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Encyclopedia > Hajj
A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). Thousands of pilgrims walk around the Kaaba in a counter-clockwise direction.

The Hajj (Arabic: حج, transliteration: Ḥaǧǧ) is the pilgrimage to Mecca (Makkah), the largest annual pilgrimage in the world.[1] It is the fifth pillar of Islam, an obligation that must be carried out by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so, at least once in their lifetime. It is the demonstration of the solidarity of the Muslim people, and their submission to God.[2] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 258 KB) Description : Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 258 KB) Description : Supplicating Pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram. ... Masjid al Haram Al-Masjid al-Haram (Arabic: ) is a very large mosque in the city of Makkah (Mecca). ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... The Five Pillars of Islam is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. These duties are shahada (profession of faith), salat (ritual prayer), zakat (alms tax), sawm (fasting during Ramadan), and Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


The Hajj occurs from the 8th to the 12th day of Dhul Hijjah, the 12th month of the Islamic calendar. This date cannot be aligned directly with Western calendars, but in the early 21st century, it occurs roughly in the November-January timeframe. In 2007, the next month of Dhul Hijjah begins on December 11, with the week of the Hajj beginning on December 18, 2007. Dhul Hijjah (ḏū-l-ḥiǧǧatu ذو الحجة) is the 12th month on the Islamic calendar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


The pilgrimage is associated with the life of Muhammad, but the ritual of the Hajj itself was considered ancient even during his lifetime in the 7th century. Many Muslims believe that it goes back to the time of Abraham in 2000 BC. Pilgrims would join processions of tens of thousands of people, who would simultaneously converge on Mecca for the week of the Hajj, and perform a series of rituals. Each person would walk counter-clockwise seven times about the Kaaba, the cubical building towards which all Muslims pray, kiss the sacred Black Stone on its corner, run back and forth between the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah, drink from the Zamzam Well, go to the plains of Mount Arafat to stand in vigil, then proceed to Muzdalifah to gather pebbles, which they would throw at a rock in Mina to perform the ritual of the Stoning of the Devil. The pilgrims would then shave their heads, perform an animal sacrifice, and celebrate the three day global festival of Eid ul-Adha.[3][4] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ... Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (Safa and Marwah) (Arabic: الصفا AÅŸ-Åžafā ; المروة Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia between which Muslims travel back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. ... The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... Plain of Arafat during the Hajj Mount Arafat (sometimes known as Mount Arafah) (Arabic: جبل عرفات; transliterated: Jabal Arafat) is a granite hill east of Mecca. ... Muzdalifah (Arabic: مزدلفة) is an open, level area near Mecca in Saudi Arabia associated with the Hajj. ... Mina is a desert location situated some 5 kilometres to the east of the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia. ... Bold textStoning of the Devil or stoning of the jamarat (Arabic: ramy al-jamarāt) is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ...


As of 2007, an estimated two million pilgrims participate in this annual pilgrimage.[5] Crowd-control techniques have become critical, and because of the large numbers of people, many of the rituals have become more stylized. It is not necessary to kiss the Black Stone, but merely to point at it on each circuit around the Kaaba. Throwing pebbles was done at large pillars, which for safety reasons were in 2004 changed to long walls with catchbasins below to catch the stones. The slaughter of an animal can be done either personally, or by appointing someone else to do it, and so forth.[6] But even with the crowd control techniques, there are still many Incidents during the Hajj, as pilgrims are trampled in the crush, or ramps collapse under the weight of the many visitors, causing hundreds of deaths. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's Ministry of Hajj has a website, with the message, "Be peaceful, orderly and kind. No crushing."[7] There have been many serious incidents during the Hajj that have led to the loss of hundreds of lives. ...


Pilgrims can also go to Mecca to perform the rituals at other times of the year. This is sometimes called the "lesser pilgrimage", or Umrah. However, even if they perform the Umrah, they are still obligated to perform the Hajj at some other point in their lifetime. The Umrah or (Arabic: عمرة ) is a pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. ...

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Contents

History

The Hajj was an ancient ritual even in the time of Muhammad in the 7th Century. According to legend, elements of the Hajj trace back to the time of Abraham, around 2000 BC, and it is believed that the angel Gabriel, who revealed the location of the Zamzam Well, taught the rites of the pilgrimage to Abraham's son, Ishmael.[8] For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... This article is about the archangel Gabriel. ... The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... Hagar and Ishmael in the Wilderness, by Karel Dujardin Ishmael (Hebrew: יִשְׁמָעֵאל, Standard Tiberian ; Arabic: إسماعيل, Ismāīl) was Abrahams eldest son, born by his wifes handmaiden Hagar. ...


Each year, tribes from all around the Arabian peninsula would converge on Mecca, as part of the Hajj pilgrimage. The exact faith of the tribes was not important at that time, and Christian Arabs were as likely to make the pilgrimage as the pagans.[9] Muslim historians refer to the time before Muhammad as al-Jahiliyah, the "Days of Ignorance", during which the Kaaba contained hundreds of idols representing totems of each of the tribes of the Arabian peninsula. The idols represented multiple faiths, from pagan gods to symbols of Jesus, Mary, Hubal, and the creator, Allah.[8] Jahiliyyah, al-Jahiliyah or jahalia (Arabic: جاهلية) is an Islamic concept of ignorance of divine guidance or the state of ignorance of the guidance from God[1] or Days of Ignorance[2] referring to the condition Arabs found themselves in pre-Islamic Arabian society prior to the revelation of the Qur... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Virgin Mary redirects here. ... Hubal (هبل) was a god worshipped in pagan Arabia, notably at Mecca before the arrival of Islam. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


Muhammad was known to regularly perform both the Hajj and Umrah, even before he began receiving revelations.[3] Historically, Muslims would gather at various meeting points in other great cities, and then proceed en masse towards Mecca, in groups that could comprise tens of thousands of pilgrims. Two of the most famous meetings points were in Cairo and Damascus. In Cairo, the Sultan would stand atop a platform of the famous gate Bab Zuwayla, to officially watch the beginning of the annual pilgrimage.[10] For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Bab Zuweila is a medieval gate in Cairo, which is still standing in modern times. ...


Preparations

See also: Ihram

Pilgrims generally travel to Hajj in groups, as an expression of unity. Some airlines have special package holidays for Muslims going to Mecca. And now ships have also taken the job of taking the pilgrims to Mecca so they can perform Hajj. Ihram (إحرام) is an Arabic word that denotes a sacred state in which a Muslim must enter in order to perform the major pilgrimage, hajj or the minor pilgrimage, umrah. ...


During the Hajj, male pilgrims are required to dress only in a garment consisting of two sheets of white unhemmed cloth, with the top draped over the torso and the bottom secured by a white sash; plus a pair of sandals. Women are simply required to maintain their hijab - normal modest dress, which does not cover the hands or face.[6] “Higab” redirects here. ...


The Ihram clothing is intended to show the equality of all pilgrims in the eyes of Allah, symbolizing the idea that there is no difference between a prince and a pauper when everyone is dressed equally. The Ihram also symbolizes purity and absolution of sins. A place designated for changing into Ihram is called a miqat. This is a sub-article of Ehram . ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... Mīqat (Arabic ميقات, a stated place) refers to the stations at which pilgrims on the Hajj, the pilgrimage to Mecca required of all able Muslims, put on ihrām, the pilgrims garment. ...


While the pilgrim is wearing the Ihram, they cannot shave, cut their nails, wear deodorant or perfume. They may not swear or quarrel, kill any living thing (even an insect) or engage in sexual intercourse.


An invocation, known as the talbiyah, is to be chanted after the pilgrim makes his or her intention for the Hajj. The Talbiyah is a Muslim prayer invoked by the pilgrims as a conviction that they intend to perform the Hajj only for the glory of God. ...


Rites

The route the pilgrims take during the Hajj

Upon arrival in Mecca, the pilgrim (now known as a Hajji), performs a series of ritual acts symbolic of the lives of Abraham (Ibrahim (alayhis Salaam)) and Hagar. The acts also symbolize the solidarity with Muslims worldwide. Image File history File links Hajj1. ... Image File history File links Hajj1. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Hagar (Arabic هاجر; Hajar; Hebrew הָגָר Stranger, Standard Hebrew Hagar, Tiberian Hebrew Hāḡār) is an Egyptian-born servant of Sarah, wife of Abraham in the Book of Genesis of the Torah (Hebrew Bible). ...


The greater Hajj (al-hajj al-akbar) begins on the eighth day of the lunar month of Dhu al-Hijjah. If they are not already wearing it upon their arrival, pilgrims put on ihram clothing, and then leave Mecca for the nearby town of Mina, where they spend the rest of the day. The Saudi government has put up thousands of large white tents at Mina, to provide accommodations for all the pilgrims.[4] Dhu al-Hijja ( ذو الحجة ) is the twelfth and final month in the Islamic Calendar. ... Mina is a desert location situated some 5 kilometres to the east of the Islamic holy city of Makkah (Mecca) in Saudi Arabia. ...


Tawaf

Direction of the Tawaf
Main article: Tawaf

On the first day of the Hajj, the 8th day of Dhul Hijjah {the 12th month}, the pilgrims perform their first Tawaf. This consists of walking anti-clockwise around the Kaaba seven times. Men are encouraged to perform the first three circuits at a hurried pace, followed by four times, more closely, at a leisurely pace.[6] On each circuit the pilgrim is supposed to kiss the Black Stone, but this is not possible because of the large crowds, and so it is acceptable to simply point at the Stone on each circuit. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1744 × 2214 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 472 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1744 × 2214 pixel, file size: 745 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... In Islamic context, Tawaf refers to the ritual of circumambulating the Kabah (the holiest building in Mecca) during the Hajj (pilgrimage). ... Dhul Hijjah (ḏū-l-ḥiǧǧatu ذو الحجة) is the 12th month on the Islamic calendar. ... A clockwise motion is one that proceeds like the clocks hands: from the top to the right, then down and then to the left, and back to the top. ... The Kaaba (Arabic: ; IPA: ) , also known as (), ( The Primordial House), or ( The Sacred House), is a large cuboidal building located inside the mosque known as al-Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. ... This article is about the Islamic holy relic. ...


Sa'i

See also: Al-Safa and Al-Marwah#The Sa'i and Zamzam Well

After Tawaf, the pilgrims perform sa`i, running or walking seven times back and forth between the hills of Safa and Marwah. This is a re-enactment of Hajar's frantic search for water, before the Zamzam Well was revealed to her by an angel sent by God. The circuit used to be in the open air, but is now entirely enclosed by the Masjid al-Haram mosque, and can be accessed via air-conditioned tunnels. Pilgrims are advised to walk the circuit, though two green pillars mark a short section of the path where they are allowed to run, along with an 'express lane' for the disabled. The safety procedures are in place because previous incidents in this ritual have resulted in stampedes which resulted in the deaths of hundreds of people. Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (Safa and Marwah) (Arabic: الصفا AÅŸ-Åžafā ; المروة Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia between which Muslims travel back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. ... The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (Safa and Marwah) (Arabic: الصفا AÅŸ-Åžafā ; المروة Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia between which Muslims travel back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. ... The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ... Al-Masjid al-HÌ£arām ( IPA: The Sacred Mosque), is the largest mosque in the world. ...


As part of this ritual, the pilgrims also drink water from the Zamzam Well, which is made available in coolers throughout the Mosque. The pilgrims then return to their tents. The Well of Zamzam (or the Zamzam Well, or just Zamzam; Arabic: زمزم) is a well located within the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, near the Kaaba, the holiest place in Islam. ...


Arafat

Main article: Mount Arafat
Plains of Arafat on the day of Hajj

The next morning, on the ninth of Dhu al-Hijjah, the pilgrims leave Mina for Mount Arafat. This is considered the highlight of the Hajj, as they stand in contemplative vigil, near a hill from which Muhammad gave his last sermon. Pilgrims must spend the afternoon within a defined area on the plain of Arafat until after sunset. No specific rituals or prayers are required during the stay at Arafat, although many pilgrims spend time praying, talking to God, and thinking about the course of their lives.[4] Plain of Arafat during the Hajj Mount Arafat (sometimes known as Mount Arafah) (Arabic: جبل عرفات; transliterated: Jabal Arafat) is a granite hill east of Mecca. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 255 KB) Description : Plains of Arafat on the Day of Hajj. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 255 KB) Description : Plains of Arafat on the Day of Hajj. ... Plain of Arafat during the Hajj Mount Arafat (sometimes known as Mount Arafah) (Arabic: جبل عرفات; transliterated: Jabal Arafat) is a granite hill east of Mecca. ...


Muzdalifah

As soon as the sun sets, the pilgrims leave Arafat for Muzdalifah, an area between Arafat and Mina, where 49 pebbles are gathered for the next day's ritual of the stoning of the Devil (Shaitan). Many pilgrims spend the night sleeping on the ground at Muzdalifah, before returning to Mina. It is now the 10th of the month, the day of Eid ul-Adha. Muzdalifah (Arabic: مزدلفة) is an open, level area near Mecca in Saudi Arabia associated with the Hajj. ... Bold textStoning of the Devil or stoning of the jamarat (Arabic: ramy al-jamarāt) is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. ... Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ...


Ramy al-Jamarat

Pilgrims at the Jamrah of Aqaba during the 2006 Hajj
Main article: Stoning of the Devil

At Mina, the pilgrims perform Ramy al-Jamarat, throwing stones to signify their defiance of the Devil. This symbolizes the trials experienced by Abraham, as he wrestled with whether or not to sacrifice his son per God's demand. The Devil challenged him three times, and three times Abraham refused. Each pillar marks the location of one of these refusals. Each pilgrim must hit each pillar at least seven times.[4] Because of the crowds, in 2004 the pillars were changed to long walls. Pilgrims climb ramps to the multi-leveled Jamarat Bridge, from which they can throw pebbles at the three jamarat.... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Bold textStoning of the Devil or stoning of the jamarat (Arabic: ramy al-jamarāt) is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. ... The Jamarat Bridge is a bridge in Mecca, Saudi Arabia used by muslims during the Hajj during the stoning of the devil ritual. ...


Eid ul-Adha

Main article: Eid ul-Adha

After the Stoning of the Devil, an animal is sacrificed. This symbolizes God having mercy on Abraham, and replacing his son with a ram, which Abraham then sacrificed. Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى ‘Īd al-’Aḍḥā) is a religious festival celebrated by Muslims worldwide as a commemoration of Ibrahims (Abrahams) willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael for Allah. ...


Traditionally the pilgrim slaughtered the animal himself or oversaw the slaughtering. Today many pilgrims buy a sacrifice voucher in Mecca before the greater Hajj begins; this allows an animal to be slaughtered in their name on the 10th without the pilgrim being physically present. Centralized butcher houses will sacrifice a single sheep for each pilgrim, or a cow can represent the sacrifice of seven people. The meat is then packaged and given to charity, shipped to poor people around the world.[4] At the same time as the sacrifices occur at Mecca, Muslims worldwide perform similar sacrifices, in a three day global festival called Eid ul-Adha.


Tawaf az-Ziyarah

Pilgrims circumambulating the Kaaba during the Hajj.

On this or the following day the pilgrims re-visit the Masjid al-Haram in Mecca for a tawaf called the Tawaf az-Ziyarah (or Tawaf al-Ifadah) which is an obligatory part of the Hajj. The night of the 10th is spent back at Mina. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 422 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture of people performing Tawaf (circumambulating) the Kaaba. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1632 × 1224 pixel, file size: 422 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A picture of people performing Tawaf (circumambulating) the Kaaba. ... Al-Masjid al-Ḥarām ( IPA: The Sacred Mosque), is the largest mosque in the world. ... In Islamic context, Tawaf refers to the ritual of circumambulating the Kabah (the holiest building in Mecca) during the Hajj (pilgrimage). ...


On the afternoon of the 11th, pilgrims must again stone all three jamarat in Mina (seven pebbles per jamarat). The same ritual must be performed on the following day.


Pilgrims must leave Mina for Mecca before sunset on the 12th. If they are unable to leave Mina before sunset, they must perform the stoning ritual again on the 13th before returning to Mecca.


Tawaf al-Wada

Finally, before leaving Mecca, pilgrims perform a farewell tawaf called the Tawaf al-Wada.[4] In Islamic context, Tawaf refers to the ritual of circumambulating the Kabah (the holiest building in Mecca) during the Hajj (pilgrimage). ...


Journey to Medina

Though it is not required as part of the Hajj, many pilgrims also travel to visit the city of Medina and the Mosque of the Prophet. Muhammad's tomb is enclosed by the mosque. Pilgrims may also visit the tomb of Muhammad's daughter, Fatimah. This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Masjid al-Nabawi or Mosque of the Prophet is the second holiest mosque in the Islamic world. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other persons of the same name, see Fatima (name). ...


Incidents during the Hajj

There have been many incidents during the Hajj that have led to the loss of hundreds of lives. The worst of these incidents have usually occurred during the Stoning of the Devil ritual. During the 2006 Hajj on January 12, 362 pilgrims died. Tramplings have also occurred at the stage known as the sa'i, when pilgrims try to run but can walk between two hills known as As-Safa and Al-Marwa. In 2006 there were some 600 casualties among pilgrims performing the Hajj. There have been many serious incidents during the Hajj that have led to the loss of hundreds of lives. ... Bold textStoning of the Devil or stoning of the jamarat (Arabic: ramy al-jamarāt) is part of the annual Islamic Hajj pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca in Saudi Arabia. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Saudi Government is often criticised for not being proactive in providing facilities and infrastructure for the annual pilgrimage, and many measures are put in place in response to annual catastrophes.


Non-Muslims

The second caliph, Umar, is believed by many Sunni Muslims to have expelled non-Muslims from the Hejaz (Western part of Arabia). Non-Muslims were not to visit nor to live in the holy land. There is much evidence against this claim, at least so far as it relates to the early centuries of the Islamic empire, but it is well documented that by the 18th and 19th centuries, there were small colonies of merchants in various port and trading cities such as Jeddah as well as communities of Yemeni Jews. The prohibition was not so much imposed by the authorities as enforced by rioting crowds and was most strictly enforced with regard to the Hejaz, and the Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina. For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Map with the region outlined in red and the 1923 Kingdom in green “Hedjaz” redirects here. ... , Nickname: Location of Jeddah Coordinates: , Country Province Established 500+ BC Government  - Mayor Adil Faqeeh  - City Governor Mishal Al-Saud  - Provincial Governor Khalid al Faisal Area  - City 1,320 km²  (509. ...


As one might expect, the existence of "forbidden cities" and the mystery of the Hajj aroused curiosity in European travellers. A number of them pretended to be Muslims and entered the city of Mecca and then the Kaaba to experience the Hajj for themselves. The most famous account of a foreigner's journey to Mecca is A Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to Makkah and Al-Madina, written by Sir Richard Francis Burton. Burton traveled as a Qadiri Sufi from Afghanistan; his name, as he signed it in Arabic below his frontispiece portrait for "The Jew, The Gypsy and al-Islam," was al-Hajj 'Abdullah'. For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... Qadiriyyah, one of the oldest Sufi tariqa, derives its name from Abd al-Qadir al-Djilani (1077-1166), a native of the Iranian province of Gilan. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


Umrah

Main article: Umrah

The Umrah comprises the same rituals as the Hajj, and can be taken at any time throughout the year. Although completing it is highly commendable, Muslims are still required to perform the greater Hajj at some point during their lifetime. Pilgrims accomplishing the Umrah usually only perform the Tawaf (walking around the Kaaba) and the Sa'i (running back and forth from the Zamzam well to the hills of Al-Safa and Al-Marwah). They may also drink water from the Zamzam Well when the Umrah is completed, and trim off approximately one inch of their hair, as opposed to shaving their heads. They can then change from the ihram to regular clothes, in a release from ihram known as the mut'ah of Hajj. The Umrah or (Arabic: عمرة ) is a pilgrimage to Mecca performed by Muslims that can be undertaken at any time of the year. ... Al-Safa and Al-Marwah (Safa and Marwah) (Arabic: الصفا AÅŸ-Åžafā ; المروة Al-Marwah) are two small hills now located in the Masjid al Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia between which Muslims travel back and forth seven times during the ritual pilgrimages of Hajj and Umrah. ... Mutah of Hajj or hajj at-tamattu or joy of hajj (?) involves some practice between the time of a Umrah and a Hajj. ...


See also

Look up Hajj in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The following list consists of concepts that are derived from both Islamic and Arab tradition, which are expressed as words in the Arabic language. ... This is a list of the largest historic gatherings of people for a single event. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Atlas of Holy Places, p. 29
  2. ^ Dalia Salah-El-Deen, Significance of Pilgrimage (Hajj)
  3. ^ a b Karen Armstrong (2000,2002). Islam: A Short History, 10-12. ISBN 0-8129-6618-x. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f Anisa Mehdi, John Bredar (writers). "Inside Mecca" (video documentary), National Geographic, 2003. 
  5. ^ http://www.altmuslim.com/a/a/a/as_hajj_begins_more_changes_and_challenges_in_store/
  6. ^ a b c Mohamed, Mamdouh N. (1996). Hajj to Umrah: From A to Z. Amana Publications. ISBN 0-915957-54-x. 
  7. ^ Ministry of Hajj information site. hajinformation.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  8. ^ a b Freeman-Grenville, Islam: An Illustrated History, p. 28
  9. ^ Armstrong, Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths, p. 221. "Each year the tribes would assemble from all over the peninsula to take part in the arduous and intricate rites of the hajj pilgrimage, Christian Arabs alongside the pagans. By Muhammad's time, the Ka'bah was dedicated to the Nabatean deity Hubal and surrounded by effigies of the Arabian pantheon, but it may well originally have been the shrine of Allah, the high god."
  10. ^ (2001, 2007) Eyewitness Travel: Egypt. Dorlin Kindersley Limited, London, 103. ISBN 978-0-75662-875-8. 

The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Petra, the Nabataean capital The Nabataeans, a people of ancient Arabia, whose settlements in the time of Josephus gave the name of Nabatene to the border-land between Syria and Arabia from the Euphrates to the Red Sea. ... Hubal (هبل) was a god worshipped in pagan Arabia, notably at Mecca before the arrival of Islam. ...

References

  • Colin Wilson (1996). Atlas of Holy Places & Sacred Sites. DK ADULT. ISBN 978-0789410511. 

Further reading

  • Bianchi, Robert R. (2004). Guests of God: Pilgrimage and Politics in the Islamic World. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195171075. 
  • Shariati, Ali (2005). HAJJ: Reflection on Its Rituals. Islamic Publications International. ISBN 1889999385. 
  • Trojanow,Ilija 'Mumbai to Mecca', Haus Publishing, 2007, London, ISBN:978-1-904950295

External links

  • Hajj Portal - Personal Hajj Experiences, Picture Gallery, Supplications, Hajj Step by Step guides plus more
  • Ministry of Hajj Official Website
  • Crowd control during the Hajj
  • Hajj: The Pilgrimage
  • [1]
  • BBC: 2006 Hajj approaches spiritual climax
  • Ottoman photographs of the Hajj Middle East Centre Archive, St Antony's College, Oxford
  • 15th-century Hajj certificate: information, zoomable image British Library website
  • Inside Mecca DVD National Geographic documentary about Mecca
  • U.S. Army information sheet about the Hajj
  • Watch the National Geographic Documentary on Hajj
  • Short History of Hajj
  • Step by Step Hajj Guide Slide Show
  • Practical Guidelines For Hajj - Printable - on PDF Format

Arabic pronunciation

  • The word Hajj
  • Hajj & ummrah supplications

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hajj (4055 words)
Hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca is one of the five pillars of Islam.
This Hajj is known in history as Hajjatul Wida’ or Farewell Pilgrimage because this proved to be the last Hajj the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) performed.
Hajj is not obligatory for children, the sick, and those who are unable to bear the expenses for Hajj.
Hajj - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1782 words)
The Hajj (حج ArTranslitḤajj}}), (Turkish:Hac), (Malay:Haji) is the Pilgrimage to Mecca in Islam.
This release from ihram is known as the mut'ah of Hajj.
Hajj al-tamattu is where the Umrah rituals are performed first and then the Hajj rituals (those described in the previous section) are performed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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