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Encyclopedia > Halifax Bay


Halifax Bay, Queensland

Halifax Bay is situated between the coast of Townsville and the Coral Sea.

Located between Ingham to the North and Townsville to the South and Palm Island to the East. The southern half of is closely bounded by the Paluma Range whilst the northern half opens into the fertile Herbert River valley. There are three villages in England of the name of Ingham. ... Townsville in 2004. ... Palm Island (postcode: 4816, 18°42′S 146°33′E) is 65 km north-east of Townsville, Queensland on the east coast of Australia. ...

Major tributaries of Halifax Bay to the North include Trebonne Creek, Cattle Creek, and Crystal Creek. Whilst in the South the inflows are from Rollingstone Creek, Bluewater Creek, Black River and the Bohle River.

Towns and localities in the Halifax Bay region include:

Thuringowa City Council - Mount Low, Bushland Beach, Yabulu, Saunders Beach, Toolakea Beach, Bluewater, Toomulla Beach, Rollingstone, Balgal Beach, Paluma, Mutamee

Hinchinbrook Shire Council - Ingham, Lucinda, Taylors Beach, Forrest Beach


Halifax Bay was originally inhabited by the Warakami and the Wulgurkaba aboriginal tribes and these were likely some the tribes people that Captain James Cook saw when he named Halifax Bay between June 6-8, 1770. [1]

George Dalrymple explored the Halifax Bay area in the early 1860s and the first settlers to the Herbert River Valley settled soon after. Ingham was first settled in 1865.

The southern parts of Halifax Bay developed at a slower pace with the area south of Crystal Creek being included in the newly formed Thuringowa Land Division in 1879.

From 1879 the two ends of Halifax Bay were dominated by their major settlements, Ingham and Townsville.

The southern section of Halifax Bay, including Palm Island, was prominent air defence area during the Second World War. Halifax Bay, being on the northern approaches to the major air base in Townsville, was an ideal signals and battery location. Significant operations included Fort Kissing Point at Cape Pallarenda, a signal and radar station on Mount Spec, a radio station at Mount Low and a seaplane base at Palm Island. A US Army Hospital operated at Black River. Rattlesnake Island, in Halifax Bay, was used for live firing (and is still used for this purpose).

After the war the southern section of Halifax Bay began a transition from rural to residential settlement with significant beach developments occurring from the 1960s onwards. In 1971 the area of southern Halifax Bay was heavily impacted by severe tropical cyclone Althea. In 1974 a Nickel Refinery (QNI Nickel) began its operations at Yabulu on the south end of Halifax Bay.

The northern section of Halifax Bay is a major sugar producing area. The first settlers to the northern area were cattle farmers but sugar became the major interest when the Mackenzie Brothers built the first sugar mill in 1872. By 1970 over 2,000,000T of cane was being crushed in the district.[2] In 2000, Cyclone Tessi crossed Halifax Bay south of Lucinda.


Halifax Bay is an important Australian ecological area. The bay itself is part of the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area whilst the Paluma Range is included in the Wet Tropics World Heritage Area.

Halifax Bay is generally a turbid environment that supports a wide variety of commercial and recreational fish species, prawns and scallops.[3] The bay also supports Dugong habitats and is a significant Green Turtle nesting area.

Operators and regulatory bodies regularly assess environmental impacts from sugar growers, the Yabulu Refinery, military use and residential use.


  1. ^ Cook’s Endeavour Journal at National Library of Australia, Published by South Seas, using the Web Academic Resource Publisher - http://nla.gov.au/nla.cs-ss-jrnl-cook-toc.
  2. ^ Sugarcane Growing - The Early Years, Hinchinbrook Shire Council http://www.hinchinbrooknq.com.au/indst_sugar_earlyyears.htm
  3. ^ Southern Halifax Bay Ecological Assessment published by QNI Nickel Refinery, 2000



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