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Encyclopedia > Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus(Åλικαρνᾱσσός)
Ancient City of Greece
(Bodrum)
The ruins of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

Halicarnassus
Halicarnassus, now Bodrum

Halicarnassus (Ancient Greek: Άλικαρνᾱσσός — Halikarnassós or Αλικαρνασσός — Alikarnassós; Turkish: Halikarnas, modern Bodrum) was an ancient Greek city on the southwest coast of Caria, Anatolia (Asia Minor), on a picturesque, advantageous site on the Ceramic Gulf (Gulf of Kos, Gulf of Gökova). It originally occupied only the small island of Zephyria close to the shore, now occupied by the great Bodrum Castle (Castle of St. Peter), built by the Knights of Rhodes in 1404; but in course of time this island was united to the mainland and the city extended so as to incorporate Salmacis, an older town of the Leleges and Carians. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in MuÄŸla Province. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 589 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, from a 1572 engraving by Marten Heemskerk (1498–1574), who based his reconstruction on descriptions The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos or Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (in Greek, ), was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 320 pixelsFull resolution (3323 × 1331 pixel, file size: 41 KB, MIME type: image/png) Карта Турции в нужной проекции для Шаблон:ПозКарта, обрезанная ровно по линиям градусов (25° - 45° в.д., 43° - 35° с.ш.). Map of Turkey, in the equirectangular projection (equidistant cylindrical projection, or plate carrée). ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in MuÄŸla Province. ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... Location of Caria Photo of a 15th century map showing Caria. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Port and city view of Kos town on the island Kos. ... The Gulf of Gökova (Turkish: Gökova körfezi), Gulf of Kerme (Turkish: Kerme körfezi, Greek: Κεραμεικός κόλπος, Latin: Ceramicus Sinus, English: Ceramic Gulf), or Gulf of Cos, is a long (100 km), narrow gulf of the Aegean Sea which separates the Bodrum peninsula from the Resadiye peninsula in southwest... Bodrum Castle (Bodrum Kalesi), located in southwest Turkey in the city of Bodrum, was built by the Knights Hospitaller starting in 1402 as the Castle of St. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Events June 14 - Owain Glyndwr of Wales allies with the French against the English and the Henry of Lancaster. ... The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of southwest Anatolia (compare Pelasgians), who were already there when the Indo-European Hellenes arrived. ... The Carians (Greek Καρες Kares, or Καρικοι Karikoi) were the eponymous inhabitants of Caria. ...

Contents

History

Early History: Founding

Herodotus honored with a statue in his home of Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum).

The founding of Halicarnassus is debated among various traditions; but they agree in the main point as to its being a Dorian colony, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena and Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen and Argos. The inhabitants appear to have accepted as their legendary founder Anthes, mentioned by Strabo, and were proud of the title of Antheadae. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 552 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was taken May 22, 2004. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (960 × 1280 pixel, file size: 552 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This picture was taken May 22, 2004. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“rodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in MuÄŸla Province. ... [[Im Category: ... A relatively modern image of Medusa painted by Arnold Böcklin In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μεδουσα Queen), was a monstrous female character whose gaze could turn people to stone. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Troezen (TREE-zun) is a city in Argolis located southwest of Athens and a few miles south of Methana. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...



At an early period Halicarnassus was a member of the Doric Hexapolis, which included Cos, Cnidus, Lindos, Kameiros and Ialysus. But when one of the citizens, Agasicles, chose to take home the prize tripod which he had won in the Triopian games instead of dedicating it, according to custom, to the Triopian Apollo, the city was cut off from the league. In the early 5th century Halicarnassus was under the sway of Artemisia I of Caria, who made herself famous as a naval commander at the Battle of Salamis. Of Pisindalis, her son and successor, little is known; but Lygdamis, who next attained power, is notorious for having put to death the poet Panyasis and causing Herodotus, possibly the best known of Halicarnassians, to leave his native city (c. 457 BC). Knidos or Cnidus (modern-day Tekir in Turkey) is an ancient Greek city in Asia Minor, once part of the country of Caria. ... Acropolis of Lindos: the restored stoa Lindos (Greek Λινδος;) is a town and an archaeological site on the east coast of the island of Rhodes (Rhodhos) in the Dodecanese Islands in south-eastern Greece. ... Kameiros is a city on the island of Rhodes, lying on a peninsula on the northwest coast of the island. ... Ialysos (Greek: Ιαλυσός), also known as Trianta, is the second-largest town on the island of Rhodes (Ρόδος, Rhodos) in Greece. ... Artemisia was the daughter of Lygdamis and was set up as the tyrant of Halicarnassus by the Persians, who were at the time the overlords of Ionia, after the death of her husband. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... Panyasis (more correctly, Panyassis), of Halicarnassus, Greek epic poet, uncle or cousin of Herodotus, flourished about 470 BCE. He was put to death by the tyrant Lygdamis (c. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Centuries: 4th century BC - 5th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 500s BC 490s BC 480s BC 470s BC 460s BC - 450s BC - 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC 400s BC Years: 462 BC 461 BC 460 BC 459 BC 458 BC - 457 BC - 456 BC 455 BC...


Macedonian influence

One of her successors, Pixodarus, tried to ally himself with the rising power of Macedon, and is said to have gained the momentary consent of the young Alexander to wed his daughter. The marriage, however, was forbidden by Alexander's father Philip. During the early years of Alexander's campaigns, Memnon, the paramount satrap of Asia Minor, had taken refuge with the Persian fleet in Halicarnassus. As soon as he had reduced Ionia, Alexander demanded Halicarnassus to surrender; and on its refusal took the city after hard fighting and devastated it. There was a moat, dug in the 4th c. BC, in front of the citadel. It was 56 m long, 7 m wide and 2.5 m deep, surrounding the southern tower. In 334 BC when Alexander tried to take the citadel, the narrow bridge over the moat collapsed, resulting in many casualties (as related by the historian Arianos in his biography of Alexander). As he was not able to reduce the citadel, Alexander was forced to leave it blockaded. The ruins of this citadel and the moat are now a tourist attraction in Bodrum. Pixodarus (in Greek Πιξωδαρoς; ruled 340–335 BC), a prince or king of Caria, was the youngest of the three sons of Hecatomnus, all of whom successively held the sovereignty of their native coutry. ... Ancient Macedons regions and towns Macedon or Macedonia (Greek ) was the name of an ancient kingdom in the northern-most part of ancient Greece, bordered by the kingdom of Epirus to the west and the region of Thrace to the east. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Philip II of Macedon: victory medal (niketerion) struck in Tarsus, 2nd c. ... Memnon of Rhodes (380 – 333 BC) was the commander of the Greek mercenaries working for the Persian king Darius III when Alexander the Great of Macedonia invaded Persia in 334 BC and won the Battle of the Granicus River. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ...


Alexander handed the government of the city back to the family of Mausolus, as represented by Ada, sister of the latter. Not long afterwards we find the citizens receiving the present of a gymnasium from Ptolemy, and building in his honour a stoa or portico. Halicarnassus never recovered altogether from the disasters of the siege, and Cicero describes it as almost deserted. Baroque artist Johann Elias Ridinger depicted the several stages of siege and taking of the place in a huge copper engraving as one of only two known today from his Alexander set. Ada of Caria (4th century BC) came to power as the ruler of the large and profitable provincial capital city of Halicarnassus in Caria, a satrapy of the Persian Empire at a time when Darius was actively seeking to conquer it. ... Ptolemy I Soter (Greek: , Ptolemaios Soter, i. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ...


Archeological notes & restorations

The site is now occupied in part by the town of Bodrum; but the ancient walls can still be traced round nearly all their circuit, and the position of several of the temples, the theatre, and other public buildings can be fixed with certainty.


From the ruins of the Mausoleum sufficient has been recovered by the excavations carried out in 1857 by CT Newton to enable a fairly complete restoration of its design to be made. The building consisted of five parts—a basement or podium, a pteron or enclosure of columns, a pyramid, a pedestal and a chariot group. The basement, covering an area of 114 feet by 92, was built of blocks of greenstone and cased with marble. Round the base of it were probably disposed groups of statuary. The pteron consisted (according to Pliny) of thirty-six columns of the Ionic order, enclosing a square cena. Between the columns probably stood single statues. From the portions that have been recovered, it appears that the principal frieze of the pteron represented combats of Greeks and Amazons. In addition, there are also many life-size fragments of animals, horsemen, etc., belonging probably to pedimental sculptures, but formerly supposed to be parts of minor friezes. Above the pteron rose the pyramid, mounting by 24 steps to an apex or pedestal. 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ...


On this apex stood the chariot with the figure of Mausolus himself and an attendant. The height of the statue of Mausolus in the British Museum is 9'9" without the plinth. The forehead falls in thick waves on each side of the face and descends nearly to the shoulder; the beard is short and close, the face square and massive, the eyes deep set under overhanging brows, the mouth well formed with settled calm about the lips. The drapery is grandly composed. All sorts of restorations of this famous monument have been proposed. The original one, made by Newton and Pullan, is obviously in error in many respects; and that of Oldfield, though to be preferred for its lightness (the Mausoleum was said anciently to be "suspended in mid-air"), does not satisfy the conditions postulated by the remains. The best on the whole is that of the veteran German architect, F. Adler, published in 1900; but fresh studies have since been made (see below). The British Museum in London, England is a museum of human history and culture. ... Sir Charles Thomas Newton (September 16, 1816–November 28, 1894) was a British archaeologist. ...


The Christian and later history of the site is continued at Bodrum. Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in Muğla Province. ...


Notable people

Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... Aelius Dionysius was a Greek rhetorician from Halicarnassus, who lived in the time of the em­peror Hadrian. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

Notes and references

  • CT Newton and RP Pullan, History of Discoveries at Halicarnassus (1862—1863)
  • J Fergusson, The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus restored (1862)
  • E Oldfield, "The Mausoleum," in Archaeologia (1895)
  • F. Adler, Mausoleum zu Halikarnass (1900)
  • JP Six in Journ. Hell. Studies (1905)
  • WB Dinsmoor in Amer. Journ. of Arch. (1908)
  • JJ Stevenson, A Restoration of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (1909)
  • JBK Preedy, "The Chariot Group of the Mausoleum," in Journ. hell. Stud., 1910.

External links

  • Livius, Halicarnassus by Jona Lendering
  • The Tomb of Mausolus (W. R. Lethaby's reconstruction of the Mausoleum, 1908)

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Halicarnassus (2570 words)
About the foundation of Halicarnassus various traditions were current; but they agree in the main point as to its being a Dorian colony, and the figures on its coins, such as the head of Medusa, Athena and Poseidon, or the trident, support the statement that the mother cities were Troezen and Argos.
In the 5th century BC Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the Delian League, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Halicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
Halicarnassus and other Dorian cities of Asia were to some extent absorbed by the DelianLeague, but the peace of Antalcidas in 387 made them subservient to Persia; and it was under Mausolus, a Persian satrap who assumed independent authority, that Hahicarnassus attained its highest prosperity.
Mausoleum of Maussollos - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2160 words)
In 377 BC, the city of Halicarnassus was the capital of a small kingdom along the Mediterranean coast of Asia Minor.
It was in that year the ruler of this land, Hecatomnus of Mylasa, died and left control of the kingdom to his son, Mausolus.
In 1522 rumors of a Turkish invasion caused Crusaders to strengthen the castle at Halicarnassus (which was by then known as Bodrum) and much of the remaining portions of the tomb was broken up and used within the castle walls.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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