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Encyclopedia > Haka of the All Blacks

The All Blacks, the international rugby union team of New Zealand, perform a haka (Māori traditional dance) immediately prior to international matches. The Haka is also performed by the New Zealand Rugby League team.[1] Over the years they have most commonly performed the haka "Ka Mate". In the early decades of international rugby, they sometimes performed other haka,[2] some of which were composed for specific tours. Since 2005 they have occasionally performed a new haka, "Kapa o Pango." First international  Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand  (15 August 1903) Largest win  New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan  (4 June 1995) Worst defeat  Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand  (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 The All Blacks are New Zealands national rugby... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... For the River in the North-East of England, see River Team. ... This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Te Rauparaha, Ngāti Toa chief, 1840s This article is about a haka in its traditional context. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

The first New Zealand rugby team to tour overseas, playing eight matches in New South Wales, Australia, in 1884, performed "a Maori war cry" or haka before each of its matches. NSW redirects here. ...


During 1888-89, the New Zealand Native team toured the Home Nations of the United Kingdom, the first team from a colony to do so. It was originally intended that only Māori players would be selected, but four "whites" were finally included. As the "whites" were born in New Zealand, the name "Native" was considered justified. The team performed a haka before the start of their first match on 3 October 1888 against Surrey. They were described as using the words "Ake ake kia kaha" which suggests that the haka was not "Ka Mate". It was intended that before each match they would perform the haka dressed in traditional Māori costume but the costumes were soon discarded. The 1888-1889 New Zealand Native football team was a New Zealand football team that toured Britain, Australia and New Zealand in 1888 and 1889. ... Home Nations (often written as the common noun home nations) is a term used to refer to the four constituent countries of the United Kingdom — England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland — collectively but as separate entities, distinct from the United Kingdom as a state. ...


New Zealand played its first full international test match when it played Australia in Sydney in 1903. It has been claimed that the New Zealand team performed a haka which was evidently composed for the occasion, as it addressed the "Wallabies". This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... First international Australia 13 - 3 British Isles (24 June 1899) Largest win Australia  142 - 0  Namibia (25 October 2003) Worst defeat South Africa  61 - 22  Australia (23 August 1997) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1991, 1999 The Australian national rugby union team is the representative...


In 1905 New Zealand made their first tour of Britain. This was the first time the team were referred to as the All Blacks and this particular team also became known as the 'Originals'. It is uncertain whether they performed a haka before every match, but they at least performed "Ka Mate" before their first test, against Scotland, and before the match against Wales. The Welsh crowd, led by the Welsh team, responded by singing the Welsh national anthem. For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... The 1905 Original All Blacks. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4 - 1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  Scotland 100 - 8 Japan  (13 November 2004) Worst defeat  Scotland 10 - 68 South Africa  (6 December 1997) World Cup Appearances 5 (First in 1987) Best result 4th 1991 The Scotland national rugby union team... First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team (also referred to as...


When a New Zealand Army team played Wales in 1916, the words of "Ka Mate" were included in the printed programme, indicating that the haka was established as an accompaniment to New Zealand rugby teams playing overseas.


The 1924-25 New Zealand rugby team which toured the United Kingdom, Ireland, France and Canada and which was nicknamed the Invincibles, performed a haka that was written for them during the voyage to England by two supporters, Judge Frank Acheson of the Native Land Court and Wiremu Rangi of Gisborne. The haka was led by star player George Nepia. It was performed before all but two of the tour matches. Reporters criticized the team for disappointing the crowd on the two occasions it was not performed. The Invincibles was a nickname given to the 1924-25 New Zealand rugby union team which toured the United Kingdom, Ireland, France and Canada. ... George Nepia (1905/1908? - 1986) was a famous Maori rugby and rugby league player. ...


A pre-match haka was not always performed on All Blacks tours. The team that toured Britain in 1935-36 did not perform one before matches, although they did some impromptu performances at social functions. In the early decades, haka were only rarely performed at home matches, such as the third test of the 1921 Springboks tour, played in Wellington. First international South Africa 4 - 0 British Isles (30 July 1891) Largest win South Africa  134 - 3  Uruguay (11 June 2005) Worst defeat  England 53 - 3 South Africa  (23rd November, 2002) World Cup Appearances 4 (First in 1995) Best result Champions, 1995 and 2007 Springboks redirects here. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ...


"Ka Mate"

The All Blacks perform Ka Mate before a match against France in November 2006.
The All Blacks perform Ka Mate before a match against France in November 2006.

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 245 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 313 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From http://www. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 245 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 313 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) From http://www. ...

Overview

The "Ka Mate" haka arose as a wily plan to defeat the aims of an enemy. Inspired by this, the All Blacks are believed to have first used the "Ka Mate" or "Te Rauparaha" haka in 1906. The origin of this haka dates to 1810 when chief Te Rauparaha of the Ngāti Toa iwi (clan or tribe) was being chased by enemies. In a cunning stratagem, he hid in a food-storage pit under the skirt of a woman. Because this was an unthinkable thing for a chief to do, Te Rauparaha thought he would be safe. He climbed out to find someone standing over him, who, instead of killing Te Rauparaha, turned out to be another chief friendly to Te Rauparaha. In relief Te Rauparaha performed a haka with the words (translated from Māori) — Te Rauparaha, Ngāti Toa chief, 1840s This article is about a haka in its traditional context. ... Te Rauparaha (1760s?-1849) was a Maori Chief and War Leader of the Ngati Toa tribe who took a leading part in the Musket Wars. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Iwi (pronounced ee-wee) are the largest everyday social units in Māori society. ...


It is death, it is death: it is life, it is life; this is the man who enabled me to live as I climb up step by step toward sunlight.


These words are still used today. Te Rauparaha's escape from death is commemorated in the haka, which can be interpreted as 'a celebration of life over death' (Pōmare 2006).


Performance

The "Ka Mate" haka generally opens with a set of five preparatory instructions shouted by the leader, before the whole team joins in:

"Ka Mate"
Leader: Ringa pakia! Slap the hands against the thighs!
Uma tiraha! Puff out the chest!
Turi whatia! Bend the knees!
Hope whai ake! Let the hip follow!
Waewae takahia kia kino! Stamp the feet as hard as you can!
Leader: Ka mate, ka mate ’Tis death, ‘tis death (or: I may die)
Team: Ka ora ’Tis life, ‘tis life (or: I may live)
Leader: Ka mate, ka mate ’Tis death, ‘tis death
Team: Ka ora ’Tis life, ‘tis life
All: Tēnei te tangata pūhuruhuru This the hairy man that stands here...
Nāna nei i tiki mai whakawhiti te rā …who brought the sun and caused it to shine
Ā upane, ka upane A step upward, another step upward
Ā upane, ka upane A step upward, another step upward
Whiti te rā, hī! The sun shines!

"Kapa o Pango"

Overview

Before a Tri Nations match against South Africa on August 28, 2005 at Carisbrook in Dunedin, the All Blacks unexpectedly introduced a new haka, "Kapa o Pango". Written by Derek Lardelli of Ngati Porou, it featured an extended and aggressive introduction by team captain Tana Umaga and was highlighted by its more aggressive climax: each player performing a "throat-slitting" action directed at the opposing team. The All Blacks went on to win the match 31 to 27. The Tri Nations Trophy The Tri Nations Series is an annual international rugby union series held between Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the village on the Isle of Wight, see Carisbrooke. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... The Ngati Porou iwi is among the top ten tribes of New Zealand by population. ... Ionatana Falefasa Tana Umaga, ONZM, (IPA: , born May 27, 1973) is a New Zealand rugby union footballer and former captain of the national team, the All Blacks. ...


The new haka is said to have been over a year in the making, and was created in consultation with many experts in Māori culture. It will serve as a complement to "Ka Mate" rather than a replacement, to be used for 'special occasions'. The words to "Kapa o Pango" are more specific to the rugby team than "Ka Mate", referring to the warriors in black and the silver fern[1]


The All Blacks opted not to perform "Kapa o Pango" in their opening test of 2006 against Ireland, as it was requested that they perform the traditional haka, as a 'review' was conducted into "Kapa o Pango". The throat-slitting action at the end of "Kapa o Pango" drew many complaints in the lead up to the Irish test, with members of the public complaining about it to the NZRU. The NZRU said that it was not because of public pressure that it was not performed against Ireland.[2] In the run-up to the first All Blacks Test of the 2006 Tri Nations at Jade Stadium in Christchurch against Australia, the NZRU completed their review, and concluded that the "throat-slitting" gesture had a radically different meaning within Māori culture and haka traditions, specifically the drawing of vital energy into the heart and lungs.[3] "Kapa o Pango" was performed, complete with the final gesture, before the Australia test. Despite this, the controversial gesture appears to have been withdrawn in 2007, with a modified action (raking the right arm from the left hip to over the right shoulder) performed in the challenge when "Kapa o Pango" was performed in test matches against France and South Africa. The 2006 Tri Nations Series, an annual rugby union competition between the national teams of Australia, New Zealand and South Africa, marked the tenth anniversary of the original competition. ... Jade Stadium, formerly known as Lancaster Park is a sports stadium situated in Christchurch. ... For other uses, see Christchurch (disambiguation). ...


Performance

"Kapa o Pango"
Kapa o Pango kia whakawhenua au i ahau! All Blacks, let me become one with the land
Hī aue, hī! do one
Ko Aotearoa e ngunguru nei! This is our land that rumbles
Au, au, aue hā! It’s my time! It’s my moment!
Ko Kapa o Pango e ngunguru nei! This defines us as the All Blacks
Au, au, aue hā! It’s my time! It’s my moment!
I āhahā!
Ka tū te ihiihi Our dominance
Ka tū te wanawana Our supremacy will triumph
Ki runga ki te rangi e tū iho nei, tū iho nei, hī! And be placed on high
Ponga rā! Silver fern!
Kapa o Pango, aue hī! All Blacks!
Ponga rā! Silver fern!
Kapa o Pango, aue hī, hā! All Blacks!

Controversies

Haka prior to a game against Portugal in Lyon, France.
Haka prior to a game against Portugal in Lyon, France.

The haka, whilst normally enjoyed by spectators, has been criticised as an unsporting attempt to intimidate the opposition before the match begins. However, most teams accept that the Haka is a legitimate part of Rugby's Heritage and face up to the All Blacks during its performance, with both teams standing about 10 metres apart. 2007 Portuguese Rugby Captain Vasco Uva said of the Haka that "[We] faced it, gave it the respect it deserved and it gave us motivation and we knew if it gave them strength, it was also a point of strength for us." [3] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (768 × 1024 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... This article is about the French city. ...


Ignoring the Haka is a tactic sometimes used by teams, but famously the Australian Rugby Team did a warm up drill well away from the All Blacks during their 1996 Test Match in Wellington, and were beaten by a record score. More recently, the Italian Rugby Team ignored the Haka during a 2007 World Cup Pool Match, and the All Blacks then went on to beat them by a larger than expected score. All Black hooker Keven Mealamu said later that the snub had backfired and provided motivation to his team.[4] For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Kevin Filipo Mealamu (born March 20, 1979 in Tokoroa, Waikato, New Zealand) is an international rugby football union player for the New Zealand All Blacks. ...


In 1997, Richard Cockerill was disciplined for responding to the haka before the start of an England vs All Blacks game. Cockerill went toe-to-toe with his opposite number Norm Hewitt while they performed the Haka. The Referee became so concerned that Hewitt and Cockerill would begin fighting that he pushed Cockerill away from Hewitt. Cockerill went onto say afterwards "I believe that I did the right thing that day," he said. "They were throwing down a challenge and I showed them I was ready to accept it. I'm sure they would rather we did that than walk away."[5] Richard Cockerill (born December 16, 1970) is a former English rugby union footballer who played as a hooker. ... First international (also the worlds first)  Scotland 4–1 England  (27 March 1871) Largest win  England 134–0 Romania  (17 November 2001) Worst defeat  Australia 76–0 England  (6 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 2003 The England national rugby union team represents... First international  Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand  (15 August 1903) Largest win  New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan  (4 June 1995) Worst defeat  Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand  (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 The All Blacks are New Zealands national rugby...


At the 1999 Bledisloe Cup match at Telstra Stadium, Sydney, 107,000 voices sang Waltzing Matilda as a response to the New Zealand haka. The Australian players responded by delivering New Zealand a record 28-7 defeat culminating in the cup being retained by Australia.


In 2005, the All Blacks agreed to a request from the Welsh Rugby Union to repeat the sequence of events from the original match a century before in 1905. This involved the All Blacks performing the haka after "God Defend New Zealand" and before "Hen Wlad fy Nhadau". For the November 2006 test, the WRU demanded a repeat of this sequence. The All Blacks refused, and instead chose to perform the haka in their changing room before the match.[6] All Blacks captain Richie McCaw defended the decision by stating that the haka was "integral to New Zealand culture and the All Blacks' heritage" and "if the other team wants to mess around, we'll just do the haka in the shed".[7] The crowd reacted negatively to the lack of the haka and then being shown brief footage of the haka on the screens at the Millennium Stadium.[8] The Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) (Welsh: ) is the governing body of rugby union in Wales, recognised by the International Rugby Board. ... God Defend New Zealand is one of the national anthems of New Zealand, together with God Save the Queen. Although they both have equal status, only God Defend New Zealand is used, and most New Zealanders would be unaware that the country has two national anthems. ... Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau (pronounced , usually translated as land of our fathers init, but literally old country of my fathers) is, by tradition, the national anthem of Wales. ... The Millennium Stadium (Welsh: Stadiwm y Mileniwm), is the national stadium of Wales, located in the capital Cardiff, and is used primarily for rugby union and football home internationals. ...


In the 2007 Rugby World Cup quarter-finals, France, after having won the coin toss for the choice of uniforms, famously wore the blue/white/red of the French flag and walked up to within a metre of the Haka performance, forming a line of patriotic opposition to the performance by the All-Blacks, who were wearing a predominantly silver uniform (as opposed to the traditional all black). France went on to defeat the All-Blacks 20-18.


In December 2006 controversy arose across the Pacific ocean with "Kapa O Pango" being used by the United States NCAA Division I Football team the University of Hawaii Warriors. Senior Offensive Lineman Tala Esera and Safety Leonard Peters both helped teach the team the haka. Esera claims that while he is not of Maori descent, his wife is and says that the haka was shown to him by an in-law.


Esera says that their version of Kapa O Pango is not "step for step" the All Blacks haka (there are indeed small variations of the dance preceding the line "au, au, aue ha!" and during the first part of "Kapa O Pango aue hi"), but there apparently has been no alterations to the chant itself that has been specifically written for the All Blacks.


In early 2007, the Canterbury women's rugby union team from Kent, England created a minor controversy by performing the haka in near nude.[9] For other uses, see Kent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


See also

The controversial throat-slitting gesture In 2006, Kapa o Pango, the new haka of the New Zealand rugby union team, the All Blacks, created much controversy with the throat-slitting gesture at the end. ... First international  Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand  (15 August 1903) Largest win  New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan  (4 June 1995) Worst defeat  Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand  (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 The All Blacks are New Zealands national rugby... The origins of the cibi date back to the countrys warring times with their Pacific neighbours. ... This article is about the traditional Māori dance genre. ... The haka is a traditional Māori dance form. ... Te Rauparaha, Ngāti Toa chief, 1840s This article is about a haka in its traditional context. ... A Kapa haka is a group gathered to practise and perform the songs and dances of the Māori people of New Zealand. ... The Kailao is a Tongan war dance imported to Tonga from nearby Uvea, also known as Wallis Island. ... The Maori are the native peoples of New Zealand. ... The Manu Siva Tau is a Samoan war dance, performed by the Samoas sporting teams before each match. ...

Notes

  1. ^ In their 2006 test match against Wales, the All Blacks opted to perform the Haka Ka Mate within their dressing room prior to the match. This was the result of the Welsh rugby union's decision that the Welsh national anthem, Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau would be played after the Haka, not before as is traditional.
  2. ^ The title of this article follows the convention derived from the Māori language of not adding an s to pluralise words.
  3. ^ "Uva looking ahead already", Planet Rugby, 2007-09-15. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. 
  4. ^ Long, David. "Haka snub sparks All Black fury", Sunday News, 2007-09-09. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. 
  5. ^ "England receive 'Haka' warning", BBC News, 1999-10-07. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. 
  6. ^ "All Blacks perform haka in changing room to protest Welsh Rugby Union", International Herald Tribune, 2006-11-25. Retrieved on 2007-07-11. 
  7. ^ "McCaw defends private haka choice", BBC Sport, 2006-11-26. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. 
  8. ^ Godwin, Hugh. "Wales 10 New Zealand 45: All Blacks dance to a different beat", The Independent, 2006-11-27. Retrieved on 2007-03-18. 
  9. ^ Team apologises for topless haka

First international  England 30 – 0 Wales  (19 February 1881) Largest win  Japan 0 – 98 Wales  (26 November 2004) Worst defeat  South Africa 96 – 13 Wales  (27 June 1998) World Cup Appearances 6/6 (First in 1987) Best result Third 1987 The Wales national rugby union team (also referred to as... First international  Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand  (15 August 1903) Largest win  New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan  (4 June 1995) Worst defeat  Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand  (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 The All Blacks are New Zealands national rugby... Te Rauparaha, Ngāti Toa chief, 1840s This article is about a haka in its traditional context. ... The Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) (Welsh: ) is the governing body of rugby union in Wales, recognised by the International Rugby Board. ... Hen Wlad Fy Nhadau (pronounced , usually translated as land of our fathers init, but literally old country of my fathers) is, by tradition, the national anthem of Wales. ... Māori or Te Reo Māori, commonly shortened to Te Reo (literally the language) is an official language of New Zealand. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 330th day of the year (331st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • M. Pōmare, 'Ngāti Toarangatira', Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, updated 9-Jun-2006. URL: www.TeAra.govt.nz
  • 'The Haka - In the Beginning', New Zealand Rugby Museum.

External links

  • The 2003 Schools Kapa Haka Nationals held at Hopuhopu November 28, 29 Nga Whakataetae Kapa Haka o te Motu mo nga Kura Tuatahi, Waikato 2003.
  • Lyrics and history of the All Black Haka
  • All Blacks Official site on the Haka (with several videos)
  • History of the All Black Haka
  • Te Rauparaha and "Ka Mate"

 
 

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