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Encyclopedia > Halldór Laxness

Halldór Kiljan Laxness (born Halldór Guðjónsson) ( April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). There are 252 days remaining. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Lake Trasum. AD 303 - Saint George is... April 23, Events January-April January 28 - The Carnegie Institution is founded in Washington, DC with a $10 million gift from Andrew Carnegie. France, Loisys Lévangile et lEglise which inaugurates the Modernist Crisis February 11 - Police beat up universal suffrage demonstrators in Brussels. February 15 – Berlin underground opened... 1902 - February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 326 days remaining, 327 in leap years. Events up to 19th century 421 - Constantius III becomes co-Emperor of the Western Roman Empire 1555 - Laurence Saunders was led barefoot to his execution and burned at... February 8, 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. Events January January 1998 - A massive ice storm, caused by El Niño, strikes New England, southern Ontario and Quebec, resulting in widespread power failures, severe damage to... 1998) was a famous (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century Iceland (disambiguation). The Republic of Iceland ( Icelandic: Lýðveldið Ísland) is a borderless country in the northern Atlantic Ocean, located between Greenland, Scotland and Norway. National motto: None Official language None. Icelandic de facto. Capital and largest city Reykjavík President Ólafur Ragnar Gr... Icelandic author of such novels as Independent People (Sjálfstætt fólk) is an epic novel by Halldor Laxness, published 1934-35. Subjects are poor Icelandic farmers, only freed from debt bondage in the last generation, and surviving the late 1800s/early 1900s, on a croft in the middle of nowhere in inhospitable countryside. An... Independent People, The Atom Station, Paradise Reclaimed, Iceland's Bell, The Fish Can Sing and World Light. He won the The Nobel Prize in literature is awarded annually to an author from any country who has produced the most outstanding work of an idealistic tendency. The work in this case generally refers to an authors work as a whole, not to any individual work, though individual works are sometimes... Nobel Prize in Literature in 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday. Events January-April January 2 - Panama president Jose Antonio Remon is assassinated. January 19 - The Scrabble board game debuts. February 8 - Nikolai Bulganin ousts Georgi Malenkov February 13 - Israel obtains 4 of the 7 Dead Sea scrolls. February 23 - First meeting of... 1955.


Some facts

Halldór Kiljan Laxness was the son of Sigríður Halldórsdóttir (born Events January - April January 2 - Brigham Young, is arrested for bigamy (25 wives). February 20 - In New York City the Metropolitan Museum of Art opens. March 1 - Yellowstone National Park is established as the worlds first national park March 5 - George Westinghouse patents the air brake. March 5 - The... 1872) and Guðjón Helgason (born 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Events January - April January 6 - The inauguration of the Musikverein ( Vienna). January 10 - John D. Rockefeller incorporates Standard Oil January 15 - A political cartoon for the first time symbolizes the United States Democratic Party with a donkey (A... 1870). He lived in Reykjavík during his early years, then moved to Laxnes in Mosfellssveit in 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January-April January 22 - Massacre of Russian demonstrators at the Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, one of the triggers of the abortive Russian Revolution of 1905. January 26 - The Cullinan Diamond is found near Pretoria, South Africa... 1905. Forty years later, he moved to Gljúfrasteinn, Mosfellsveit.

He soon started to read books and write stories, and when he was 14 years old, his first article was published in Morgunblaðið under the name H.G.. Not much later he published an article (about an old clock) under his name in the same paper.

During his career he wrote 51 A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. The English word novel derives from the Italian word novella, meaning a tale, a piece of news. The novel is longer (40,000 words and onwards) and... novels, Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. It consists largely of oral or literary works in which language is used in a manner that is felt by... poetry, many newspaper articles, A play (noun) is a common literary form, usually consisting chiefly of dialog between characters, and usually intended for performance rather than reading. However, many scholars study plays in this more academic manner, particularly classical plays such as those of Shakespeare (rare authors, notably George Bernard Shaw, have had little... plays, This article is in the process of being merged into Travel literature, and may be outdated. If necessary, please only edit the page shown above, as this pages content may be deleted in the future. A travelogue is a record of the events, sights and personal feelings which a... travelogues, This article is in need of attention. Please improve it in any way you see fit. The short story is a form of narrative prose writing that is characterised by the number of words contained therein. Determining the actual length of a short story is problematic. A classic definition of... short stories and more.

He was married and had four children. Laxness died at the age of 95.

In 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of Freshwater The European Disability Year Events January January 1 - Luíz Inácio Lula Da Silva becomes the 37th President of Brazil. Pascal Couchepin becomes President of the Confederation in... 2003 Hannes Hólmsteinn Gissurarson published Memoir of Laxness, part one of three. The book was much criticised, and its future as an accepted reference is uncertain. Still, the book must be taken into account when considering Laxness's life.


In the end of 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 7 - Dáil Éireann, the extra-legal parliament of the Irish Republic, ratifies the Anglo-Irish Treaty by 64-57 votes. January 10 - Arthur Griffith is elected President of Dáil Éireann... 1922, Laxness joined an This article is about an abbey as a religious building. See also Abbey (bank), Abbey Theatre and Abbey, Saskatchewan An abbey (from the Latin abbatia, which is derived from the Syriac abba, father), is a Christian monastery or convent, under the government of an Abbot or an Abbess, who serve... abbey in Clervaux, The Grand Duchy of Luxembourg is a small landlocked state in the north-west of the continental European Union, bordered by France, Germany and Belgium. National motto: Mir wëlle bleiwe wat mir sinn ( Luxembourgish: We wish to stay what we are) Official languages French, German, Luxembourgish ( de jure... Luxembourg. The monks of the This article is about an abbey as a religious building. See also Abbey (bank), Abbey Theatre and Abbey, Saskatchewan An abbey (from the Latin abbatia, which is derived from the Syriac abba, father), is a Christian monastery or convent, under the government of an Abbot or an Abbess, who serve... abbey, named Abbaye St. Maurice et St. Maur, followed the rules of Saint Benedict from Nursia. Laxness was baptised and confirmed in This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. See Catholicism (disambiguation) for alternative meanings Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: a) the whole orthodox christian church, or adherence thereto; and b) the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto... Catholicism early in 1923 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-June January 1 - Grouping of all UK railway companies into four larger companies January 10 - Lithuania seizes and annexes Memel January 11 - Troops from France and Belgium occupy the Ruhr area to force Germany... 1923. It was at that occasion he adopted the family name Laxness and added Kiljan after his first name, Halldór. Killian was an A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. Scotland, the Isle of Man and Wales are visible to the east. Ireland is located west of the European landmass, which is part of the continent of Eurasia. Ireland (Éire in Irish) is the... Irish Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. Or sometimes, it is for a noble cause - like patriotically dying for a nations glory in a war. During the early Roman Empire, the independent cities of Asia Minor made efforts to reward benefactors for... martyr and General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. It can be applied to both the living and the dead and is an acceptable term in most of the worlds popular religions. The Saint is held up by the community... saint.

Inside the walls of the abbey, he practised self-study, read books, studied French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. In 1999 French was the 11th most spoken language in the world being spoken by about 77 million people (called Francophones) as a mother tongue, and... French, Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. It gained great importance as the formal language of the Roman Empire. All Romance languages are descended from Latin, and many words based on Latin are found in other modern languages such as English. It is said... Latin, Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. History of the term The term theologia is used in Classical Greek literature, with the meaning... theology and Philosophy (from the Greek words philos and sophia meaning love of wisdom) is understood in different ways historically and by different philosophers. It, therefore, requires a meta-philosophy to adjudicate. Although it can be conceded that philosophy aims at some kind of understanding, knowledge or wisdom about fundamental matters such... philosophy. It was also there that the story Undir Helgahnjúk, which was published in 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 7 - Great fire in London harbour January 8 - Heavy blizzards in England January 10 - British submarine L-34 sinks in the English Channel - 43 dead. January 21 - Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin... 1924, was written. Laxness published the book under his new name; Halldór Kiljan Laxness.

Inside the abbey Laxness became devout and even Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. For the book written by G. K. Chesterton see Orthodoxy (book). The word orthodoxy, from the Greek ortho (right, correct) and dox (thought, teaching), is typically used to refer to the correct observance of religion, as determined by some overseeing body... orthodox. Soon after his baptism, he even became a member of a group which prayed for reversion of the The Nordic countries (Greenland not shown) The Nordic countries is a term used collectively for five countries in Northern Europe. The Nordic countries have an aggregate population of about 24 million. The Nordic Countries are also the member countries of the Nordic Council: Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Sweden In addition... Nordic countries back to This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. See Catholicism (disambiguation) for alternative meanings Catholicism has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: a) the whole orthodox christian church, or adherence thereto; and b) the doctrines or faith of the Roman Catholic church, or adherence thereto... Catholicism.

Laxness wrote of his Catholicism in the book Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír, published in Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... 1927.

Socialism, war, independence

Laxness started to lean towards The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. Socialism is a concept, an ideology and a collection of party-based political movements that have evolved and branched over time. Initially, it was based on the organized working class, with the purpose of building a classless... socialism after having traveled to the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States to try to make films. This is evident in his book Atom Station, about the fight of some ordinary people to find a place in a new Iceland controlled by the The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. On one side was the Soviet Union and its allies, often referred to as the Eastern bloc. On the other side were the... Cold War invasion of an American bomber base into the hearts and minds of the politicians. It is told from the point of view of a poor country woman who moves to the city, finds work as a maid for one of said politicians, and who somehow sees the folly of the whole thing, and who campaigns for what she sees as a bigger priority, social welfare from the government.

Independent People is a sort of deadpan Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. Its origins are obscure, but it is certainly derived from the rich poetic and religious traditions of ancient Greece. Its roots may be traced more specifically to the dithyrambs, the chants and dances honoring the Greek god Dionysus, later known to... tragedy. It is the story of a man's life from just after he escapes his virtual enslavement to a local rural family on a remote end of Iceland, up through his attempts to build a family, a home, and a future for himself. However, from reading it, it is never explicitly stated that the setting is a remote part of Iceland. The reader only knows what the character thinks about it; and as far as he is concerned, it is a good plot of land. It is all he's ever known, he hasn't wandered in his mind to The French Republic or France ( French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. France is a democracy organised as a... France or The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany or America. So as far as the reader knows, the land is just his Land.

It reveals some of Laxness's anti-war leanings in a chapter that consists of Icelandic fisherman sitting around talking about how the Fish might refer to: Fish - vertebrates with gills which live in water Fish (sometimes FISH) - the British code-word for World War II German stream cipher teleprinter secure communications devices The FISH (FIbonacci SHrinking) stream cipher published in 1993 Fish - the former lead singer of progressive rock band Marillion fluorescent... fish sales sure have gone up since the World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. It is conventionally considered a continent, which, in this case, is more of a cultural distinction than a geographic one. ( National Geographic, however, officially recognises... Europeans started murdering each other for no good reason. Also displayed is hatred of politicians, as he depicts them as all bosom buddies, part of some exclusive mindset that renders them too busy hobnobbing with each other and fulfilling grand ideals for them to actually care about what the poor people are going through.

Readers may also interpret it as an indictment of the idea of For other uses, see Independence (disambiguation) Independence is autonomous self-government of a country by its residents and indigenous population. The term independence is used in contrast to subjugation, which refers to a region as a territory —subject to the political and military control of an external government. Autonomy... independence — not the good kind of independence, but independence taken to such an extreme that it becomes willful ignorance, and a sort of slavery of family members to the patriarch's ideas. To him his ideas are unquestionable, and inherently linked to his 'freedom'. This ends with alienating his family, in tragedy, in every minuscule and minute detail that Laxness paints with. Then he pulls back, and the reader realizes that just about every person out there on this part of the Icelandic ground was going through similar experiences. Poor health, near starvation, exploitative merchants, ignorance, hatred, etc. People will probably notice that Laxness, although he shows clearly that the main character destroyed the lives of some members of his family, the author seems to have a deep understanding of how that character came to exist, of why he exists, of why everything happens. Laxness still manages to dig out some shred of hope and love from the abysmal rural disenfranchized powerless poverty depicted in the book, and to find some human tenderness inside the burly troll monster of the main character.


The following is a partial list of publications written by or connected with Laxness:

  • 1919: Barn náttúrunnar, novel
  • 1923: Nokkrar sögur, short stories
  • 1924: Undir Helgahnúk, novel
  • 1925: Kaþólsk viðhorf, essay
  • 1927: Vefarinn mikli frá Kasmír, novel
  • 1929: Alþýðubókin, articles
  • 1930: Kvæðakver, poems
  • 1931: Salka Valka (Part I) - Þú vínviður hreini, novel
  • 1932: Salka Valka (Part II) - Fuglinnn í fjörunni, novel
  • 1933: Fótatak manna, short stories (see Þættir)
  • 1933: Í Austurvegi, travelogue
  • 1934: Straumrof, play
  • 1934: Independent People (Sjálfstætt fólk) is an epic novel by Halldor Laxness, published 1934-35. Subjects are poor Icelandic farmers, only freed from debt bondage in the last generation, and surviving the late 1800s/early 1900s, on a croft in the middle of nowhere in inhospitable countryside. An... Sjálfstætt fólk (Part I) - Landnámsmaður Íslands, novel
  • 1935: Independent People (Sjálfstætt fólk) is an epic novel by Halldor Laxness, published 1934-35. Subjects are poor Icelandic farmers, only freed from debt bondage in the last generation, and surviving the late 1800s/early 1900s, on a croft in the middle of nowhere in inhospitable countryside. An... Sjálfstætt fólk (Part II) - Erfiðir tímar, novel
  • 1935: Þórður gamli halti, short stories (see Þættir)
  • 1937: Dagleið á fjöllum, articles
  • 1937: Heimsljós (Part I) - Ljós heimsins (later named, Kraftbirtíngarhljómur guðdómsins), novel
  • 1938: Gerska æfintýrið, travelogue
  • 1938: Heimsljós (Part II) - Höll sumarlandsins, novel
  • 1939: Heimsljós (Part III) - Hús skáldsins, novel
  • 1940: Heimsljós (Part IV) - Fegurð himinsins, novel
  • 1942: Vettvángur dagsins, articles
  • 1942: Sjö töframenn, short stories (see Þættir)
  • 1943: Íslandsklukkan (Part I) - Íslandsklukkan, novel
  • 1944: Íslandsklukkan (Part II) - Hið ljósa man, novel
  • 1946: Íslandsklukkan (Part III) - Eldur í Kaupinhafn, novel
  • 1946: Sjálfsagðir hlutir, essays
  • 1948: Atómstöðin, novel
  • 1950: Reisubókarkorn, articles
  • 1950: Snæfríður Íslandssól, play (from Íslandsklukkan)
  • 1952: Gerpla, novel
  • 1952: Heiman eg fór, novel/travelogue
  • 1954: Silfurtúnglið, play
  • 1954: Þættir, collected short stories
  • 1955: Dagur í senn, articles
  • 1957: Brekkukotsannáll, novel
  • 1959: Gjörníngabók, articles
  • 1960: Paradísarheimt, novel
  • 1961: Strompleikurinn, play
  • 1962: Prjónastofan Sólin, play
  • 1963: Skáldatími, articles
  • 1964: Sjöstafakverið, short stories
  • 1965: Upphaf mannúðarstefnu, articles
  • 1966: Dúfnaveislan, play
  • 1967: Íslendíngaspjall, articles
  • 1968: Kristnihald undir Jökli, novel
  • 1969: Vínlandspúnktar, articles
  • 1970: Innansveitarkronika, novel
  • 1970: Úa, play (from Kristnihald undir Jökli)
  • 1971: Yfirskygðir staðir, articles
  • 1972: Guðsgjafaþula, novel
  • 1972: Norðanstúlkan, play (from Atómstöðin)
  • 1974: Þjóðhátíðarrolla, articles
  • 1975: Í túninu heima, memoirs I
  • 1976: Úngur eg var, memoirs III
  • 1977: Seiseijú, mikil ósköp, articles
  • 1978: Sjömeistarasagan, memoirs II
  • 1980: Grikklandsárið, memoirs IV
  • 1981: Við heygarðshornið, articles
  • 1984: Og árin líða, articles
  • 1986: Af menníngarástandi, articles
  • 1987: Dagar hjá múnkum, memoirs
  • 1987: Sagan af brauðinu dýra, short story
  • 1992: Jón í Brauðhúsum, short story
  • 1992: Skáldsnilld Laxness
  • 1996: Fugl á garðstaurnum og fleiri smásögur, short stories
  • 1997: Únglíngurinn í skóginum, poem
  • 1998: Perlur í skáldskap Laxness
  • 1999: Úngfrúin góða og Húsið, short story
  • 2000: Smásögur, short stories
  • 2001: Gullkorn úr greinum Laxness
  • 2001: Kórvilla á Vestfjörðum og fleiri sögur, short stories.
  • 2001: Laxness um land og Þjóð

References and external links

In Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language spoken in Iceland. It is an inflected language. While most Western European languages have reduced greatly the extent of inflection, particularly in noun declension, Icelandic retains an inflectional grammar comparable to that of Latin, Ancient Greek, or more closely, Old English. Written Icelandic... Icelandic:

  • Hannes Hólmsteinn Gissurarson. 2003. Halldór. Almenna bókafélagið, Reykjavík.
  • Íslenska alfræðiorðabókin H-O. 1990. Editors: Dóra Hafsteinsdóttir and Sigríður Harðardóttir. Örn og Örlygur hf., Reykjavík.
  • Ritaskrá  (http://www2.mbl.is/mm/serefni/laxness/ritaskra.html)
  • Halldór Laxness (http://www2.mbl.is/mm/serefni/laxness/)
  • Sýning - Þar ríkir fegurðin ein, öld með Halldóri Laxness (http://www.bok.hi.is/syningar/laxnes/syning_ritaskra.htm)

In The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English:

  • Biography  (http://nobelprize.org/literature/laureates/1955/laxness-bio.html) from the The Nobel Prizes (pronounced no-BELL or no-bell) are awarded annually to people who have done outstanding research, invented groundbreaking techniques or equipment, or made outstanding contributions to society. It is generally regarded as the supreme commendation in the world today. The prizes were instituted by the final will... Nobel Prize website



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