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Encyclopedia > Hajjaj

Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf (Arabic: الحجاج بن يوسف, also known as Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf ath-Thaqafī), born in June 661 in aţ-Ţā’if and died 714 in Wasit, Iraq, was an important Arab administrator during the Umayyad Caliphate. His given name was Kulayb "Little Dog" but he changed it to al-Hajjaj before being appointed Governor of Iraq. Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Events Caliph Ali Ben Abu Talib is assassinated. ... Taif in 1970 Taif (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is a city in the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia at an elevation of 1700 metres on the slopes of the Al-Sarawat mountains. ... // Events February 28 - An earthquake strikes Syria. ... Categories: Stub | Provinces of Iraq ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Caliphate (Arabic خلافة) is the theoretical federal government that would govern the Islamic world under Islamic law, ruled by a Caliph as head of state. ...


The administrative language of Iraq officially changed from Middle Persian (Pahlavi) to Arabic during his governorship. The records of administrative documents (diwans) of Iraq transferred from Pahlavi to Arabic. Pahlavi is a term that refers: (1) to a script used in Iran derived from the Aramaic script, and (2) more broadly, to Middle Persian, the Middle Iranian language written in this script. ...


Beginnings

Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf served as the governor of Iraq during the reigns of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and al-Walid I of the Umayyad. Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf served as the governor of Iraq during the reigns of Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan and al-Walid I of the Umayyad. "Little of the early years of his public life: he does not seem to have distinguished himself in the battles in the Harra of Medina in 63/682 (Aghani, xvi, 42) and al-Rabahda in 65/684 (Tabari, ii, 579) or as governor of Tabala in the Tihima (Ibn Kutayba,Mas’arif, 396). Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (646 - 705) was an Umayyad caliph. ... Al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (Arabic: ) or Al-Walid I (668 - 715) was an Umayyad caliph who ruled from 705 - 715. ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ...


The change began when al-Hajjaj in the first years of the reign of Abd al-Malik, set out from Taif to Damascus to serve in the police force (Šhurta) under Aba Zur’a Rawh b. Zinba al-Djudhami, the vizier of the caliph. He attracted the attention of Abd al-Malik because he succeeded in a short time in restoring discipline among the mutinous troops with whom the caliph was about to set out for Iraq against Mus’ab b. al-Zubayr. In the drastic means with which he discharged this task there could already be recognized the method which was later to make him famous, indeed notorious.


On the campaign against Musab, al-Hajjaj seems to have led the rearguard and to have distinguished himself by some feats of valour. After the victory over Mus’ab at Maskin on the Dudjayl in 72/691, on the caliph's orders he set out from Kufa in the same month at the head of about 2000 Syrians against Abd Allah b. al-Zubayr, the anti-caliph of Mecca. He advanced unopposed as far as his native Taif, which he took without any fighting and used as a base. The caliph had charged him first to negotiate with Ibn al-Zubayr and to assure him of freedom from punishment if he capitulated, but, if the opposition continued, to starve him out by siege, but on no account to let the affair result in bloodshed in the Holy City. Since the negotiations failed and l-Hajjaj lost patience, he sent a courier to ask Abd al-Malik for reinforcements and also for permission to take Mecca by force. He received both, and thereupon bombarded the Holy City with stones from the mountain of Aba Khubays.


The bombardment was continued during the Pilgrimage. Because of his anger at being prevented by Ibn al-Zubayr from performing the Tawaf and sa’ay al l-Hajjaj did not scruple to bombard the Ka’ba, together with the pilgrims there assembled. A sudden thunderstorm, in which the uneasy soldiers detected a warning of Divine punishment, he was able to interpret to them as a promise of victory.


After the siege had lasted for seven months and 10,000 men,among them two of Ibn al-Zubayr's sons, had gone over to Al-Hajjaj, the anti-caliph with afew loyal followers, including his youngest son, was killed in the fighting around the Ka’ba(Jumadah I 73/October 692)"<A. Dietrich, Encyclopaedia of Islam CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0>. Hajjaj's firm siege of Hejaz resulted in the deaths of thousands of innocent inhabitants of the region. It has been later claimed that one Ummayyad leader(probably it was Umar B. Abd Alaziz) stated that if all the nations brought their most tyrannical and evil rulers, the Muslims would only need to bring Hajjāj ibn-Yūsuf to surpass the rest of the world's murderous rulers in evil.


While governing Hejaz, al-Hajjāj was known for his severe and extremely strict form of rule. Some time later, he was sent to govern Iraq. Even there, he continued to be as disreputable as he was, and his reputation was not helped at all by his crushing of a dangerous Kharijite rebellion under 'Abd al-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn al-Ash'ath, from 699 to 701 CE. For his considerable successes, Hajjāj was also made governor of some provinces in Persia, where he was again tasked with putting down rebellions. However, his severe tactics led him to make many enemies, who would come to power after his death. Kharijites were members of an Islamic sect in late 7th and early 8th century AD, concentrated in todays southern Iraq. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ...


With the ascent of al-Walid I, Hajjāj's reputation grew due to his selection and deployment of numerous successful generals who expanded the Islamic empire. He was given these powers due to his high status in the Umayyad government and he exhibited a lot of control over the provinces that he governed.


Among these generals was the teenaged Muhammad ibn-Qasīm, who in 712 was sent to Sindh in India. Muhammad bin Qasim Al-Thaqafi (Arabic: محمد بن قاسم) (c. ... Events Ansprand succeeds Aripert as king of the Lombards. ... Sindh (SindhÄ«: سنڌ, UrdÅ«: سندھ) is one of the four provinces of Pakistan and is home to the Sindhis, and Muhajirs and various other groups. ...


Qutayba ibn Muslim was sent to conquer Turkestan, which he did, even penetrating the borders of China and obtaining Jizya (tribute payment) from the Chinese emperor. Probably Hajjāj's most successful general was Mūsā ibn Nusayr, who consolidated control over North Africa and who sent Tariq ibn Ziyād to invade Spain. Qutaibah bin Muslim (d. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on free non-Muslim adult males who are neither old nor sick nor monks [1], in exchange for being allowed to live, practice their faith, subject to certain conditions, and to... Musa bin Nusair (640—716) was a Yemeni Muslim governor and general under the Umayyads. ... Tariq ibn Ziyad (d. ...


The year after al-Hajjāj died, al-Walid died as well, and his brother, Sulayman came to power. Sulayman was indebted to many opponents of Hajjāj ibn-Yūsuf for their political support in getting him elected caliph, so he recalled all Hajjāj's generals and had them tortured to death in prison, pretending to have forgotten their great victories. Suleiman bin Abd al-Malik (c. ...


The relationship between Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf and Muhammad ibn Qasīm has always been one of great debate. Many classical accounts list al-Hajjāj as being his uncle or father-in-law. However, this is debatable; it seems more likely that they were distant cousins.


References

    see also:

    • E. Browne, Islamic Medicine, 2002, p.16, ISBN 81-87570-19-9
    • Dennett, Daniel Clement. "Conversion and the poll tax in early Islam.", p38.
    • Richard Nelson Frye, Cambridge History of Iran, p.42,46

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