passed down through generations of Irish families. The carving of pumpkins is associated with Halloween in North America,[9] where pumpkins were readily available and much larger, making them easier to carve than turnips. Many families that celebrate Halloween carve a pumpkin into a frightening or comical face and place it on their home's doorstep after dark. In America the tradition of carving pumpkins is known to have preceded the Great Famine period of Irish immigration. The tradition of carving vegetable lanterns may have been brought over by the Scottish or English--documentation is unavailable to establish when or by whom. The carved pumpkin was originally associated with harvest time in general in America and did not become specifically associated with Halloween until the mid-to-late 19th century. For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ... Trinomial name Brassica rapa rapa L. For similar vegetables also called turnip, see Turnip (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Beta vulgaris Mangelwurzel or mangold wurzel (Beta vulgaris), is a root vegetable of the family Chenopodiaceae, genus Beta (the beets). ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ...


The imagery surrounding Halloween is largely an amalgamation of the Halloween season itself, nearly a century of work from American filmmakers and graphic artists,[10] and a rather commercialized take on the dark and mysterious. Halloween imagery tends to involve death, magic, or mythical monsters. Traditional characters include ghosts, ghouls, witches, vampires, bats, owls, crows, vultures, pumpkinmen, black cats, spiders, goblins, zombies, mummies, skeletons, and demons.[11] The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Graphic design is the applied art of arranging image and text to communicate a message. ... This article is about the legendary creature. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... A ghoul is a monster from ancient Arabian folklore that dwells in burial grounds and other uninhabited places. ... Witch redirects here. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Crow (disambiguation). ... Orders Falconiformes (Fam. ... For other uses, see Black cat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spider (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Goblin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the living dead. ... Animated skeletons in a woodcut from La Danse Macabre by Hans Holbein the Younger (1538). ... “Fiend” redirects here. ...


Particularly in America, symbolism is inspired by classic horror films, which contain fictional figures like Dracula, Frankenstein's monster, and The Mummy. Elements of the autumn season, such as pumpkins and scarecrows, are also prevalent. Homes are often decorated with these types of symbols around Halloween. “Horror Movie” redirects here. ... This article is about the novel. ... Frankensteins monster (or Frankenstein or Frankensteins creature) is a fictional character that first appeared in Mary Shelleys novel, Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Boris Karloff as Ardath Bey AKA Prince Imhotep in The Mummy. ... Scarecrows in a rice paddy in Japan For other uses, see Scarecrow (disambiguation). ...


Black and orange are the traditional colours of Halloween.[12] The orange, the fruit from which the modern name of the orange colour comes. ...

Color associations
Color Symbolism
Black death, night, witches, black cats, bats, vampires, fear, ghostliness, silence
Orange pumpkins, Jack O' lanterns, Autumn, the turning leaves, fire, sunset

Trick-or-treating and guising

Main article: Trick-or-treating

Trick or treat redirects here. ...

United States and Canada

Typical Halloween scene in Dublin, Ireland.

The main event for children of modern Halloween in the United States and Canada is trick-or-treating, in which children disguise themselves in costumes and go door-to-door in their neighborhoods, ringing each doorbell and yelling "trick or treat!" to solicit a gift of candy or similar items.[13] Although the practice resembles the older tradition of "souling" in Ireland and Scotland, ritual begging on Halloween does not appear in English-speaking North America until the 20th century, and may have developed independently. Upon receiving trick-or-treaters, the house occupants (who might also be in costume) often hand out small candies, miniature chocolate bars, nuts, loose change, soda pop, stickers, or even crayons and pencils. Some homes will use sound effects and fog machines to help establish an eerie atmosphere. Other less scary house decoration themes might be used to entertain younger visitors. Children can often accumulate many treats on Halloween night, filling up entire pillow cases, pumpkin-shaped buckets, shopping bags, or large plastic containers. Some teenagers in Canada and the States occasionally play pranks on unsuspecting victims like throwing toilet paper over someone's house and yard, ding-dong-ditch (A game where the prankster knocks on a door and runs away before someone answers the door), and stealing young trick-or-treaters' candy.[citation needed] Also, they may "egg" peoples houses, which usually is throwing eggs, but some people use apples, potatoes, and other fruits and vegetables on the roof of someone's house.[citation needed] Another way some teens may amuse themselves is by finding a house with candy they like and going back to it over and over with different masks on. Large parties are commonly held on Halloween in which games like bobbing for apples and spooky story telling are common. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 398 KB) Summary Halloween in Dublin Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 398 KB) Summary Halloween in Dublin Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Trick or treat redirects here. ... College students dressed up for Halloween. ... This article is about the country. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... Candy bar redirects here. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... Sticker has the following meanings: sticker (paper) - a piece of paper that contains a side that is sticky. ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... A heavy duty smoke machine feeding smoke into a blower to generate fog effects for open air location filming. ...


Ireland

All over Ireland, huge bonfires are lit. Young children in disguise are warmly received by their neighbors with gifts of "fruit, miniature chocolate bars, loose change, peanuts and of course sweets" for the "Halloween Party", whilst their older male siblings play innocent pranks on bewildered victims. Some homes will put up decorations including Halloween lights. Children have the week off from school for Halloween, and it is common for teenagers and for college students to spend weeknights out and about with friends, pranking and causing mischief, if not trick-or-treating themselves, and perhaps even "egging" [throwing eggs at] houses, drinking alcohol, throwing bangers and setting off fireworks. This article is about the legume. ... EGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGSEGGS This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... See Firecracker (album) for information on the Lisa Loeb album. ... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ...


Lebanon

In Lebanon a similar holiday is celebrated on the eve of Saint Barbara's Day (December 4). Children disguised in costumes also go trick-or-treating to invoke the saint's wandering in the mountains. Trick or treat redirects here. ...


Scotland

In Scotland, children are known as "guisers", though this term is now going into decline. In the past, the children going guising would dress in various (often home-made) costumes and disguises: hence (dis)'guisers'. The most popular costumes were skeletons, witches and various forms of scary fiends, complete with papier-mâché masks, though nurses' or cowboys' outfits were also given a rather incongruous outing. They would then form small bands of mixed-age children, the older ones trailing their younger siblings behind them, and venture out into the darkness each with their lantern. Until at least the 1970s the traditional Halloween light carried by Scottish children was not the now ubiquitous pumpkin but a 'tumshie lantern' made, as with a pumpkin, by hollowing out a very large swede/yellow turnip ("tumshie" in the West of Scotland dialect of Scots) and carving a scary face, through which shone the candle inside. Then, each carrying their tumshie lantern, they would knock on all the neighbours' doors where the eldest or boldest of the group would ask, "Are ye wantin' any guisers?". If the answer was yes, the children would be invited inside where the grown-ups would pretend to try to guess the identity of each guiser, who then had to impress the company with a song, poem, trick, joke or dance—known as their 'party piece'—in order to earn treats. Today, however, they simply say "trick or treat" in order to earn sweets. Traditionally, nuts, oranges, apples and dried fruit as well as "sweeties" were offered, though children might earn a small amount of cash, usually no more than 50p. In some houses the neighbours would have prepared a pail or basin filled with apples ready for the game of 'dookin' for apples'. The children had to 'dook' (Scots) their faces into the water with their hands behind their backs to try to pick up an apple by biting into it. This article is about the country. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... Dried fruit is fruit that has been dried, either naturally or through use of a machine, such as a dehydrator. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ...


England and Wales

In England and Wales, trick-or-treating does occur, although the practice is regarded by some as a nuisance or even a menacing form of begging.[14] In some areas, households have started to put decorations on the front door to indicate that trick-or-treaters are welcome, the idea being that trick-or-treaters will avoid a house not participating in the custom. Tricks currently play a less prominent role, though Halloween night is often marked by vandalism such as soaping windows, egging houses or stringing toilet paper through trees.[15] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... A carton of free-range chicken eggs Ostrich egg Bird eggs are a common food source. ...


In Welsh, Halloween is known as Nos Galan Gaeaf (the beginning of the new year). Spirits are said to walk around and a "white lady" ghost is sometimes said to appear. Bonfires are lit on hillsides to mark the night.


Costumes

Main article: Halloween costume

Halloween costumes are traditionally those of monsters such as vampires, ghosts, skeletons, witches, and devils. Costumes are also based on themes other than traditional horror, such as those of characters from television shows, movies and other pop culture icons. College students dressed up for Halloween. ... Philip Burne-Jones, The Vampire, 1897 Vampires are mythological or folkloric beings that subsist on human and/or animal lifeforce. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... Animated skeletons in a woodcut from La Danse Macabre by Hans Holbein the Younger (1538). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Witchcraft. ... This is an overview of the Devil. ...


Costume sales

BIGresearch conducted a survey for the National Retail Federation in the United States and found that 53.3% of consumers planned to buy a costume for Halloween 2005, spending $38.11 on average (up 10 dollars from the year before). They were also expected to spend $4.96 billion in 2006, up significantly from just $3.3 billion the previous year.[16] The National Retail Federation is the worlds largest retail trade association, with membership that comprises all retail formats and channels of distribution including department, specialty, discount, catalog, Internet, independent stores, chain restaurants and grocery stores as well as the industrys key trading partners of retail goods and services. ...


UNICEF

"'Trick-or-Treat for UNICEF" has become a common sight during Halloween in North America. Started as a local event in a Philadelphia suburb in 1950, and expanded nationally in 1952, the program involves the distribution of small boxes by schools (or in modern times, corporate sponsors like Hallmark at their licensed stores) to trick-or-treaters, in which they can solicit small change donations from the houses they visit. It is estimated that children have collected more than $119 million (US) for UNICEF since its inception. In 2006, UNICEF discontinued their Halloween collection boxes in parts of the world, citing safety and administrative concerns. [17] UNICEF Logo Org type: Fund Acronyms: UNICEF Head: Ann Veneman Status: Active Established: 1946 Website: http://www. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the Quaker City Motto: Philadelphia maneto (Let brotherly love continue) Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D) Area    - City 369. ... A hallmark is an official marking made by a trusted party, guardians of the craft or nowadays by an assay office, on items made of precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) that guarantees a certain purity of the metal. ... USD redirects here. ...


Games and other activities

In this Halloween greeting card from 1904, divination is depicted: the young woman looking into a mirror in a darkened room hopes to catch a glimpse of the face of her future husband.

There are several games traditionally associated with Halloween parties. The most common is dooking or bobbing for apples, in which apples float in a tub or a large basin of water; the participants must use their teeth to remove an apple from the basin. A variant of dooking involves kneeling on a chair, holding a fork between the teeth and trying to drop the fork into an apple. Another common game involves hanging up treacle or syrup-coated scones by strings; these must be eaten without using hands while they remain attached to the string, an activity which inevitably leads to a very sticky face. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Greeting cards on display at retail. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Bobbing for apples is a game customarily played on Halloween. ... Species Malus domestica Malus sieversii Apple is the fruit (pome) of the genus Malus belonging to the family Rosaceae, and is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Teeth redirects here. ... Treacle is an obsolete pharmaceutical term for a medicinal salve, usually given for snakebites, poisons, and various diseases. ... In cooking, a syrup (from Arabic شراب sharab, beverage, via Latin siropus) is a thick, viscous liquid, containing a large amount of dissolved sugars, but showing little tendency to deposit crystals. ... Scones with honey. ...


Some games traditionally played at Halloween are forms of divination. In Puicíní (pronounced "poocheeny"), a game played in Ireland, a blindfolded person is seated in front of a table on which several saucers are placed. The saucers are shuffled and the seated person then chooses one by touch. The contents of the saucer determine the person's life during the following year. A saucer containing earth means someone known to the player will die during the next year, a saucer containing water foretells emigration, a ring foretells marriage, a set of Rosary beads indicates that the person will take Holy Orders (becoming a nun or a priest). A coin means new wealth, a bean means poverty, and so on. In 19th century Ireland, young women placed slugs in saucers sprinkled with flour. A traditional Irish and Scottish form of divining one's future spouse is to carve an apple in one long strip, then toss the peel over one's shoulder. The peel is believed to land in the shape of the first letter of the future spouse's name. This custom has survived among Irish and Scottish immigrants in the rural United States. For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary Beads. ... Catholic deacon candidates prostrate before the altar of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles during a 2004 diaconate ordination liturgy In a general sense, the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... This article is about religious workers. ...


In North America, unmarried women were frequently told that if they sat in a darkened room and gazed into a mirror on Halloween night, the face of their future husband would appear in the mirror. However, if they were destined to die before marriage, a skull would appear. The custom was widespread enough to be commemorated on greeting cards from the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. North American redirects here. ... Symbols of death are the symbolic, often allegorical, portrayal of death in various cultures. ... Greeting cards on display at retail. ...


The telling of ghost stories and viewing of horror films are common fixtures of Halloween parties. Episodes of TV series and specials with Halloween themes (with the specials usually aimed at children) are commonly aired on or before the holiday while new horror films, like the popular Saw films, are often released theatrically before the holiday to take advantage of the atmosphere. Ghost Stories (Japanese: 学校の怪談, Gakkō no Kaidan, School Ghost Stories) is a twenty-one-episode anime series created in 2000 by animation studio Aniplex for Fuji Television, based on a manga series by Yosuke Takahashi. ... “Horror Movie” redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Saw film series is a horror/thriller film franchise created by James Wan and Leigh Whannell, beginning in 2004 and continuing to the present and into the future. ...


Visiting a haunted attraction like a haunted house or hayride (especially in the northeastern or midwest of the USA) are other Halloween practices. Notwithstanding the name, such events are not necessarily held in houses, nor are the edifices themselves necessarily regarded to have actual ghosts. A variant of the haunted house is the "haunted trail", where the public encounters supernatural-themed characters or presentations of scenes from horror films while following a trail through a field or forest. One of the largest Halloween attractions in the United States is Knott's Scary Farm in California, which features re-themed amusement park rides and a dozen different walk through mazes, plus hundreds of costumed roving performers. Among other theme parks, Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom stages a special separate admission event after regular park hours called Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party featuring a parade, stage show featuring Disney villains and a Happy HalloWishes fireworks show with a Halloween theme, while their sibling park in California, Disneyland Resort, holds Mickey's Halloween Treat at their California Adventure park. The Universal Studios theme parks in Hollywood and Orlando also feature annual Halloween events, dubbed Halloween Horror Nights. The Six Flags amusement parks also have Halloween events called Fright Fest in which visitors enjoy redecorated rides, costumed goals, special shows and more. Busch Gardens Howl-O-Scream Tampa Bay also hosts a few weeks of Halloween themed fun. There are many haunted houses each with a different theme, "scare zones" where costumed performers scare random passerby, live shows, special themed food and much more. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Hayride in Turner County, South Dakota A hayride is a pleasure ride in an open truck, wagon or sleigh which has been decorated with hay or straw and similar farmlife paraphernalia. ... Knotts Berry Farm is a brand name of two separate entities: a theme park in Buena Park, California, and a manufacturer of food specialty products (primarily jams and preserves) based in Placentia, California. ... Cinderella Castle, at the center of the Magic Kingdom, is Walt Disney World Resorts most recognizable icon Introduction Owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company, the Walt Disney World Resort in Florida, USA is home to four theme parks, two water parks, several resort hotels and golf courses... The Magic Kingdom is a theme park at the Walt Disney World Resort. ... Mickeys Not-So-Scary Halloween Party is a separate-admission (a/k/a hard-ticket) Halloween-themed event held annually during the months of September and October at the Magic Kingdom theme park of the Walt Disney World Resort in Lake Buena Vista, Florida, outside Orlando. ... HalloWishes (known by its full title of Happy HalloWishes: A Grim Grinning Ghosts Spooktacular in the Sky) is a fireworks show that takes place in lieu of Wishes at Mickeys Not-So-Scary Halloween Party, a separate-admission (hard ticket) event held in September and October at Walt Disney... For other uses, see Fireworks (disambiguation). ... The Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California is a major recreational resort (owned and operated by The Walt Disney Company), and is home to two theme parks, three hotels, and a shopping and entertainment area. ... Mickeys Halloween Treat is an annual Halloween-themed separate admission event (also called a hard ticket event) at Disneys California Adventure, part of the Disneyland Resort in Anaheim, California since 2005. ... Disneys California Adventure is a theme park in Anaheim, California, adjacent to Disneyland Park and part of the larger Disneyland Resort. ... The current official logo for Universal Studios Theme Parks Universal Studios, the film division of NBC Universal, operates a number of theme parks based around the movies it has produced. ... Halloween Horror Nights is one of the largest Halloween events in the U.S., presented annually at Universal Orlando Resort, and off-and-on at Universal Studios Hollywood. ... For the national flags of Texas, see Six flags over Texas. ... Fright Fest is an event that takes place at Six Flags parks during the Halloween season. ...


Foods

Because the holiday comes in the wake of the annual apple harvest, candy apples (also known as toffee, taffy or caramel apples) are a common Halloween treat made by rolling whole apples in a sticky sugar syrup, and sometimes rolling them in nuts. At one time, candy apples were commonly given to children, but the practice rapidly waned in the wake of widespread rumors that some individuals were embedding items like pins and razor blades in the apples.[18] While there is evidence of such incidents,[19] they are quite rare and have never resulted in serious injury. Nonetheless, many parents assumed that such heinous practices were rampant; at the peak of the hysteria, some hospitals offered free x-rays of children's Halloween hauls in order to find evidence of tampering. Virtually all of the few known candy poisoning incidents involved parents who poisoned their own children's candy, while there have been occasional reports of children putting needles in their own (and other children's) candy in a mere bid for attention. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... A candy apple Candy apples, also known as toffee apples, are whole apples covered in a hard sugar candy coating. ... A candy apple Candy apples, also known as toffee apples, are whole apples covered in a hard sugar candy coating. ... The poisoned candy scare, from the 1970s and 1980s, refers to a moral panic in the United States regarding the threat that children could be in danger of ingesting razor blades, needles, or poison introduced to candy by senseless, malicious tampering, especially during traditional Halloween trick-or-treating. ...


One custom which persists in modern-day day Ireland is the baking (or more often nowadays the purchase) of a barmbrack (Irish "báirín breac"), which is a light fruit cake into which a plain ring is placed before baking. It is said that those who get a ring will find their true love in the ensuing year. See also king cake. Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins. ... Fruitcake is a heavy cake made of dried or candied fruits and nuts that are soaked in brandy or rum, often used in the celebration of weddings and Christmas. ... Le gâteau des Rois, by Jean-Baptiste Greuze, 1774 (Musée Fabre) A king cake (sometimes rendered as kingcake) is a type of cake associated with Carnival traditions. ...


Other foods associated with the holiday:

Brachs candy corn Candy corn is a confection popular in the United States of America. ... Colcannon is a tradaitional Irish food made of mashed potatoes, cabbage, garlic, leeks, butter, salt, and pepper. ... Bonfire Toffee is a very hard, very brittle toffee that is associated with halloween and only usually available at such times. ... A candy apple Candy apples, also known as toffee apples, are whole apples covered in a hard sugar candy coating. ... American-style apple cider, left; Apple juice, right. ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Husked sweetcorn Young sweetcorn The same rows of corn 41 days later at maturity. ... For other uses, see Popcorn (disambiguation). ... Pumpkin seeds are occasionally served as a snack during autumn holidays like Halloween or Thanksgiving. ... Pumpkin pie Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on Pumpkin Pie Pumpkin pie is a traditional North American dessert usually made in the late fall and early winter, especially for Halloween, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. ... Wikibooks Cookbook has more about this subject: Pumpkin bread Pumpkin Bread is a type of moist bread made with pumpkins that is relatively simple to make. ... For other uses, see Nut (disambiguation). ...

Around the world

Snap-Apple Night by Daniel Maclise portrays a Halloween party in Blarney, Ireland, in 1832. The young people on the left side play various divination games, while children on the right bob for apples. A couple in the center play "Snap-Apple", which involves retrieving an apple hanging from a string

Image File history File links Maclise. ... Image File history File links Maclise. ... A detail of the engraving of Maclises 1842 painting The Play-scene in Hamlet, portraying the moment when the guilt of Claudius is revealed. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...

Ireland

Halloween is very popular in Ireland, where it originated, and is known in Irish as Oíche Shamhna (pron: ee-hah how-nah), literally "Samhain Night". Pre-Christian Celts had an autumn festival, Samhain (pronounced /ˈsˠaunʲ/from the Old Irish samain), "End of Summer", a pastoral and agricultural "fire festival" or feast, when the dead revisited the mortal world, and large communal bonfires would hence be lit to ward off evil spirits. The phonology of Irish varies from dialect to dialect; there is no standard pronunciation of the language. ... Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ...


Pope Gregory IV standardized the date of All Saints' Day, or All Hallows' Day, on November 1 in the name of the entire Western Church in 835. As the church day began at sunset, the holiday coincided exactly with Samhain. It is claimed that the choice of date was consistent with the common practice of leaving pagan festivals and buildings intact (e.g., the Pantheon), while overlaying a Christian meaning.[20]. However, no reliable documentation indicates such a motivation in this case. While the Celts might have been content to move All Saints' Day from their own previous date of April 20, the rest of the world celebrating it on May 13, [21] it is speculated without evidence that they were unwilling to give up their pre-existing autumn festival of the dead and continued to celebrate Samhain. Gregory IV, pope (827-844), was chosen to succeed Valentinus in December 827, on which occasion he recognized the supremacy of the Frankish emperor Louis the Pious in the most unequivocal manner. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Facade of the Pantheon For other uses, see Pantheon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European people. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Unfortunately, there is frustratingly little primary documentation of how Halloween was celebrated in preindustrial Ireland. Historian Nicholas Rogers has written, In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ...

It is not always easy to track the development of Halloween in Ireland and Scotland from the mid-seventeenth century, largely because one has to trace ritual practices from [modern] folkloric evidence that do not necessarily reflect how the holiday might have changed; these rituals may not be "authentic" or "timeless" examples of pre-industrial times.[22]

On Halloween night in present-day Ireland, adults and children dress up as creatures from the underworld (e.g., ghosts, ghouls, zombies, witches and goblins), light bonfires, and enjoy spectacular fireworks displays – in particular, the city of Derry is home to the largest organised Halloween celebration on the island, in the form of a street carnival and fireworks display.[23] It is also common for fireworks to be set off for the entire month preceding Halloween, as well as a few days after. Halloween was perceived as the night during which the division between the world of the living and the otherworld was blurred so spirits of the dead and inhabitants from the underworld were able to walk free on the earth. It was believed necessary to dress as a spirit or otherworldly creature when venturing outdoors to blend in, and this is where dressing in such a manner for Halloween comes from. This gradually evolved into trick-or-treating because children would knock on their neighbours' doors, in order to gather fruit, nuts, and sweets for the Halloween festival. Salt was once sprinkled in the hair of the children to protect against evil spirits. For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ...


The houses are frequently adorned with turnips carved into scary faces; lights or candles are sometimes placed inside the carvings to provide an eerie effect. The traditional Halloween cake in Ireland is the barmbrack, which is a fruit bread. Barmbrack is the centre of this Irish custom. The Halloween Brack traditionally contained various objects baked into the bread and was used as a sort of fortune-telling game. In the barmbrack were: a pea, a stick, a piece of cloth, a small coin (originally a silver sixpence) and a ring. Each item, when received in the slice, was supposed to carry a meaning to the person concerned: the pea, the person would not marry that year; the stick, "to beat one's wife with", would have an unhappy marriage or continually be in disputes; the cloth or rag, would have bad luck or be poor; the coin, would enjoy good fortune or be rich; and the ring, would be married within the year. Commercially produced barmbracks for the Halloween market still include a toy ring. Binomial name Brassica rapa L. Subsp. ... Barmbrack is a yeasted bread with added sultanas and raisins. ... For prophecy in the context of revealed religions see Prophet. ...


Games are often played, such as bobbing for apples, where apples, peanuts and other nuts and fruit and some small coins are placed in a basin of water. The apples and nuts float, but the coins, which sink, are harder to catch. Everyone takes turns catching as many items possible using only their mouths. In some households, the coins are embedded in the fruit for the children to "earn" as they catch each apple. Another common game involves the hands-free eating of an apple hung on a string attached to the ceiling. Games of divination are also played at Halloween, but are becoming less popular.


At lunch-time (midday meal, sometimes called "dinner" in Ireland[24]), a traditional Halloween meal Colcannon is eaten, often with coins wrapped in grease-proof paper mixed in. In recent decades the practice of midday dinners in the home has declined and with it this traditional Halloween ritual. Irish children typically have a week-long Halloween break from school; the last Monday in October is a public holiday in the Republic of Ireland, given as Halloween even though they often do not fall on the same day. Colcannon is a tradaitional Irish food made of mashed potatoes, cabbage, garlic, leeks, butter, salt, and pepper. ... Public holidays are observed in the Republic of Ireland on: New Years Day, 1 January[1] St Patricks Day, 17 March[1] Easter Monday, moveable Labour Day/May Day, the first Monday in May June Bank Holiday, the first Monday in June August Bank Holiday, the first Monday...


Scotland

Scotland, having a shared Gaelic culture and language with Ireland, has celebrated the festival of Samhain (Pronounced Sow-win) robustly for many centuries. The autumn festival is pre-Christian Celtic in origin, and is known in Scottish Gaelic as Oidhche Shamhna the “End of Summer”. During the fire festival, souls of the dead wander the earth and are free to return to the mortal world until dawn. Traditionally bonfires and lanterns (samhnag) in Scottish Gaelic, would be lit to ward off the phantoms and evil spirits that emerge at midnight. The term Samhainn or Samhuinn is used for the harvest feast, and an t-Samhain is used for the entire month of November. This article is about the country. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the European people. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ...


As in Ireland the exact customs involved with celebrating Halloween from ancient times to pre-industrialised Scotland are lost and lack primary documentation, to distinguish the ancient customs from the modern counterpart. The Witchcraft Act of 1735 contained a clause preventing the consumption of pork and pastry comestibles on Halloween although in modern times such treats are a popular treat for children; the act was repealed in the 1950s. Scotland's National Bard Robert Burns portrayed the varied custom for children to dress up in costumes in his poem "Hallowe'en" (1785). This article is about the country. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ...


Halloween was seen as being the time when the division between the world of the living and the otherworld was blurred. Many of the traditional customs derive from ancient divination practices and ways of trying to predict the future. By the 18th century, most of the customs were methods for young people to search for their future husbands or wives. As Samhainn was originally a harvest festival, many of these strange practices are connected with food or the harvest and fertility. One old custom associated with the Western Isles was to put two large nuts in the hearth of a peat fire. These were supposed to represent yourself and your intended spouse. If the nuts curled together when they warmed up then this was deemed to be a good omen, but if they jumped apart then it was time to look for another sweetheart. Islanders from Lewis traditionally poured ale into the sea in libation to a marine God called “Seonaidh” or “Shoney”on Celtic Samhain or Halloween, so that he would send seaweed to the shore to fertilise the fields for the coming year. Seonadh in Scottish Gaelic means, sorcery, augury, or Druidism, and it is possible that the custom of Shonaidh is the direct link to an ancient form of Celtic god worship that has been Christianised. As "Seonaidh", which is Gaelic "Johnny", it may also be a reference to one of St John, and an invocation of him. The Western Isles are an archipelago in Scotland. ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... For other uses, see Lewis (disambiguation). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Magic (also called magick to distinguish it from stage magic) is a supposed way of influencing the world through supernatural, mystical, or paranormal means. ... Omens or portents are signs encountered fortuitously that are believed to foretell the future. ... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ...


Fire rituals were also important. Great bonfires were lit in a village, or by individual families, and when the fire died down, its ashes were used to form a circle and one stone for each member of the household was kept inside this circle near the circumference. If any stone were displaced or seemed broken by next morning, then the person to whom that stone belonged was believed to be destined to die within a year. A similar rite in north Wales includes a great bonfire called Coel Coeth’ being built for each family on Halloween. Later, the members of the household threw a white stone in the ashes marked in their name. Next morning, all the stones were searched for and if any stone were missing, then the person who threw that stone was believed to be destined to die before next Halloween. In particular, the village of Fortingall in Perthshire, held festivities on Carn na Marbh ‘Mound of the Dead',. This was the focal point of a Samhain festival. A great fire or “Samhnag” was lit atop it each year. The whole community took hands when it was blazing and danced round the mound both sunwise and anti-sunwise. [25] As the fire began to wane, some of the younger boys took burning embers from the flames and ran throughout the field with them, finally throwing them into the air and dancing over them as they lay glowing on the ground. When the last embers were showing, the boys would have a leaping competition across the remains of the fire, reminiscent of the Beltane festival. When it was finished, the young people went home and ducked for apples and practised divination. There was no Scottish tradition of 'guising' here, the bonfire being the absolute centre of attention until it was consumed. The Samhain celebrations here apparently came to an end relatively late in 1924. Fortingall is a small village in Perthshire, Scotland. ... Perthshire (Siorrachd Pheairt in Gaelic) was a county in central Scotland, which extended from Strathmore in the east, to the Pass of Drumochter in the north, Rannoch Moor and Ben Lui in the west, and Aberfoyle in the south. ... Located in Fortingall in Pershire Scotland, Carn na Marbh ‘Mound of the Dead’ is a re-used Bronze Age tumulus. ... Look up Samhain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Gaelic holiday. ... This article is about the country. ...


In Scotland, folklore including that of Halloween, revolves around the ancient Celtic belief in faeries Sidhe” or “Sith” in modern Gaelic. Children who ventured out carried a traditional lantern (samhnag) with a devil face carved into it, to frighten away the evil spirits. Such Halloween lanterns were made from a turnip or “Neep” in “Lowland Scots”, with a candle lit in the hollow inside. In modern times, however, such lanterns use pumpkins, as in North American traditions, possibly, because it is easier to carve a face in a pumpkin than in a turnip. Due to this, the practice of hollowing out pumpkins into jack-o-lanterns may have its roots in this practice. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... by Sophie Anderson For other uses, see Fairy (disambiguation). ... In Irish mythology, the sídhe (pronounced shee) are a supernatural race, quite distinct from humankind. ... Within the Star Wars universe, the term Sith is used to describe two separate but related groups. ... (NEEP) To complain rhetorically, often about unsolvable issues. ...


Houses were also protected with the same candle lanterns. If the spirits got past the protection of the lanterns, the Scottish custom was to offer the spirits parcels of food to leave and spare the house another year. Children too were given the added protection by disguising them as such creatures, in order to blend in with the spirits. If children approached the door of a house, they were also given offerings of food – Halloween being a harvest festival – which served to ward off the potential spirits that may lurk among them. This is where the origin of the practice of Scottish “guising” – a word which comes from 'disguising' – or going about in costume arose. It is now a key feature of the tradition of trick-or-treating practised in North America.


In modern-day Scotland this old tradition survives, chiefly in the form of children going door to door "guising", in this manner, that is, dressed in a disguise (often as a witch, ghost, monster, or another supernatural being) and offering entertainment of various sorts. If the entertainment is enjoyed, the children are rewarded with gifts of sweets, fruits, or money. There is no Scottish 'trick or treat' tradition as in North America; on the contrary, 'trick or treating' is an outgrowth of these Scottish guising customs.


Popular games played on the holiday include "dooking" for apples (i.e., retrieving an apple from a bucket of water using only one's mouth). In places, the game has been replaced (because of fears of contracting saliva-borne illnesses in the water) by standing over the bowl holding a fork in one's mouth, and releasing it in an attempt to skewer an apple using only gravity. Another popular game is attempting to eat, while blindfolded, a treacle or jam coated scone on a piece of string hanging from the ceiling. Sometimes the blindfold is left out, because it is already difficult to eat the scone. In all versions, however, the participants cannot use their hands.


In 2007, Halloween festival organisers in Perthshire said they wanted to move away from US-style celebrations, in favour of more culturally accurate traditions. Plans include abandoning the use of pumpkins, and reinstating traditional activities such as a turnip lantern competition and "dooking (ducking) for apples". [26]


Isle of Man

The Manx traditionally celebrate Hop-tu-Naa on October 31. This ancient Celtic tradition has parallels with Scottish and Irish traditions. Hop-tu-Naa is a Celtic festival celebrated in the Isle of Man on 31 October. ...


England

All Saints' Day (All Hallows Day) became fixed on November 1 in 835, and All Souls' Day on November 2, circa 998. On All Souls' Eve, families stayed up late, and little "soul cakes" were eaten by everyone. At the stroke of midnight there was solemn silence among households, which had candles burning in every room to guide the souls back to visit their earthly homes, and a glass of wine on the table to refresh them. The tradition continued in areas of northern England as late as the 1930s, with children going from door-to-door "souling" (i.e., singing songs) for cakes or money. The English Reformation in the 16th century de-emphasised holidays like All Hallows Day or All Souls Day and their associated eve. With the rise of Guy Fawkes Night celebrations in 17th century England, most remaining Halloween practices, especially the building of bonfires, were moved to November 5. All Saints in Poland The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Hallows, or Hallowmas, is a feast celebrated in honour of all the saints and martyrs, known or unknown. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Ragnar Lodbrok rises to power (approximate date) The celebration of All Saints is made an obligation throughout the Frankish Empire and fixed on November 1. ... This article is about the Christian religious holiday. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This box:      King Henry VIII of England. ... Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire Night, Cracker Night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In parts of northern England, there is a traditional festival called Mischief Night which falls on the November 4. During the celebration, children play a range of "tricks" (ranging from minor to more serious) on adults. One of the more serious "tricks" might include the unhinging of garden gates (which were often thrown into ponds, or moved far away). In recent years, such acts have occasionally escalated to extreme vandalism, sometimes involving street fires.[27] For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Mischief night is a tradition in England, Scotland, Ireland, and the United States of a night in the calendar when the custom is for young people to take a degree of licence to play pranks and do mischief to their neighbours. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Halloween celebrations in England were popularised in the late twentieth century under the pressure of American cultural influence, including a stream of films and television programmes aimed at children and adolescents, and the discovery by retail experts of a marketing opportunity to fill the empty space before Christmas. Between 2001 and 2006, consumer spending in the UK for Halloween rose tenfold from £12 m to £120 m, according to Bryan Roberts from industry analysts Planet Retail, making Halloween the third most profitable holiday for supermarkets.[28] This led to the introduction of practices such as pumpkin carvings and trick-or-treat[29] (see below). Nowadays, adults too may dress up to attend costume parties, pub parties and club parties on Halloween night. A costume party (also referred to as fancy dress party in the United Kingdom) is a type of party where the guests dress up in a costume. ...


Bobbing for apples is a well-established Bonfire Night custom now also associated with Halloween. In the game, attempts are made with one's mouth only to catch an apple placed in a water-filled barrel. Once an apple is caught, it is sometimes peeled and tossed over the shoulder in the hope that the strips would fall into the shape of a letter, which would be the first initial of the participant's true love. According to another superstition, the longer the peel, the longer the peeler's life would be; some say that the first participant to get an apple would be the first to marry. Bonfire Night can refer to a number of occasions: St. ...


Other practices common to Bonfire Night and Halloween include fireworks, telling ghost stories, and playing children's games such as hide-and-seek. Apple tarts may be baked with a coin hidden inside, and nuts of all types are traditional Halloween fare. Bolder children may in some areas play a game called "thunder and lightning", which involves loudly knocking on a neighbour's door, then running away (like lightning). However, traditions are being lost under the relentless pressure of the American media, and some of today's children will arrive at a door and intone "trick-or-treat" in order to receive money and sweets. Bonfire Night can refer to a number of occasions: St. ... Ghost Stories (Japanese: 学校の怪談, Gakkō no Kaidan, School Ghost Stories) is a twenty-one-episode anime series created in 2000 by animation studio Aniplex for Fuji Television, based on a manga series by Yosuke Takahashi. ... Hide and seek is a childrens game. ...


There has been increasing concern about the potential for antisocial behaviour, particularly among older teenagers, on Halloween. Cases of houses being "egg-bombed" (especially when the occupants do not give money or gifts) have been reported, and the BBC reported that for Halloween 2006 police forces stepped up patrols to respond to such mischief.[30] Antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a psychiatric condition characterized by an individuals common disregard for social rules, norms, and cultural codes, as well as impulsive behavior, and indifference to the rights and feelings of others. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


United States and Canada

Halloween did not become a holiday in the United States until the 19th century, where lingering Puritan tradition restricted the observance of many holidays. American almanacs of the late 18th and early 19th centuries do not include Halloween in their lists of holidays.[31] The transatlantic migration of nearly two million Irish following the Irish Potato Famine (1845-1849) finally brought the holiday to the United States. Scottish emigration, primarily to Canada before 1870 and to the United States thereafter, brought the Scottish version of the holiday to each country. For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ...


Scottish-American and Irish-American societies held dinners and balls that celebrated their heritages, with perhaps a recitation of Robert Burns' poem "Halloween" or a telling of Irish legends, much as Columbus Day celebrations were more about Italian-American heritage than Columbus per se. Home parties centred on children's activities, such as bobbing for apples, and various divination games often concerning future romance. Not surprisingly, pranks and mischief were common as well. Scottish Americans or Scots Americans are citizens of the United States whose ancestry originates in the northwest European nation of Scotland. ... Irish population density in the United States, 1872. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the Americas, which happened on the October 12, 1492 in the Julian calendar, or October 21, 1492 in the modern Gregorian calendar. ... An Italian-American is an American of Italian descent either born in America or someone who has immigrated. ... Bobbing for apples is a game customarily played on Halloween. ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...


The commercialization of Halloween in the United States did not start until the 20th century, beginning perhaps with Halloween postcards (featuring hundreds of designs) which were most popular between 1905 and 1915.[32] Dennison Manufacturing Company, which published its first Hallowe'en catalog in 1909, and the Beistle Company were pioneers in commercially made Halloween decorations, particularly die-cut paper items.[33][34] German manufacturers specialised in Halloween figurines that were exported to the United States in the period between the two world wars.


There is little primary documentation of masking or costuming on Halloween in the United States or elsewhere, before 1900.[35] Mass-produced Halloween costumes did not appear in stores until the 1930s, and trick-or-treating did not become a fixture of the holiday until the 1950s. In historical scholarship, a primary source is a document, or other source of information that was created at or near the time being studied, by an authoritative source, usually one with direct personal knowledge of the events being described. ...


In the United States, Halloween has become the sixth most profitable holiday (after Christmas, Mother's Day, Valentines Day, Easter, and Father's Day).[36] In the 1990s, many manufacturers began producing a larger variety of Halloween yard decorations; before this a majority of decorations were homemade. Some of the most popular yard decorations are jack-o'-lanterns, scarecrows, witches, orange string lights, inflatable decorations (such as spiders, pumpkins, mummies and vampires), and animatronic window and door decorations. Other popular decorations are foam tombstones and gargoyles. For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... This article is about several worldwide days celebrating motherhood. ... Valentines Day postcard, c. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Fathers Day is a secular celebration inaugurated in the early twentieth century to complement Mothers Day in celebrating fatherhood and male parenting, and to honor and commemorate fathers and forefathers. ... Jack-o-lanterns may be carved with a friendly face, above, a menacing sawtooth scowl, or any look in between. ... Scarecrows in a rice paddy in Japan For other uses, see Scarecrow (disambiguation). ... Animatronic is the third album from Norweigan black metal band, The Kovenant, and was released in 1999 through Nuclear Blast. ... Tombstone most commonly means a headstone marking the grave of a deceased person. ... Gargoyles redirects here. ...


Halloween is now the United States' second most popular holiday (after Christmas) for decorating; the sale of candy and costumes are also extremely common during the holiday, which is marketed to children and adults alike. According to the National Retail Federation, the most popular Halloween costume themes for adults are, in order: witch, pirate, vampire, cat and clown.[37] Each year, popular costumes are dictated by various current events and pop culture icons.On many college campuses, Halloween is a major celebration, with the Friday and Saturday nearest October 31 hosting many costume parties. The National Retail Federation is the worlds largest retail trade association, with membership that comprises all retail formats and channels of distribution including department, specialty, discount, catalog, Internet, independent stores, chain restaurants and grocery stores as well as the industrys key trading partners of retail goods and services. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The National Confectioners Association reported in 2005 that 80 percent of American adults planned to give out candy to trick-or-treaters,[38] and that 93 percent of children planned to go trick-or-treating.[39] The National Confectioners Association is an organization founded in 1884 in Chicago. ...


Madison, Wisconsin, home of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, hosts one of the more infamous annual Halloween celebrations. Due to the large influx of out-of-towners crowding the State Street area, riots have broken out in recent years, resulting in the use mounted police and tear gas to disperse the crowds.[40] For other uses, see Madison (disambiguation). ... University of Wisconsin redirects here. ...


Anoka, Minnesota, the self-proclaimed "Halloween Capital of the World", celebrates the holiday with a large civic parade and several other city-wide events. Salem, Massachusetts, also has laid claim to the "Halloween Capital" title, while trying to dissociate itself from its history of persecuting witchcraft. At the same time, however, the city does see a great deal of tourism surrounding the Salem witch trials, especially around Halloween. In the 1990s, the city added an official "Haunted Happenings" celebration to the October tourist season.. Nearby Keene, New Hampshire, hosts the annual Pumpkin Fest each October which previously held the record for having the greatest number of lit jack-o'-lanterns at once. (Boston, Massachusetts holds the record as of October 2006). In Atlanta, Georgia, the Little Five Points neighborhood hosts the Little Five Points Halloween Parade on the weekend before October 31st each year. Anoka is a city in Anoka County, Minnesota, United States. ... United States Marines on parade. ... Nickname: Location in Essex County in Massachusetts Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Settled 1626 Incorporated 1626 A City 1836 Government  - Type Mayor-council city  - Mayor Kimberley Driscoll Area  - Total 18. ... Witch redirects here. ... 1876 illustration of the courtroom; the central figure is usually identified as Mary Walcott The Salem witch trials were a series of hearings by local magistrates and county court trials to prosecute people alleged to have committed acts of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk and Middlesex Counties of Massachusetts in 1692... Nickname: Location in Cheshire County, New Hampshire Coordinates: , Country State County Cheshire Settled 1736 Incorporated 1753 (town) Incorporated 1874 (city) Government  - Mayor Michael E.J. Blastos  - City Council Charles H. Redfern Angelo D. DiBernardo, Jr. ... A few of the tens of thousands of pumpkins on display at the 2000 Keene Pumpkin Festival The Pumpkin Festival (a. ... Jack-o-lanterns may be carved with a friendly face, above, a menacing sawtooth scowl, or any look in between. ... Boston redirects here. ... Atlanta redirects here. ... Little Five Points (also L5P or LFP) is an area of Atlanta, Georgia, 2. ...


Rutland, Vermont has hosted the annual Rutland Halloween Parade since 1960. Tom Fagan, a local comic book fan, is credited with having a hand in the parade's early development and superhero theme. In the early 1970s, the Rutland Halloween Parade achieved a degree of fame when it was used as the setting of a number of superhero comic books, including Batman #237, Justice League of America #103, Amazing Adventures #16 and The Mighty Thor #207. Rutland is a city in Rutland County, Vermont, in the United States. ... The Rutland Halloween Parade is an annual event held on Halloween in the city of Rutland, Vermont since 1960. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Superhero (disambiguation). ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...

Ubu Apocalypse, a presentation of over-sized papier-mâché masks at the Village Halloween Parade in New York City.

New York City hosts the United States' largest Halloween celebration, known as The Village Halloween Parade. Started by Greenwich Village mask maker Ralph Lee in 1973, the evening parade now attracts over two million spectators and participants, as well as roughly four million television viewers annually. It is the largest participatory parade in the country if not the world, encouraging spectators to march in the parade as well. Image File history File links Ubu-monsters. ... Image File history File links Ubu-monsters. ... // Volunteers costumed as a deck of playing cards shuffle up Sixth Avenue in New Yorks Village Halloween Parade, directed by artist and producer Jeanne Fleming. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... // Volunteers costumed as a deck of playing cards shuffle up Sixth Avenue in New Yorks Village Halloween Parade, directed by artist and producer Jeanne Fleming. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... Ralph Lee is an Obie-award-winning mask and puppet maker living in New York City. ...


Barbara Ehrenreich, in her book on collective joy mentions this as an example of how Halloween is transitioning from a children's holiday to an adult holiday and compares it to Mardi Gras. Barbara Ehrenreich (born August 26, 1941, in Butte, Montana) is a prominent liberal American writer, columnist, feminist, socialist and political activist. ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ...


In many towns and cities, trick-or-treaters are welcomed by lit porch lights and jack-o'-lanterns. In some large and/or crime ridden areas, however, trick-or-treating is discouraged, or refocused to staged trick-or-treating events within nearby shopping malls, in order to prevent potential acts of violence against trick-or-treaters. Even where crime is not an issue, many American towns have designated specific hours for trick-or-treating, e.g., 5-7 pm or 5-8 pm, to discourage late-night trick-or-treating. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the traditional meaning of the word mall, see pedestrian street or promenade. ...


Those living in the country may hold Halloween parties, often with bonfires, with the celebrants passing between them. The parties usually involve traditional games (like snipe hunting, bobbing for apples, or searching for candy in a similar manner to Easter egg hunting), haunted hayrides (often accompanied by scary stories, and costumed people hiding in the dark to jump out and scare the riders), and treats (usually a bag of candy and/or homemade treats). Scary movies may also be viewed. Normally, the children are picked up by their parents at predetermined times. However, it is not uncommon for such parties to include sleepovers. Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ... Fools Errand redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Haunted house. ...


Trick-or-treating may often end by early evening, but the nightlife thrives in many urban areas. Halloween costume parties provide an opportunity for adults to gather and socialize. Urban bars are frequented by people wearing Halloween masks and risqué costumes. Many bars and restaurants hold costume contests to attract customers to their establishments. Haunted houses are also popular in some areas. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Mexico

In Mexico, Halloween has been celebrated during the last 40 years where the celebrations have been influenced by the American traditions, such as the costuming of children who visit the houses of their neighbourhood in search of candy. Though the "trick-or-treat" motif is used, tricks are not generally played on residents not providing candy. Older crowds of preteens, teenagers and adults will sometimes organize Halloween-themed parties, which might be scheduled on the nearest available weekend. Usually kids stop by at peoples' houses, knock on their door or the ring the bell and say "¡Noche de Brujas , Halloween!" ('Witches' Night-- Halloween!').


Halloween in Mexico begins three days of consecutive holidays, as it is followed by All Saints' Day, which also marks the beginning of the two day celebration of the Day of the Dead or the Día de los Muertos. This might account for the initial explanations of the holiday having a traditional Mexican-Catholic slant. For other uses, see Day of the Dead (disambiguation). ...


Australia and New Zealand

In the southern hemisphere, spring is in full swing by October 31, and the days are rapidly growing longer and brighter. This does not mesh well with the traditional Celtic spirit of Halloween, which relies on an atmosphere of the encroaching darkness of winter. However, Halloween has recently gained a large amount of recognition in Australia and to a moderate extent New Zealand, largely due to American media influences, with many young families in Australia embracing the tradition.[41][42] In 2006, costume shops reported a rise in sales on Halloween-themed costumes,[43] on October 31, 2006 and have reported a steady increase on October 31, 2007. On Halloween night, horror films and horror-themed TV episodes are traditionally aired, and currently, Halloween private parties are more commonly held than actual "trick-or-treating", however both are still observed. Trick or treating is generally only done in the trick-or-treater's neighbourhood. southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the European people. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

The children of the largest town in Bonaire all gather together on Halloween day.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 663 KB) Summary Halloween in Bonaire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 663 KB) Summary Halloween in Bonaire. ... Anthem: Tera di Solo y suave biento Capital (and largest city) Kralendijk Official languages Dutch Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  - Bonaire Administrator  - Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag Constitutional monarchy part of the Netherlands Antilles  Area  - Total 288 km² 111 sq mi  Population  - 2001 census 10,791  - Density...

Caribbean

Halloween is largely uncelebrated in the Caribbean. However, like Australia and New Zealand, the event is not unheard of in the Caribbean and is seeing some increase in popularity. West Indies redirects here. ...


In some parts of the British West Indies, there are celebrations commemorating Guy Fawkes Night that occur around the time of Halloween. The celebrations include using firecrackers, blowing bamboo joints and similar activities. And in other island they celebrate All Saints'. On this evening they go to the cemetery to sing, and light candles on the tomb of their loved ones. Roadtown, Tortola The term British West Indies refers to territories in and around the Caribbean which were colonised by Great Britain. ... Guy Fawkes Night (more commonly known as Bonfire Night, Cracker Night and sometimes Fireworks Night) is an annual celebration on the evening of the 5th of November. ...


On the island of Bonaire, the children of a town typically gather to trick-or-treat for sweets among the town shops (instead of people's homes, as in other countries). Anthem: Tera di Solo y suave biento Capital (and largest city) Kralendijk Official languages Dutch Government See Politics of the Netherlands Antilles  - Bonaire Administrator  - Governor of N.A. Frits Goedgedrag Constitutional monarchy part of the Netherlands Antilles  Area  - Total 288 km² 111 sq mi  Population  - 2001 census 10,791  - Density...


The Netherlands

Halloween has become increasingly popular in The Netherlands since the early 1990s. From early October, stores are full of merchandising related to the popular Halloween themes. Students and little children dress up on Halloween for parties and small parades. Trick-or-treating is highly uncommon, also because this directly interferes with the Dutch tradition of celebrating St. Martin's Day. On the 11 November, Dutch children ring doorbells hoping to receive a small treat in return for singing a short song dedicated to St. Martin. Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... St. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Malta

Halloween had never been celebrated in Malta until recently, with its popularity increasing thanks to the many costume parties, usually for teenagers and young adults, being organized on Halloween night.


People's Republic of China

There is no Halloween in Chinese culture, but there is a similar Chinese holiday called Ghost Festival. The Ghost Festival is a traditional Chinese festival and holiday, which is celebrated by Chinese people in many countries. In the Chinese calendar (a lunisolar calendar), the Ghost Festival is on the 14th night of the seventh lunar month, which is called Ghost Day. In Chinese tradition, the ghosts and spirits, including those of the deceased ancestors, come out from the lower world. This article is about the Chinese Ghost Festival. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ... Vacation redirects here. ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... For other uses, see Ghost (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Underworld (disambiguation). ...


Hong Kong, a former British colony, does celebrate Halloween every year unlike the Mainland.


Sweden

In Sweden Halloween is celebrated the same day the Church of Sweden celebrates All Saints day, the first saturday in November. This is due to a misunderstanding when the retail business organizations introduced Halloween in the mid-1990s. Christians and christian organizations do not like this connection and very few Swedes are aware that Halloween in the English-speaking countries is a non-Christian holiday celebrated October 31. Bishop Lennart Koskinen with some young people. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Other regions

In other regions such as Japan and Germany, Halloween has become popular in the context of American pop culture. Some Christians do not appreciate the resultant de-emphasis of the more spiritual aspects of All Hallows Eve and Reformation Day, respectively, or of regional festivals occurring around the same time (such as St Martin's Day). Business has a natural tendency to capitalize on the holiday season's more commercial aspects, such as the sale of decorations and costumes. Popular culture, or pop culture, is the vernacular (peoples) culture that prevails in a modern society. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... Reformation Day is a minor festival celebrated in remembrance of the Reformation, particularly by Lutheran and Reformed church communities. ... Saint Martin of Tours (Latin: Martinus), (316/317 – November 11, 397 in Candes) was a bishop of Tours whose shrine became a famous stopping-point for pilgrims on the road to Santiago de Compostela. ...


Religious perspectives

In North America, Christian attitudes towards Halloween are quite diverse. The fact that All Saints Day and Halloween occur on two consecutive days has left some Christians uncertain of how they should treat this holiday. In the Anglican Church, some dioceses have chosen to emphasize the Christian traditions of All Saints Day,[44][45] while some Protestants celebrate the holiday as Reformation Day, a day of remembrance and prayers for unity.[46] Celtic Christians may have Samhain services that focus on the cultural aspects of the holiday, in the belief that many ancient Celtic customs are "compatible with the new Christian religion. Christianity embraced the Celtic notions of family, community, the bond among all people, and respect for the dead. Throughout the centuries, pagan and Christian beliefs intertwine in a gallimaufry (hodgepodge) of celebrations from October 31 through November 5, all of which appear both to challenge the ascendancy of the dark and to revel in its mystery."[47] North American redirects here. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... This article is about the Christian holiday. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Reformation Day is a minor festival celebrated in remembrance of the Reformation, particularly by Lutheran and Reformed church communities. ... Celtic Christianity, or Insular Christianity (sometimes commonly called the Celtic Church) broadly refers to the Early Medieval Christian practice that developed around the Irish Sea in the fifth and sixth centuries: that is, among Celtic/British peoples such as the Irish, Scottish, Welsh, Cornish, Manx, Cumbrians (the inhabitants of the... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Many Christians ascribe no negative significance to Halloween, treating it as a purely secular holiday devoted to celebrating “imaginary spooks” and handing out candy. Halloween celebrations are common among Roman Catholic parochial schools throughout North America and in Ireland. In fact, the Roman Catholic Church sees Halloween as having a Christian connection.[48] Father Gabriele Amorth, a Vatican-appointed exorcist in Rome, has said, "[I]f English and American children like to dress up as witches and devils on one night of the year that is not a problem. If it is just a game, there is no harm in that."[49] Most Christians hold the view that the tradition is far from being "satanic" in origin or practice and that it holds no threat to the spiritual lives of children: being taught about death and mortality, and the ways of the Celtic ancestors actually being a valuable life lesson and a part of many of their parishioners' heritage.[47] Other Christians, primarily of the Evangelical and Fundamentalist variety, are concerned about Halloween, and reject the holiday because they believe it trivializes (and celebrates) “the occult” and what they perceive as evil.[50] A response among some fundamentalists in recent years has been the use of Hell houses or themed pamphlets (such as those of Jack T. Chick) which attempt to make use of Halloween as an opportunity for evangelism.[51] Some consider Halloween to be completely incompatible with the Christian faith[52] due to its origin as a Pagan "festival of the dead." In more recent years, the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston has organised a "Saint Fest" on the holiday.[51] Some Christian churches offer a fall or harvest festival-themed alternative to Halloween.[citation needed] For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... A parochial school (or faith school) is a type of private school which engages in religious education in addition to conventional education. ... An exorcist is a person who performs exorcism, the ridding of demons or other supernatural beings who have possessed a person, or (sometimes) a building or other object. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This article is about the European people. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... A hell house, also commonly known as a Doom House, is a haunted house-style attraction typically run by North American fundamentalist Christian churches or parachurch groups. ... A frame from the Chick tract Doom Town Jack Thomas Chick (born April 13, 1924) of Chick Publications is the creator of comic-style tracts and larger comic books for the purpose of Christian evangelism in a fundamentalist theology. ... Sean Patrick Cardinal OMalley, Archbishop of Boston The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Boston is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the New England region of the United States. ... In Britain, thanks have been given for successful harvests since pagan times. ...


Some Wiccans feel that the tradition is offensive to "real witches" for promoting stereotypical caricatures of "wicked witches".[53] However, other Neopagans, perhaps most of them, see it as a harmless holiday in which some of the old traditions are celebrated by the mainstream culture, albeit in a different manner. For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ...


Fiction

Ray Bradbury's The Halloween Tree features the holiday prominently. Halloween is frequently mentioned as an important date in the Harry Potter book series by J.K. Rowling, whose central themes are wizardry and magic. In Alan Moore's graphic novel Watchmen, several pivotal events occur on Halloween night, including the death of the original 'Nite-Owl'. Washington Irving's The Legend of Sleepy Hollow and the character of the Headless Horseman are often linked to the holiday in the public mindset due to later adaptations (though Halloween is not actually mentioned in the original work). Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... The Halloween Tree (1972) is a fantasy novel by Ray Bradbury. ... This article is about the Harry Potter series of novels. ... Joanne Rowling OBE (born July 31, 1965 in Chipping Sodbury, South Gloucestershire), commonly known as J.K. Rowling (pronunciation: roll-ing; her former students used to joke with her name calling her the Rolling Stone), is a British fiction writer. ... For other persons named Alan Moore, see Alan Moore (disambiguation). ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... For other uses, see Watchman. ... Nite Owl is the name of two fictional characters in the comic book series Watchmen by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons and published by DC Comics. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... The Legend of Sleepy Hollow is a short story by Washington Irving contained in his collection The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent. ... For other uses, see Headless Horseman (disambiguation). ...


Films in which Halloween plays a significant role include adaptations of the above works, plus the Halloween film series, Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas, The Halloween That Almost Wasn't, Monster House, Donnie Darko, Hellboy, and Hocus Pocus. Halloween (film) redirects here. ... Timothy Tim William Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-nominated American film director, writer and designer notable for the quirky and often dark gothic atmosphere in his high-profile films. ... Halloween Town redirects here. ... VHS cover. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long or excessively detailed compared to the rest of the article. ... Donnie Darko is a 2001 drama/psychological thriller/science fiction film written and directed by Richard Kelly The film had a small opening upon its release in the United States, but gained newfound popularity upon its DVD release and a cult following over the years. ... Hellboy is an English supernatural action-thriller, directed by Mexican director Guillermo del Toro. ... Hocus Pocus is a childrens Halloween-themed film released by Disney. ...


Numerous Halloween television specials have been broadcast, notably It's the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown and the annual Simpsons "Treehouse of Horror" episodes. Pages in category Halloween television specials There are 7 pages in this section of this category. ... Its the Great Pumpkin, Charlie Brown is a critically-acclaimed and very popular animated television special based on the comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz. ... The Simpsons. ... Bart introducing a segment of Treehouse of Horror IV in the manner of Rod Serlings Night Gallery. ...


Books

  • Diane C. Arkins, Halloween: Romantic Art and Customs of Yesteryear, Pelican Publishing Company (2000). 96 pages. ISBN 1-56554-712-8
  • Diane C. Arkins, Halloween Merrymaking: An Illustrated Celebration Of Fun, Food, And Frolics From Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 112 pages. ISBN 1-58980-113-X
  • Lesley Bannatyne, Halloween: An American Holiday, An American History, Facts on File (1990, Pelican Publishing Company, 1998). 180 pages. ISBN 1-56554-346-7
  • Lesley Bannatyne, A Halloween Reader. Stories, Poems and Plays from Halloweens Past, Pelican Publishing Company (2004). 272 pages. ISBN 1-58980-176-8
  • Phyllis Galembo, Dressed for Thrills: 100 Years of Halloween Costumes and Masquerade, Harry N. Abrams, Inc. (2002). 128 pages. ISBN 0-8109-3291-1
  • Lint Hatcher, The Magic Eightball Test: A Christian Defense of Halloween and All Things Spooky, Lulu.com (2006). ISBN 978-1847287564
  • Ronald Hutton, Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain, Oxford Paperbacks (2001). 560 pages. ISBN 0-19-285448-8
  • Jean Markale, The Pagan Mysteries of Halloween: Celebrating the Dark Half of the Year (translation of Halloween, histoire et traditions), Inner Traditions (2001). 160 pages. ISBN 0-89281-900-6
  • Lisa Morton, The Halloween Encyclopedia, McFarland & Company (2003). 240 pages. ISBN 0-7864-1524-X
  • Nicholas Rogers, Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night, Oxford University Press (2002). 198 pages. ISBN 0-19-514691-3
  • Jack Santino (ed.), Halloween and Other Festivals of Death and Life, University of Tennessee Press (1994). 280 pages. ISBN 0-87049-813-4
  • David J. Skal, Death Makes A Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween, Bloomsbury USA (2003). 224 pages. ISBN 1-58234-305-5
  • Ben Truwe, The Halloween Catalog Collection. Portland, Oregon: Talky Tina Press (2003). ISBN 0-9703448-5-6.

Harry N. Abrams, Inc. ...

See also

Holidays Portal

Image File history File links Jack-o-lantern. ... Fakelore is inauthentic, manufactured folklore which is created in the hope that it will be accepted as genuine and/or legitimate. ... This article is about the superstition. ...

References

  1. ^ Anthony Aveni, "Halloween: Dead Time," The Book of the Year: A Brief History of Our Seasonal Holidays (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 119-133.
  2. ^ Nicholas Rogers, "Samhain and the Celtic Origins of Halloween," Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 11-21.
  3. ^ Hutton, Ronald (1996) Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0192880454
  4. ^ a b Danaher, Kevin (1972) The Year in Ireland: Irish Calendar Customs Dublin, Mercier. ISBN 1-85635-093-2 pp.190–232
  5. ^ Campbell, John Gregorson (1900, 1902, 2005) The Gaelic Otherworld. Edited by Ronald Black. Edinburgh, Birlinn Ltd. ISBN 1-84158-207-7 pp.559-62
  6. ^ Arnold, Bettina (2001-10-31). Halloween Customs in the Celtic World. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  7. ^ Simpson, John; Weiner, Edmund (1989). Oxford English Dictionary, second, London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-861186-2. 
  8. ^ History of the Jack O'Lantern, Pumpkin Nook
  9. ^ Skal, David J. (2002). Death Makes a Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween. New York: Bloomsbury, 34. ISBN 1-58234-230-X.
  10. ^ Nicholas Rogers, "Halloween Goes to Hollywood," Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 103-124.
  11. ^ Hal Siemer, Spooky Halloween: A Celebration of the Dark, QuestMagazine.com.
  12. ^ What is the origin of Halloween colors?. AllAboutPopularIssues.org. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  13. ^ Nicholas Rogers, "Coming Over: Halloween in North America," Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 49-77.
  14. ^ "Halloween outfits 'create fear'", BBC News, 2006-09-18. Retrieved on 2006-10-31. 
  15. ^ Nicholas Rogers, "Festive Rites: Halloween in the British Isles," Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 22-48.
  16. ^ Grannis, Kathy; Scott Krugman (20 September 2006). As Halloween Shifts to Seasonal Celebration, Retailers Not Spooked by Surge in Spending (HTML). National Retail Federation. Retrieved on 31 October 2006.
  17. ^ Beauchemin, Genevieve; CTV.ca News Staff. "UNICEF to end Halloween 'orange box' program", CTV, 2006-05-31. Retrieved on 2006-10-29. 
  18. ^ Nicholas Rogers, "Razor in the Apple: Struggle for Safe and Sane Halloween, c. 1920-1990," Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002), 78-102.
  19. ^ Urban Legends Reference Pages: Pins and Needles in Halloween Candy
  20. ^ BBC Religion & Ethics—Hallowe'en. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-03-14.
  21. ^ Hutton, Ronald (1996). Stations of the Sun: A History of the Ritual Year in Britain. New York: Oxford Paperbacks. ISBN 0-19-285448-8. 
  22. ^ Rogers, Nicholas (2002). Halloween: From Pagan Ritual to Party Night. New York: Oxford University Press, 411. ISBN 0-19-514691-3. 
  23. ^ Halloween 2007
  24. ^ Culinary Confusion | Ireland Travel Guide
  25. ^ Celtic Attic: Celts facts and fiction - Feasts and Celebrations
  26. ^ Pumpkins have been banned from a Halloween festival in favour of a more Scottish-style celebration accessed 27-10-2007
  27. ^ "Mischief Night causes havoc across county", BBC, 2002-11-05. Retrieved on 2006-09-14. 
  28. ^ Heald, Claire. "Boo! Is Halloween too scary?", BBC News Magazine, 2006-10-31. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  29. ^ One of the earliest references to trick or treating in Britain comes from a House of Lords debate in 1986, when it was described as a recently imported custom: the substance of the debate was the concern that youths were using trick or treating to obtain money from old people and others, or threatening nasty tricks. Coughlan, Sean. "The Japanese knotweed of festivals", BBC News Magazine, 2007-10-31. Retrieved on 2007-10-31. 
  30. ^ "Fines for Halloween troublemakers", BBC News, 2006-11-28. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  31. ^ Rogers, p. 49.
  32. ^ Anderson, Richard (2000). Antique Halloween Postcards and E-cards (HTML). shaktiweb.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  33. ^ Dawn Kroma; Lou Kroma (n.d.). Beistle: An American Halloween Giant (HTML). Spookshows.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  34. ^ Ledenbach, Mark B. (n.d.). A Brief History of Halloween Collectibles (HTML). halloweencollector.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  35. ^ Skal, David J. (2002). Makes a Holiday: A Cultural History of Halloween. New York: Bloomsbury, 34. ISBN 1-58234-230-X. 
  36. ^ Mikkelson, Barbara and David P.. "Halloween Loot.", 2006-10-29. Retrieved on 2006-10-29. 
  37. ^ 2006 Halloween Consumer Intentions and Actions Survey. Washington, DC: The National Retail Federation.
  38. ^ Trick-or-treaters can expect Mom or Dad’s favorites in their bags this year. National Confectioners Association (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  39. ^ Fun Facts: Halloween. National Confectioners Association (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-14.
  40. ^ "Halloween revelers erupt in Madison", Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, 2002-11-4. Retrieved on 2007-12-18. 
  41. ^ Historic tricks for Halloween at Northern Star; accessed October 31, 2007.
  42. ^ Halloween fever hits Australia at Daily Telegraph; accessed October 31, 2007.
  43. ^ Halloween hits Australia at Daily Telegraph; accessed October 31, 2007.
  44. ^ Bishop challenges supermarkets to lighten up Halloween (HTML). www.manchester.anglican.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  45. ^ Halloween and All Saints Day (HTML). newadvent.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  46. ^ Reformation Day: What, Why, and Resources for Worship (HTML). The General Board of Discipleship of The United Methodist Church (2005-10-21). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  47. ^ a b Feast of Samhain/Celtic New Year/Celebration of All Celtic Saints November 1 (HTML). All Saints Parish (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-11-22.
  48. ^ Halloween’s Christian Roots AmericanCatholic.org. Retrieved on October 24, 2007.
  49. ^ Gyles Brandreth, "The Devil is gaining ground" The Sunday Telegraph (London), March 11, 2000.
  50. ^ Halloween: Satan's New Year (2006) by Billye Dymally, Halloween: Counterfeit Holy Day (2005) by Kele Gershom, and Halloween: What's a Christian to Do? (1998) by Steve Russo. An opposing viewpoint is found in The Magic Eightball Test: A Christian Defense of Halloween and All Things Spooky (2006) by Lint Hatcher.
  51. ^ a b Salem ‘Saint Fest’ restores Christian message to Halloween (HTML). www.rcab.org (n.d.). Retrieved on 2006-10-22.
  52. ^ “Trick?” or “Treat?”—Unmasking Halloween (HTML). The Restored Church of God (n.d.). Retrieved on 2007-09-21.
  53. ^ Reece, Kevin. "School District Bans Halloween", KOMO News, 2004-10-24. Retrieved on 2006-09-14. 

This article is about the year. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Halloween
  • U.S. Census data about Halloween in the United States
  • Feast of Samhain/Celtic New Year/Celebration of All Celtic Saints—Celtic Christianity
  • Halloween and Judaism from Chabad.org
  • Samhain: Season of Death and Renewal—Celtic Studies, Gaelic culture and religion
  • Halloween at the Open Directory Project
Chabad. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Halloween 2007: The Best Halloween Costumes, Pumpkins, Crafts and More! - Kaboose.com (469 words)
Share your best Halloween jokes or riddles that will have your little goblins giggling all night long.
Add a little Halloween spirit to your classroom with these frightfully fun crafts.
These Halloween games for kids make for great party games or just fun More...
Halloween: The Fantasy and Folklore of All Hallows (The American Folklife Center, Library of Congress) (1322 words)
Samhain became the Halloween we are familiar with when Christian missionaries attempted to change the religious practices of the Celtic people.
Halloween is a holiday of many mysterious customs, but each one has a history, or at least a story behind it.
Halloween also retains some features that harken back to the original harvest holiday of Samhain, such as the customs of bobbing for apples and carving vegetables, as well as the fruits, nuts, and spices cider associated with the day.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m