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Encyclopedia > Haiti
République d'Haïti
Repiblik d Ayiti
Republic of Haiti
Flag of Haiti Coat of arms of Haiti
Flag Coat of arms
Motto"L'Union Fait La Force"  (French)
"Unity makes Strength"
AnthemLa Dessalinienne
Capital
(and largest city)
Port-au-Prince
18°32′N, 72°20′W
Official languages French, Haitian Creole
Ethnic groups  95% Black African, 5% Mulatto & White
Demonym Haitian
Government Presidential republic
 -  President René Préval
 -  Prime Minister Jacques-Édouard Alexis
Formation
 -  as Saint-Domingue 1697 
 -  Independence from France
January 1, 1804 
Area
 -  Total 27,750 km² (146th)
10,714 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.7
Population
 -  2007 estimate 8,706,497[1] (85th)
 -  2003 census 8,527,817 
 -  Density 335/km² (38th)
758.1/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $16.51 billion (124th)
 -  Per capita $1,913 (153rd)
Gini (2001) 59.2 (high
HDI (2007) 0.529 (medium) (146th)
Currency Gourde (HTG)
Time zone (UTC-5)
Internet TLD .ht
Calling code +509

Haiti (English pronounced /ˈheɪtiː/; French Haïti pronounced [aiti]; Haitian Creole: Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti (République d'Haïti ; Repiblik d Ayiti), is a Creole and French speaking Latin American country located on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola, which it shares with the Dominican Republic, in the Greater Antilles archipelago. Ayiti (Land of Mountains) was the indigenous Taíno or Amerindian name for the island. The country's highest point is Pic la Selle, at 2,680 metres (8,793 ft). The total area of Haiti is 27,750 square kilometres (10,714 sq mi) and its capital is Port-au-Prince. Image File history File links Flag_of_Haiti. ... Flag ratio: 3:5 Haiti flag, 1964-1986. ... Coat of arms of Haiti The coat of arms of Haiti was first introduced in 1807, and has appeared in its current form since 1986. ... For other uses, see Motto (disambiguation). ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... La Dessalinienne (The Dessalines Song) is the national anthem of Haiti, honoring Jean-Jacques Dessalines. ... Image File history File links LocationHaiti. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003 Although Haiti averages approximately 250 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ... This article is about the color black; for other uses, see Black (disambiguation). ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... Whites redirects here. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... This page lists presidents and other heads of state of Haiti. ... René Garcia Préval (born January 17, 1943 in Marmelade) is a Haitian politician and agronomist who is currently the President of Haïti. ... Category: ... Jacques Alexis redirects here. ... The recorded history of Haiti began on December 5, 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean Sea. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... The gourde is the currency of Haiti. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ht is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Haiti. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ... Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... Location of the Greater Antilles (green) in relation to the rest of the Caribbean The islands of the Caribbean Sea, collectively known as the West Indies are sorted by size and location into the Bahamas (or Lucayan archipelago), the Lesser Antilles and the Greater Antilles. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... Pic la Selle is the largest mountain in Haiti with a height of 2,680 meters (8,793 feet) above sea level. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ...

Contents

Derivation of the name of the country

The name Haiti comes from the Taíno word for the entire island of Hispaniola, Aytí, which means "Mountainous Land". The French staked their claim on the entire island based on the settlement of Tortuga and Gonave Islands by French pirates in the 15th and 16th centuries. The colony was officially incorporated by France in the early 1600s. By 1697, with the signing of the Treaty of Ryswick with Spain, the French took the western third of the island, which they named Saint-Domingue (a gallicization of the Spanish name, Santo Domingo ("Saint Dominic"). During this French colonial period, the colony earned the name “La Perle des Antilles” ("The Pearl of the Antilles") due to its economic prosperity and importance. The Spanish kept control of Santo Domingo on the eastern two-thirds of the island. For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... For the island with a similar name in the Gulf of California, see Isla Tortuga. ... Gonave Island from space, February 1994 The reef-fringed Gonave Island is located to the west-northwest of Port-au-Prince, Haiti in the Gulf of Gonave (). Made up of mostly limestone, the island of Gonave is 60 km (37 miles) long and 15 km (9 miles) wide and covers... The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ...


With the declaration of Saint-Domingue's independence from France on January 1, 1804, following the Haitian Revolution, Revolutionary leader Jean-Jacques Dessalines restored the original Taíno name as a symbolic gesture of honor to their Amerindian predecessors and as defiance against European oppression. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ...


History

Main article: History of Haiti
See also: Politics of Haiti, Elections in Haiti, National Assembly of Haiti, President of Haiti, 2004 Haitian rebellion, and United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti

The island of Hispaniola, of which Haiti occupies the western third, was originally inhabited by the Taíno Arawak people. Christopher Columbus landed at Môle Saint-Nicolas on December 5, 1492, and claimed the island for Spain. Nineteen days later, the Santa Maria ran aground near the present site of Cap-Haitien; Columbus was forced to leave 39 men, founding the settlement of La Navidad . Ayti, which means "mountainous land", is a name that was used by its early inhabitants, the Taíno-Arawak people, who also called some sections of it Bohio, meaning "rich villages". Quisqueya is yet a third term that has been attributed to the Tainos for the island. The Taínos were a seafaring branch of the South American Arawaks. Taíno means "the good" or "noble" in their language. A system of cacicazgos (chiefdoms) existed, called Marien, Maguana, Higuey, Magua and Xaragua, which could be subdivided. The cacicazgos were based on a system of tribute, consisting of the food grown by the Taíno. Among the cultural signs that they left were cave paintings around the country, which have become touristic and nationalistic symbols of Haiti. Xaragua is modern day Leogane, a city in the southwest. Following the destruction of La Navidad by the Amerindians, Columbus moved to the eastern side of the island and established La Isabela. One of the earliest leaders to fight off Spanish conquest was Queen Anacaona, a Taino princess from Xaragua who married Chief Caonabo, a Taino king (cacique) from Maguana. The two fought hard against the Europeans; she was captured by the Spanish and executed in front of her people. Other noted Taino leaders from Haiti are Chief Guacanagari, Chief Guama and Chief Hatuey (who later fled to Cuba and helped fight the Spaniards there). Cacique Henri, another Taino chief, fought victoriously against the Spaniards in the Bahoruco to gain freedom for himself and his people. The town associated with this history is Anse a Pitres, near the south-eastern town of Jacmel. The Spaniards exploited the island for its gold, which was mined largely by the local Amerindians directed by the Spanish occupiers. Those refusing to work in the mines were slaughtered or forced into slavery. Europeans brought chronic infectious diseases with them along with the combination of ill treatment, malnutrition and a drastic drop of the birthrate, these decimated the indigenous population. The Spanish governors began importing enslaved Africans for labor. In 1517, Carlos V, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, authorized the draft of the slaves. The Tainos as the Europeans saw them on the island of Hispaniola were virtually extinct, few who evaded capture fled to the mountains and established independent settlements. The survivors that escaped death mixed with African slaves (runaways called maroons) producing a generation of zambos. The mestizo increased in number as native women conceived to European men. The Taíno bloodline in Hispaniola diluted more and more as the decades went by primarily due to the establishment of Africans, mestizos, and mulattos on the island however it is believed that a moderate amount of Haitians retain some native ancestry. Many enslaved Africans married Amerindians, forming a line of people known in Haiti as marabou. The recorded history of Haiti began on December 5, 1492 when the European navigator Christopher Columbus happened upon a large island in the region of the western Atlantic Ocean that later came to be known as the Caribbean Sea. ... Politics of Haiti takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, pluriform multiparty system whereby the President of Haiti is head of state directly elected by popular vote. ... Elections in Haiti gives information on election and election results in Haiti. ... The National Assembly of Haiti (French: ) constitutes the legislative branch of the Haitian government. ... Steve ruled the world The President of Haiti is the head of state of the Republic of Haiti. ... Brazilian Army troops before boarding for MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Môle Saint-Nicolas (Mòlsennikola or Omòl in Haitian Creole) is a city in the Republic of Haiti. ... Cap-Haïtien (or Le Cap) is a city of about 500,000 people on the north coast of Haiti. ... La Navidad was the colony Columbus and his men and some help from Guacanagari built in 1492. ... Leogane is a coastal town in Ouest Department, Haïti. ... Founded by Christopher Columbus during his second voyage in 1493, La Isabela was the first formal European settlement in the New World. ... Anacaona, also called the Golden Flower, was an Indian queen, wife of Caonabo, one of the five caciques who possessed the island of Santo Domingo when the Spaniards discovered it and settled there in 1492. ... Guacanagari was one of the five native kings of Hispaniola. ... Guama is a municipality in the Santiago de Cuba Province of Cuba. ... Hatuey was a Taíno chief who lived on the island of Hispaniola in the early sixteenth century. ... Jacmel, (Jakmèl in Kréyòl) also known by its indigenous name of Yaquimel, is a city in southern Haiti founded in 1698. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... A Sioux in traditional dress including war bonnet, circa 1908. ... Charles V Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V (Spanish: Carlos V) (24 February 1500–21 September 1558) was effectively (the first) King of Spain from 1516 to 1556 (in principle, he was from 1516 king of Aragon and from 1516 guardian of his insane mother, queen of... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ...


The western part of Hispaniola soon was settled by French buccaneers. Among them, Bertrand D'Ogeron succeeded in growing tobacco, which prompted many of the numerous buccaneers and freebooters to turn into a sedentary population. It was a population that did not submit to Spanish royal authority until the year 1660 and caused a number of conflicts. This article refers to the type of pirate. ...


17th c. settlement

Bertrand D'Orgeron attracted many colonists from Martinique and Guadeloupe, such as the Roy family (Jean Roy, 1625-1707), Hebert (Jean Hebert, 1624, with his family) and the Barre (Guillaume Barre, 1642, with his family), driven out by pressure on lands generated by extension of sugar plantations. From 1670 to 1690, a drop in the tobacco markets affected the island, significantly reducing the number of settlers. Freebooters grew stronger, plundering settlements, such as those of Vera Cruz in 1683 and Campêche in 1686. Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Marquis de Seignelay, elder son of Jean-Baptiste Colbert and Minister of the Navy, brought back some order. He ordered the establishment of indigo and sugar cane plantations. The first windmill for processing sugar was created in 1685. Jean-Baptiste Antoine Colbert, Marquis of Seignelay Jean-Baptiste Antoine Colbert, Marquis de Seignelay (born 1 November 1651; died 3 November 1690) was a French politician. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 — September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He was described by Mme de Sévigné as Le Nord as he was cold and unemotional. ... Indigo is the color on the spectrum between about 450 and 420 nm in wavelength, placing it between blue and violet. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ...


France and Spain settled hostilities on the island by the Treaty of Ryswick of 1697, which divided Hispaniola between them. France received the western third and named it Saint-Domingue. Many French colonists came and worked on plantations. From 1713 to 1787, 30,000 colonists, among them Pierre Nezat, immigrated from Bordeaux, France to the western part of the island. By about 1790, Saint-Domingue had greatly overshadowed its eastern counterpart in terms of wealth and population. It quickly became the richest French colony in the New World due to the immense profits of the sugar, coffee and indigo industries. The labor of thousands of enslaved Africans made it possible. Their lives were ruled by the Code Noir (Black Code), prepared by Colbert and enacted by Louis XIV. The Treaty of Ryswick was signed on 20 September 1697 and named after Ryswick (also known as Rijswijk) in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands). ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... The Code noir (French language: The Black Code), was a decree passed by Frances King Louis XIV in 1689. ... Colbert is the surname of: Stephen Colbert, American comedian, plays Stephen Colbert (character) on The Colbert Report Robert Colbert, American television actor and star of The Time Tunnel Richard Colbert, spammer Levi Colbert, Chickasaw leader Keary Colbert, American football player Nate Colbert. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ...


The French Revolution

The French Revolution generated social upheavals in Saint-Domingue and the French West Indies. Most important was the revolt of the slaves which led in 1793 to the abolition of slavery by commissioners Sonthonax and Polverel. This decision was endorsed and generalized to the whole of the French colonies by the Convention six months later. Toussaint Louverture was appointed Governor by France, after having restored peace in Saint-Domingue. He had driven out the Spaniards and English invaders who threatened the colony. He restored prosperity by daring measures, renewing trading ties with Great Britain and the United States. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The term French West Indies (see also Antilles françaises) refers to the two French overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... Leger-Félicité Sonthonax, son of a prosperous French merchant, was a revolutionary affiliated with the Girondin party. ... Étienne Polverel was one of two French Revolutionary Civil Commissioners who ended slavery in Saint-Domingue in 1793 during the Haitian Revolution. ... Convention has at least two very distinct but related meanings. ... François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture  , also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (born 20 May 1743 - died April 8, 1803) was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. ...


Independence

When Toussaint Louverture created a separatist constitution, Napoleon Bonaparte sent an expedition of 30,000 men under the command of his brother-in-law the General Charles Leclerc to retake the island. Bonaparte was influenced by the Creole planters and traders. Leclerc was to oust Louverture and restore slavery. After some victories and the arrest and the deportation of Toussaint Louverture, the native leader Jean-Jacques Dessalines beat the French troops at the Battle of Vertières. They had been led by Donatien Marie Joseph de Rochambeau. At the end of the double battle for emancipation and independence, former slaves proclaimed the independence of Saint-Domingue on 1 January 1804, under the name of Haiti. Haiti was the first country in the western hemisphere to abolish slavery. François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture  , also Toussaint Bréda, Toussaint-Louverture (born 20 May 1743 - died April 8, 1803) was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. ... Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des Français... Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc Charles Victor Emmanuel Leclerc (Pontoise Val-dOise, France, March 17, 1772 - Saint Domingue, November 2, 1802) was a French general and a companion of Napoleon I of France. ... The term Creole and its cognates in other languages — such as crioulo, criollo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kriulo, kriol, krio, etc. ... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... The Battle of Vertières, the last major battle of the Haitian Revolution (or Haitian War of Independence) was fought between Haitian rebels and French expeditionary forces on November 18, 1803 at Vertières. ... Rochambeau may refer to one of several things: Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau, French military leader during the American Revolution The USS Rochambeau (AP-63) was a transport ship that saw service in the United States Navy during World War II. Cayenne-Rochambeau Airport (ICAO:SOCA, IATA... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Dessalines was proclaimed governor for life by his troops. He exiled the remaining whites and ruled as a despot. He was assassinated on October 17, 1806. The country was divided then between a kingdom in the north directed by Henri Christophe and a republic in the south directed by Alexandre Pétion. Then president Jean Pierre Boyer reunified these two parts and conquered the east part of the island. In July of 1825, the king of France Charles X sent a fleet of fourteen vessels and troops to reconquer the island. To maintain independence, President Boyer agreed to a treaty by which France recognized the independence of the country in exchange for an allowance of 150 million francs (the sum was reduced in 1838 to 90 million francs). is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Portrait as King Henry I. Henri Christophe (October 6, 1767 – October 8, 1820) was a career officer and general in the Haïtian Army. ... Alexandre Sabès Pétion (April 2, 1770 – March 29, 1818) was President of the southern Republic of Haiti from 1806 until his death. ... Jean-Pierre Boyer Jean-Pierre Boyer (possibly February 15, 1776 – July 9, 1850), Haïtian soldier and President of Haïti (1818-1843), born a free mulatto in Port-au-Prince, and educated in France. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The name Charles X is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings: Charles X of France Charles X of Sweden This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


A long succession of coups followed the departure of Jean-Pierre Boyer. His authority did not cease being disputed by factions of the army, the mulatto and black elites, and the commercial class, now made up of numerous immigrants: Germans, Americans, French and English. This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ...


Twentieth century

The United States occupied the island from 1915 to 1934. From 1957 to 1986, the Duvalier family reigned as dictators. They created the private army and terrorist death squads known as Tonton Macoute. Many Haitians fled into exile in the United States and Quebec. Duvalier can refer to either of the following: François Duvalier (nicknamed Papa Doc), President of Haiti from 1957-1971 Jean-Claude Duvalier (nicknamed Bébé Doc or Baby Doc), President of Haiti from 1971-1986 Category: ... The Tonton Macoutes (singular Tonton Macoute referring to a member thereof; or Ton Ton Macoute) was a Haitian militia force under the control of François Papa Doc Duvalier. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ...


The former priest Jean-Bertrand Aristide won the elections of December 1990. His mandate began on February 7, 1991. A coup d'état carried out by Raoul Cédras and supported by the business middle-class deposed him in September. In 1994, sparked by the Raboteau Massacre, Aristide returned to power with the backing of the United States' Clinton administration. Aristide left the presidency in 1995 and was re-elected in 2000. After several months of popular demonstrations and pressures exerted by the international community, especially by France, the USA and Canada, Aristide went into exile. He was escorted from the country by US soldiers on February 29, 2004. Armed forces consisting of opponents and former soldiers who controlled the north of the country had threatened to attack the capital Port-au-Prince. Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15, 1953) is a Haitian politician and former Roman Catholic priest who was President of Haiti in 1991, again from 1994 to 1996, and then from 2001 to 2004. ... The presidential election in Haïti in 1990 is often cited as the first democratic election in the countrys history. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... Raoul Cédras (born 1949) was a Lieutenant General in the Haitian army who ruled Haiti from 1991 to 1994 after a coup which ousted elected President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Haitis general elections of 2000 featured a presidential race, as well as elections for the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ...


Boniface Alexandre, president of the Supreme Court of Appeal, assumed interim authority. In February 2006, following elections marked by uncertainties and thanks to the support of popular demonstrations, René Préval, close to Aristide and former president of the Republic of Haiti between 1995 and 2000, was elected. Boniface Alexandre Boniface Alexandre (b. ... The 2006 Elections in Haiti, to replace the interim government of Gerard Latortue put in place after the 2004 Haiti rebellion, were delayed four times after having been originally scheduled for October and November 2005. ... René Garcia Préval (born January 17, 1943 in Marmelade) is a Haitian politician and agronomist who is currently the President of Haïti. ...

Presidential Palace in Port-au-Prince

The government of Haiti is a presidential republic, pluriform multiparty system whereby the President of Haiti is head of state directly elected by popular elections. The Prime Minister acts as head of government and is appointed by the President from the majority party in the National Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the President and Prime Minister who together constitute the government. A presidential system, also called a congressional system, is a system of government where an executive branch exists and presides (hence the term) separately from the legislature, to which it is not accountable and which cannot in normal circumstances dismiss it. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Steve ruled the world The President of Haiti is the head of state of the Republic of Haiti. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Elections in Haiti gives information on election and election results in Haiti. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ...


Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Assembly of Haiti. The government is organized unitarily, thus the central government delegates powers to the departments without a constitutional need for consent. The current structure of Haiti's political system was set forth in the Constitution of Haiti on March 29, 1987. The current president is René Préval. A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... The National Assembly of Haiti (French: ) constitutes the legislative branch of the Haitian government. ... A map showing the unitary states. ... Central government or the national government (or, in federal states, the federal government) is the government at the level of the nation-state. ... This article on the Constitution of Haiti pertains mostly to the present-day Constitution of Haiti, which was promulgated under the short-lived presidency of Dr. Leslie Manigat in 1987. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... René Garcia Préval (born January 17, 1943 in Marmelade) is a Haitian politician and agronomist who is currently the President of Haïti. ...


The United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (also known as MINUSTAH) has been in the country since 2004. Brazilian Army troops before boarding for MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission. ...


Haitian politics have been contentious. Most Haitians are aware of Haiti's history as the only country in the Western Hemisphere to undergo a successful slave revolution. France and the United States, have repeatedly interfered in Haitian politics since the country's founding, and this consciousness also permeates Haitian politics. On the other hand, the long history of oppression by dictators, including François Duvalier is also an influence. Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Dr. François Duvalier, known as Papa Doc (April 14, 1907 – April 21, 1971[1]), was the President of Haiti from 1957 and later dictator (President for Life) from 1964 until his death. ...


Departments, arrondissements, and communes

Main article: Departments of Haiti
Further information: Arrondissements and communes of Haiti

Haiti is divided into 10 departments. The departments are listed below, with the departmental capital cities in parentheses. Haiti is divided into nine departments (départements): Artibonite Centre GrandAnse Nord Nord-Est Nord-Ouest Ouest Sud Sud-Est Categories: Lists of subnational entities | Haiti | Departments of Haiti ... Arrondissements of Haiti Communes of Haiti Haiti is divided into 41 arrondissements, and 133 communes. ... Haiti is divided into nine departments (départements): Artibonite Centre GrandAnse Nord Nord-Est Nord-Ouest Ouest Sud Sud-Est Categories: Lists of subnational entities | Haiti | Departments of Haiti ...

Departments of Haiti
Departments of Haiti
  1. Artibonite (Gonaïves)
  2. Centre (Hinche)
  3. Grand'Anse (Jérémie)
  4. Nippes (Miragoâne)
  5. Nord (Cap-Haïtien)
  6. Nord-Est (Fort-Liberté)
  7. Nord-Ouest (Port-de-Paix)
  8. Ouest (Port-au-Prince) *national capital*
  9. Sud-Est (Jacmel)
  10. Sud (Les Cayes)

The departments are further divided into 41 arrondissements, and 133 communes which serve as second and third level administrative divisions. Image File history File links Haiti_departments_numbered. ... Image File history File links Haiti_departments_numbered. ... Artibonite is one of the nine departments (french: départements) of Haiti. ... Gonaïves (Gonayiv in Kreyòl) is a city in northern Haiti, the capital of Artibonite department. ... Centre is one of the nine departments (french: départements) of Haiti, located in the center of the country, along the border with the Dominican Republic. ... Hinche (Ench in Kréyòl) is a city in central Haiti, near the border with the Dominican Republic. ... GrandAnse is one of the ten departments (french: départements) of Haiti. ... Jérémie (Jeremi in Kreyòl) is the capital city of the department of GrandAnse, in Haiti, with a population of about 31,000 (2003 census). ... Nippes is the newest department (French: département) of Haiti, having been split from GrandAnse Department in 2003. ... Miragoane is a coastal town in western Haiti. ... Nord (English: North) is one of the nine departments (french: départements) of Haiti. ... Looking into Cap-Haïtien from the northern edge of downtown Cap-Haïtien (or Le Cap) (Okap or Kapayisyen in Kréyòl) is a city of about 111,094 people (2003 census) on the north coast of Haiti. ... Nord-Est (English: North-East) is one of the nine departments (french: départements) of Haiti. ... Fort-Liberté is the administrative centre of the Nord-Est Department, Haiti. ... Nord-Ouest (English: North-West) is one of the nine departments (french: départements) of Haiti. ... Port-de-Paix (Pòdepè or Pòdpè in Kréyòl) is a city and the capital of the département of Nord-Ouest in Haïti on the Atlantic coast. ... Ouest (English: West) is one of the nine departments (french: départements) of Haiti. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ... Sud-Est (English: South-East) is one of the nine departments of Haiti. ... Jacmel, (Jakmèl in Kréyòl) also known by its indigenous name of Yaquimel, is a city in southern Haiti founded in 1698. ... Sud (English: South) is one of the nine departments (french: départements) of Haiti. ... Les Cayes, formerly Aux Cayes, is a town and seaport in southwestern Haiti with a population of approximately 45,904 people (1995 estimate). ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ...


Geography

Map of Haiti
Map of Haiti
Main article: Geography of Haiti

Haiti is situated on the western part of Hispaniola, the second largest island in the Greater Antilles. Haiti is the third largest country in the Caribbean behind Cuba and the Dominican Republic (the latter shares a 360 kilometre (224 mile) border with Haiti). Haiti at its closest point is only 80 kilometres (43 nmi) away from Cuba. Haiti's terrain consists mainly of rugged mountains interspersed with small coastal plains and river valleys. Map of Haiti. ... Map of Haiti. ... Map of Haiti. ...


The northern region consists of the Massif du Nord (Northern Massif) and the Plaine du Nord (Northern Plain). The Massif du Nord is an extension of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. It begins at Haiti's eastern border, north of the Guayamouc River, and extends to the northwest through the northern peninsula. The lowlands of the Plaine du Nord lie along the northern border with the Dominican Republic, between the Massif du Nord and the North Atlantic Ocean. The central region consists of two plains and two sets of mountain ranges. The Plateau Central (Central Plateau) extends along both sides of the Guayamouc River, south of the Massif du Nord. It runs from the southeast to the northwest. To the southwest of the Plateau Central are the Montagnes Noires, whose most northwestern part merges with the Massif du Nord.

Mangrove forest in Haiti
Mangrove forest in Haiti

The southern region consists of the Plaine du Cul-de-Sac (the southeast) and the mountainous southern peninsula (also known as the Tiburon Peninsula). The Plaine du Cul-de-Sac is a natural depression which harbors the country's saline lakes, such as Trou Caïman and Haiti's largest lake Lac Azuei. The Chaîne de la Selle mountain range, an extension of the southern mountain chain of the Dominican Republic (the Sierra de Baoruco), extends from the Massif de la Selle in the east to the Massif de la Hotte in the west. This mountain range harbors Pic la Selle, the highest point in Haiti at 2,680 metres (8,793 ft). The Cul-de-Sac Depression is a lowland on the island of Hispaniola. ... Trou Caïman, sometimes called Eau Gallée by locals, is a lake in Haiti known for its excellent birdwatching opportunities. ... Étang Saumâtre is a salt-water lake located at 18°35N 72°00W in southeastern Haiti, bordering the Dominican Republic. ... Pic la Selle is the largest mountain in Haiti with a height of 2,680 meters (8,793 feet) above sea level. ...


The country's most important valley in terms of crops is the Plaine de l'Artibonite, which is oriented south of the Montagnes Noires. This region supports the country's (also Hispaniola's) longest river, the Riviere l'Artibonite which begins in the western region of the Dominican Republic and continues most of its length through central Haiti and onward where it empties into the Golfe de la Gonâve. The eastern and central region of the island is a large elevated plateau. Haiti also includes several offshore islands. The historically famous island of Tortuga (Île de la Tortue) is located off the coast of northern Haiti. The arrondissement of La Gonâve is located on the island of the same name, in the Golfe de la Gonâve. Gonave Island is moderately populated by rural villagers. Île à Vache (Island of Cows) is located off the tip of southwestern Haiti. It is a lush island with many beautiful sights. Also part of Haiti are the Cayemites and Ile de Anacaona. Gulf of Gonâve seen from space (false color) Gulf of Gonâve (French: ) is a large gulf along the western coast of Haiti, at . ... For the island with a similar name in the Gulf of California, see Isla Tortuga. ... An arrondissement is an administrative division in some French or Dutch-speaking countries: // Main article: Municipal arrondissement in France Main article: Arrondissements of Paris Paris, capital city of France, is divided into 20 arrondissements. ... Gonave may refer to: Gulf of Gonave Island of Gonave This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Gulf of Gonâve seen from space (false color) Gulf of Gonâve (French: ) is a large gulf along the western coast of Haiti, at . ... ÃŽle à Vache (also expressed ÃŽle-à-Vaches) is a small island lying of the south-west peninsula of Haiti near the town of Les Cayes. ... The Cayemites are a pair of islands located in the Gulf of Gonâve off the coast of southwest Haiti. ...


Environment

In 1925, Haiti was lush, with 60% of its original forest covering the lands and mountainous regions. Since then, the population has cut down all but an estimated 2% of its original forest cover, and in the process has destroyed fertile farmland soils, contributing to desertification.[2] Erosion has been severe in the mountainous areas. Most Haitian logging is done to produce charcoal, the country's chief source of fuel. The plight of Haiti's forests has attracted international attention, and has led to numerous reforestation efforts, but these have met with little success to date. Despite the large environmental crises, Haiti retains a very high amount of biodiversity in proportion to its small size. The country is home to more than 6,000 plants, of which 35% are endemic; and 220 species of birds, of which 21 species are endemic. The country's high biodiversity is due to its mountainous topography and fluctuating elevations in which each elevation harbors different microclimates and its own specific native fauna and flora. The country's varied scenery include lush green cloud forests (in some of the mountain ranges and the protected areas), high mountain peaks, arid desert, mangrove forest, and palm tree-lined beaches.[3] For the labor union vitiation procedure, see NLRB election procedures#Decertification elections. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Genera Many; see list of Arecaceae genera Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid[1]), the palm family, is a family of flowering plants belonging to the monocot order, Arecales. ...

2004 Haiti flood
2004 Haiti flood

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Environmental issues

In addition to soil erosion, deforestation has caused periodic flooding, as seen on 17 September 2004. Tropical storm Jeanne skimmed the north coast of Haiti, leaving 3,006 people dead in flooding and mudslides, mostly in the city of Gonaïves.[4] Earlier that year in May, floods killed over 3,000 people on Haiti's southern border with the Dominican Republic. [5] For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... This article is about the process of deforestation in the environment. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with the 2004 Hurricane Jeanne. ... Gonaïves (Gonayiv in Kreyòl) is a city in northern Haiti, the capital of Artibonite department. ...


The country is working to implement a biofuel solution to its energy problems.[6]


Economy

Main article: Economy of Haiti

Haiti has remained the least-developed country in the Americas. Comparative social and economic indicators show Haiti falling behind other low-income developing countries (particularly in the hemisphere) since the 1980s. Haiti now ranks 146th of 177 countries in the United Nations Human Development Index (2006). About 80% of the population were estimated to be living in poverty in 2003.[1] Haiti is the only country in the Americas on the United Nations list of Least Developed Countries. Economic growth was negative in 2001 and 2002, and flat in 2003. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere; however its potential for leaving its long-associated status is growing. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... UN redirects here. ... Map of the Least Developed Countries as defined by the United Nations Least Developed Countries (LDCs or Fourth World countries) are countries which according to the United Nations exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world. ...

Bas-Ravine, in the northern part of Cap-Haitien.
Bas-Ravine, in the northern part of Cap-Haitien.

About 66% of all Haitians work in the agricultural sector, which consists mainly of small-scale subsistence farming,[1] but this activity makes up only 30% of the GDP. The country has experienced little formal job creation over the past decade, although the informal economy is growing. Mangoes and coffee are two of Haiti's most important exports.[1] It has consistently ranked among the most corrupt countries in the world on the Corruption Perceptions Index. Cap-Haïtien (or Le Cap) is a city of about 500,000 people on the north coast of Haiti. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as...


Foreign aid makes up approximately 30%-40% of the national government's budget. The largest donor is the United States followed by Canada, and the European Union also contribute. Venezuela and Cuba also make various contributions to Haiti's economy, especially after alliances were renewed in 2006-7.


U.S. aid to the Haitian government was completely cut off in 2001-2004 after the 2000 election was disputed and President Aristide was accused of various misdeeds. After Aristide's departure in 2004, aid was restored, and the Brazilian army led the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti peacekeeping operation. Jean-Bertrand Aristide Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15, Haitian politician and former priest who was President of Haiti in 1991, from 1994 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004. ... Brazilian Army troops before boarding for MINUSTAH peacekeeping mission. ...


Education

Main article: Education in Haiti

Of Haiti's 8.7 million inhabitants, just below half are illiterate. The literacy rate of 52.9% is the lowest in the region. Haiti counts 15,200 primary schools, of which 90% are non-public and managed by the communities, religious organizations or NGOs.[7] The enrollment rate for primary school is 67%, of which less than 30% reach 6th grade. Secondary schools enroll 20% of eligible-age children. Literacy is the ability to use text to communicate across space and time. ...


The educational system of Haiti is based on the French system. Higher education is provided by universities and other public and private institutions. It is under the responsibility of the Ministry of Education.[8] Schoolsystem in France The French educational system is highly centralised, organised, and ramified. ...


A list of universities in Haiti includes: A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...

  • Université Caraïbe (CUC)
  • Université d'État d'Haïti (UEH)
  • Université Notre Dame d'Haïti (UNDH)
  • Université Chrétienne du Nord d'Haïti (UCNH)
  • Université Lumière / MEBSH
  • Université Quisqueya (UNIQ)
  • Université Roi Henri Christophe
  • Université Publique de l'Artibonite aux Gonaïves (UPAG)
  • Université Publique du Nord au Cap-Haïtien (UPNCH)
  • Université Publique du Sud au Cayes (UPSAC)

The University of Caraibe (French: Université Caraïbe) is a university located in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. ... Haitis most important institution of higher education in the 1980s was the University of Haiti. ... The University Notre Dame of Haiti (French: Université Notre Dame dHaïti, UNDH) is a catholic university located in Port-au-Prince, Haïti. ...

Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Haiti

Although Haiti averages approximately 250 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. mi.), its population is concentrated most heavily in urban areas, coastal plains, and valleys. About 92% of Haitians are of predominantly African descent. The influential remainder of the population vary in ethnic groups from mulattoes, and Arabs (primarily Syrian and Lebanese people) to Europeans. Mulatto descended Haitians are chiefly of French, Spanish, German, Polish, or Italian heritage mixed with African. There is a very small percentage within the minority who are of Asian descent. Population of Haiti (in thousands) from 1961 to 2003 Although Haiti averages approximately 250 people per square kilometer (650 per sq. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... A coastal plain is an area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features. ... Fljótsdalur in East Iceland, a rather flat valley In geology, a valley (also called a vale or dale) is a depression with predominant extent in one direction. ... Mulatto (Spanish mulato, small mule, person of mixed race, mulatto, from mulo, mule, from Old Spanish, from Latin mÅ«lus. ... In Haiti, exists a small yet visible number of Haitians that are of Middle-Eastern stock or trace their origins to Arab descendants. ... The Lebanese are defined as Arabs, with ancestry in the country of Lebanon. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... A stereotypical German The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ...


Haitian diaspora

As with many other poor Caribbean nations, there is a large diaspora, which includes many, often illegal, immigrants in nearby countries. Millions of Haitians live abroad, chiefly in the Dominican Republic, Bahamas, Cuba, Belgium, Canada, France, Saint Martin, Venezuela, and the United States. [--168. ... St. ...


In the United States

There is a significant Haitian presence in South Florida, specifically the Miami enclave of Little Haiti. New York City also has a thriving émigré community with the second largest population of Haitians of any state in the United States. A lesser yet considerable number reside in Boston, Massachusetts and in other major metropolitan areas of Florida. The Miami Urbanized Area stretches along the Atlantic Coast for most of the length of the Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Pompano Beach Metropolitan Area, but is confined to a relatively narrow area between the coast and the Everglades. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ... Little Haiti (Le Petite Haiti) is an unincorporated neighborhood in Miami, Florida. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


Languages

Despite having similarities with its Hispanophone neighbors, Haiti is a Francophone country and consequently the official languages of Haiti are French and Haitian Creole[1] Virtually all Haitians speak the latter natively, a French-based creole language that harbors significant African influence, as well as influence from Spanish, and Taíno to a lesser extent. Standard French however, is the principal written and administratively authorized language, spoken by most educated Haitians and used in the business sector. Spanish is often understood and spoken near the border with the Dominican Republic.English is spoken by educated Haitians due to Haiti's ties to the United States and used in Haitian music. It is also pivotal to note that every Haitian speaks Haitian French Creole. Although, the rich, preferably mulattos, prefer to speak French. Domestic workers speak French to their employers, but Creole to each other. French is spoken fluently by 10% of the population of Haiti. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... French (français, langue française) is one of the most important Romance languages, outnumbered in speakers only by Spanish and Portuguese. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ...


Culture

Main article: Culture of Haiti
"Tap tap" bus in Port-Salut.
"Tap tap" bus in Port-Salut.

Haiti has a long and storied history and therefore retains a very rich culture. Haitian culture is a mix of primarily French and African elements, with some lesser influence from the colonial Spanish as well as minor influences from the native Taíno. The country's customs essentially are a blend of cultural beliefs that derived from the various ethnic groups that inhabited the island of Hispaniola. In nearly all aspects of modern Haitian society however, the European and African element dominate. Haiti is world famous for its distinctive art, notably painting and sculpture. [[Image: Small Text Superscript text#REDIRECT Strike-through text --216. ... S.A.F.R Port Salut is a semi-soft pasteurized cows milk cheese from Brittany with a distinctive orange crust and a mild flavor. ... For other uses, see Taino (disambiguation). ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ...


Religion

Virtually the whole population, about 95%, adheres to Christianity, however denominations vary. Roman Catholicism is the official state religion and is by far the dominant faith, in which the majority, approximately 80%, of the population professes. An estimated 15% of the population follows the teachings of various Protestant churches. A Russian Orthodox Church has a presence in Port au Prince[9]. The New World Afro-diasporic religion of Vodou is also practiced by a considerable number of the population, mostly in rural areas. The religion is very similar to other regional variations such as Brazilian Candomblé, Cuban Santería, and Espiritismo of Puerto Rico. Some practitioners of vodou syncretize their faith with Catholic elements, however strict Catholics often dismiss vodou practice as pagan and false. Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... Port-au-Prince, Haïti A taptap (shared taxi) in central Port-au-Prince. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... The Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants. ... This article is about the West African religion. ... Ilê Axé Iya Nassô Oká - Terreiro da Casa Branca Candomblé is an African-inspired or Afro-Brazilian religion or cult, practiced chiefly in Brazil. ... For other uses, see Santeria (disambiguation). ... Espiritismo (Spanish: Spiritualism) is the Latin American and Caribbean belief that good and evil spirits can affect health, luck and other elements of human life. ...


Carnival

Haitian revelers atop a carnival float in Port-au-Prince. (2007)
Haitian revelers atop a carnival float in Port-au-Prince. (2007)

Haiti has a vibrant and large carnival season; referred to as Mardi Gras or Carnaval in French and Kanaval in Haitian Creole. It is held every year on the Sunday, Monday, and Tuesday before Ash Wednesday. The Jacmel Carnival is well known for its culturally appealing displays of costumes and masks. While it is a rather large carnival, it is dwarfed by the much larger Carnival of Port-au-Prince; the national parade which draws thousands of people annually. Vivid floats that are sponsored by the country's popular brand name products host some of the country's most well known musicians. Carnival season is a joyous event which is attended by both locals as well as those from abroad, which include the diaspora and foreigners. During this time, the country is engulfed by music and raucous celebration, a scene which is in dramatic contrast to the temporarily-forgotten troubles that plague the country. For other uses, see Carnival (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mardi Gras (disambiguation). ... Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language It is spoken in Haiti by about 8. ... In the Western Christian calendar, Ash Wednesday is the first day of Lent. ... Jacmel, (Jakmèl in Kréyòl) also known by its indigenous name of Yaquimel, is a city in southern Haiti founded in 1698. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ...


Music

Main article: Music of Haiti

Haiti's most well-known music style is compas, a vibrant music and dance genre similar to that of their Cuban neighbors but with a reminiscence of jazz. Compas was created by a man name Nemours Jean-Baptiste[1] and some friends of his, namely Wébert Sicot in 1957. Compas often employs African drumming, modern guitars/synthesized sounds, saxophones, and lyrics sung in Haitian Creole. Merengue of the Dominican Republic is also popular in Haiti. The origins of merengue are unclear and the origins vary depending on who tells the story. Many Haitians believe it is an offshoot variant of Haitian Méringue, a similar-sounding style. Nonetheless, Haitians enjoy both sounds. Some Haitian Compas bands are well-known throughout the world in the US and Europe, especially in Haitian communities: Tabou Combo [2]and Carimi [3] to name a few. The music of Haiti is influenced most greatly by European colonial ties and African migration (through slavery). ... Nemours Jean Baptiste (February 2, 1918 - May 12, 1985) was a Haitian saxophonist, writer, and band leader. ... Haitian Creole (Kreyòl ayisyen) is a creole language based on the French language. ... Merengue is a type of lively, joyful music and dance that comes from the Dominican Republic [1]. It is popular in the Dominican Republic. ... Méringue (also mereng) is a kind of Haïtian music related to twoubadou and the Dominican merengue. ...


Rasin and kadans are two other popular genres in the country. Other popular genres in Haiti include Salsa music, soca and zouk, a derivation of compas, originating from the French Antilles. Rasin is a musical movement that began in Haïti in 1987 when musicians began combining elements of traditional Haïtian vodou ceremonical and folkloric music with rock and roll. ... Kadans is a French Creole music genre, which started off in Haiti and developed in the French islands. ... Salsa music is a diverse and predominantly Spanish Caribbean genre that is popular across Latin America and among Latinos abroad. ... See: Soca River (pronounced Socha River), ( Slovenian original reka Soča). ... Zouk is a style of rhythmic music originating from the French islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique. ... The term French West Indies (Antilles françaises) refers to the four territories presently under French sovereignty in the Caribbean: the two overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique, plus the two overseas collectivities of Saint Martin and Saint-Barthélemy. ...


Cuisine

Haitian cuisine.
Haitian cuisine.

Haitian Cuisine is influenced by the methods and foods of French cuisine as well as by staples originating from Africa and the local environment (the cuisine of the native Taino), such as cassava (kasav), yam, and maize (mayi). Haitian food, though with unique characteristics, shares much with other cuisines of the Caribbean. Haitian food tends to be mildly spicy. The cuisine features several varieties of rice and beans, the de facto national dish. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 587 KB) I took this photo of Haitian cuisine Jan 19, 2007. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 587 KB) I took this photo of Haitian cuisine Jan 19, 2007. ... Haitian cuisine is a mixture of various cuisines, predominately of a similar nature with fellow Latin American countries. ... A pot of coq au vin, a well-known French dish French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The Taíno are the pre-Hispanic Amerindian inhabitants of the Greater Antilles, which includes Cuba, Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), Puerto Rico, Jamaica and the Bahamas. ... For the Gibraltar company, see Cassava Enterprises. ... Yam may refer to: Yam (vegetable), common name for members of Dioscorea Yam (god), a Levantine deity A colloquially American term for Shellfish Yam (route), a Mongolian supply point system An animal in the same family as the Yak and Wild Buffalo A colloquially American term for sweet potato A... This article is about the maize plant. ... Feijoada is served along with rice and other typical items of Brazilian cuisine Rice and beans (feijão com arroz, in Portuguese) is a very popular dish in Brazil and the Caribbean. ...


References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e "CIA - The World Factbook – Haiti". United States (2008-03-20). Retrieved on 2007-12-20.
  2. ^ "Forestry". Retrieved on 2006-09-18.
  3. ^ Can Haiti dream of ecotourism ? - Paul Parisky, Kiskeya Alternativa's publications
  4. ^ "Photo Gallery: Jeanne hits Haiti". Orlando Sentinel. Retrieved on 2006-09-18.
  5. ^ Deforestation Exacerbates Haiti Floods
  6. ^ "Analysis: Haiti seeks a biofuel solution". United Press Internation. Retrieved on 2007-07-02.
  7. ^ "Education: Overview", United States Agency for International Development. Retrieved on 2007-11-15. 
  8. ^ "Education in Haiti; Primary Education". Retrieved on 2007-11-15. 
  9. ^ Russian Orthodox Church of Haiti Russian Orthodox missions aboard - Haiti

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Resources

  • Paul Butel. Histoire des Antilles Françaises XVIIe - XXe siècle, Perrin 2002 ISBN 978-2-2620154-0-6
  • Noam Chomsky. U.S. & Haiti. Z magazine, April 2004 Accessed 2008-05-07.
  • Wade Davis The Serpent and The Rainbow. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1985
  • Michael Deibert. Notes from the Last Testament: The Struggle for Haiti. Seven Stories Press, New York, 2005. ISBN-10: 1583226974.
  • Jared Diamond. 2005. Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed. New York: Viking. ISBN 0-670-03337-5.
  • Paul Farmer. Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003, 2005 edition. ISBN 978-0-520-24326-2.
  • Paul Farmer. The uses of Haiti. Monroe, Maine: Common Courage Press 2003. ISBN 1-56751-242-9
  • Carolyn E. Fick. The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. first ed edition (February 1, 1990). ISBN-10: 0870496670, ISBN-13: 978-0870496677
  • Alroy Fonseca. Aristide's Second Fall, April 2006
  • Robert Debs Heinl and Nancy Gordon Heinl. Written in Blood: The Story of the Haitian People 1492-1995. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1996. ISBN 0761831770
  • C. L. R. James. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L’Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. Vintage, 1938. ISBN 0-679-72467-2.
  • J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat. Sleeping Rough in Port-au-Prince: An Ethnography of Violence and Street Children in Haiti. University Press of Florida, 2006. ISBN 0-8130-3009-9
  • Mark Kurlansky. A Continent of Islands: Searching for the Caribbean Destiny. Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1992. ISBN 0-201-52396-5.
  • Elizabeth McAlister. Rara! Vodou, Power, and Performance in Haiti and its Diaspora. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. ISBN 0-520-22823-5.
  • Melinda Miles and Eugenia Charles, eds. Let Haiti Live: Unjust U.S. Policies Toward Its Oldest Neighbor. 2004.
  • Jack Claude Nezat. The Nezat And Allied Families 1630-2007 Lulu 2007 ISBN 978-2-9528339-2-9, ISBN 978-0-6151-5001-7
  • Randall Robinson. An Unbroken Agony: Haiti, from Revolution to the Kidnapping of a President. New York: Perseus Books Group, 2007. ISBN 0465070507.
  • Martin Ros. Night of Fire - The Black Napoleon and the Battle for Haiti. New York: DaCapo Press, 1993. ISBN 0-9627613-8-9

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. ... Edmund Wade Davis (born December 14, 1953) is a noted anthropologist and ethnobotanist whose work has usually focused on the observation and analysis of the customs, beliefs, and social relations of indigenous cultures in North and South America, particularly the traditional uses and beliefs associated with plants with psychoactive properties. ... Jared Mason Diamond (b. ... Dr. Paul Farmer Paul Farmer (born October 26, 1959) is an American anthropologist and physician, currently the Presley Professor of Medical Anthropology at Harvard University and an attending physician at Brigham and Womens Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was an Anglo-Trinidadian journalist, socialist theorist and writer. ... J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat (Born 1970) is an American cultural anthropologist, and the author of Sleeping Rough in Port-au-Prince: An Ethnography of Street Children and Violence in Haiti (University Press of Florida, 2006). ... Mark Kurlansky (b. ... For the cameraman, see Randall Robinson (cinematographer). ...

External links

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Map showing CARICOM members, associates and observers Seat of Secretariat Georgetown, Guyana Official languages English4 Membership  15 full members1  5 associate members2  7 observers3 Leaders  -  Secretary-General Edwin W. Carrington (since 1992)  -  CARICOM Heads of Government   Establishment  -  August 1, 1973  Website http://www. ... Motto Country Above Self Anthem O Land of Beauty! Royal anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Basseterre Official languages English Government  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Cuthbert Sebastian  -  Prime Minister Dr. Denzil Douglas Independence  -  19 September 1983  Area  -  Total 261 km² (207th) 101 sq mi... For other uses, see Saint Lucia (disambiguation). ... Motto Pax et justitia(Latin) Peace and justice Anthem St Vincent Land So Beautiful Capital (and largest city) Kingstown Official languages English Demonym Vincentian Government (constitutional monarchy)  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor-General Sir Frederick Ballantyne  -  Prime Minister Ralph Gonsalves Independence  -  27 October 1979  Area  -  Total 389 km² (201st) 150... Image File history File links Flag_of_CARICOM.svg Flag of the Caribbean Community, based on image at the World Flag Database. ... The Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI) (IPA: ) are a British Overseas Territory consisting of two groups of tropical islands in the West Indies at . ... Flag of CARICOM and the CSME The CARICOM Single Market and Economy also known as the Caribbean Single Market and Economy or CSME is an integrated development strategy envisioned at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of Heads of Government of the Caribbean Community which took place in July 1989... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Haiti (01/08) (5161 words)
Haiti is the world's oldest fl republic and the second-oldest republic in the Western Hemisphere, after the United States.
Haiti is one of the original members of the United Nations and several of its specialized and related agencies, as well as a member of the Organization of American States (OAS).
Haiti is a major transshipment point for South American narcotics, primarily cocaine, being sent to the United States.
Haiti News - Breaking World Haiti News - The New York Times (2885 words)
Haiti is the most densely populated country in Latin America and has the lowest per capita income, with about two thirds of the people unemployed and three quarters living in poverty.
Haiti is governed under the constitution of 1987, which was suspended and reinstated several times between 1988 and 2006, when the country returned to constitutional rule.
Haiti has a bicameral legislature, the National Assembly, with a 30-seat Senate, whose members are elected to six-year terms, and a 99-seat Chamber of Deputies, whose members are elected to four-year terms.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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