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Encyclopedia > Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia
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Haile Selassie
Emperor of Ethiopia
Reign November 2, 1930September 12, 1974
Titles Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings of Ethiopia and Elect of God
Born July 23, 1892
Ejersa Goro, Harar
Died August 27, 1975
Predecessor Zewditu
Successor De Facto Aman Mikael Andom (as Chairman of the Derg and Head of State)

De Jure Amha Selassie I (crowned in exile) Note: This article contains special characters. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 728 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ejersa Goro is a small town in eastern Ethiopia outside of the city of Harar. ... Harar (sometimes spelled Harrar, Hārer, or Harer) is an eastern city in Ethiopia, and the capital of the modern Harari ethno-political division (or kilil) of Ethiopia. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Empress Zaiditu of Ethiopia Empress Zauditu (also known as Zawditu or Zewditu) (April 29, 1876 - April 2, 1930) was reigning Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 to 1930. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Aman Mikale Andom (1924–1974) was an important leader in the military coup which occurred in Ethiopia on September 12, 1974, in which a military committee deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. ... Derg party badge, c1979. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Emperor Amha Selassie of Ethiopia (1916–February 17, 1997) was the last Emperor of Ethiopia. ...

Consort Empress Menen
Issue HIH Princess Tenagnework
HIM Asfaw Wossen
HIH Princess Tsehai
HIH Princess Zenebework
HIH Prince Makonnen
HIH Prince Sahle Selassie
Romanework Haile Selassie
Royal House House of Solomon
Father Ras Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa
Mother Weyziro Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar

Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Ge'ez: ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ, "Power of the Trinity"; July 23, 1892August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. He is also considered to be the religious symbol for God incarnate among the Rastafari movement, founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s. The Rastafari also call Selassie HIM, Jah and Jah Rastafari. Empress Menen Asfaw (March 1889 - February 15, 1962) was the wife and consort of Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. ... Princess Tenagnework Haile Selassie (1912 - April 6, 2003) was the eldest child of Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen Asfaw. ... Emperor Amha Selassie of Ethiopia (1916–February 17, 1997) was the last Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Fully titled Her Imperial Highness, Princess Tsehai Haile Selassie, she was the second daughter and third child of Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen Asfaw. ... Princess Zenebework was the second daughter of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, and his wife Empress Menen Asfaw. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Fully titled His Imperial Highness, Prince Sahle Selassie Haile Selassie, Prince Sahle Selassie was the youngest child of Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen Asfaw of Ethiopia. ... Princess Romanework Haile Selassie, eldest child of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, by Woizero Altayech. ... The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ... Ethiopian aristocratic and religious titles used in Ethiopia until the end of the Monarchy in 1974. ... Ras Makonnen ca. ... Yeshimebet Ali (died 1960) was the Mother of Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... Badge of a Companion of the Order of the Bath (Military Division) Ribbon of the Order of the Bath The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath)[1] is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on May 18, 1725. ... On the Orders insignia, St Michael is often depicted subduing Satan. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... Note: This article contains special characters. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Look up incarnation, incarnate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ...


Born Lij Tafari Makonnen (Ge'ez ልጅ፡ ተፈሪ፡ መኮንን; Amharic pronunciation lij teferī mekōnnin), his full title in office was "His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings of Ethiopia and Elect of God" (Ge'ez ግርማዊ፡ ቀዳማዊ፡ አፄ፡ ኃይለ፡ ሥላሴ፡ ሞዓ፡ [sic] አንበሳ፡ ዘእምነገደ፡ ይሁዳ፡ ንጉሠ፡ ነገሥት፡ ዘኢትዮጵያ፡ ሰዩመ፡ እግዚአብሔር; girmāwī ḳadāmāwī 'aṣē ḫāylē śillāsē, mō'ā 'anbassā za'imnaggada yīhūda nigūsa nagast za'ītyōṗṗyā, siyūma 'igzī'a'bihēr). To Ethiopians he has been known by many names, including Janhoy, Talaqu Meri, Abba Tekel, amongst others. This is a list of Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles used in Ethiopia until the end of the Monarchy in 1974. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Haile Selassie I was born Tafari Makonnen on July 23, 1892, in the village of Ejersa Goro, in the Harar province of Ethiopia, as Lij (literally "child", usually bestowed upon nobility). His father was Ras Makonnen Woldemikael Gudessa, the governor of Harar, and his mother was Weyziro (Lady) Yeshimebet Ali Abajifar. He inherited his imperial blood through his paternal grandmother, Princess Tenagnework Sahle Selassie, who was an aunt of Emperor Menelik II, and as such, claimed to be a direct descendant of Makeda, the queen of Sheba, and King Solomon of the ancient kingdom. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Ejersa Goro is a small town in eastern Ethiopia outside of the city of Harar. ... Harar (sometimes spelled Harrar, Hārer, or Harer) is an eastern city in Ethiopia, and the capital of the modern Harari ethno-political division (or kilil) of Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian aristocratic and religious titles used in Ethiopia until the end of the Monarchy in 1974. ... Ras Makonnen ca. ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... A lady is a woman who is the counterpart of a lord; or, the counterpart of a gentleman. ... Yeshimebet Ali (died 1960) was the Mother of Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. ... Menelik II (August 17, 1844 - December 12, 1913), Conquering Lion of Judah, Elect of God, King of Kings of Ethiopia was negus negust (emperor) of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. ... The Queen of Sheba, referred to in the Bible, the Quran, and Ethiopic history, was the ruler of Sheba, which modern archeology places in present-day Yemen. ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ, Tigrinya: ሳባ) was a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ... This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Tafari became Dejazmach at the age of thirteen. Shortly thereafter, his father Ras Makonnen died at Kulibi. Although it seems that his father had wanted him to inherit his position of governor of Harar, Emperor Menelik found it imprudent to appoint such a young boy to such an important position. Dejazmach Tafari's older half-brother, Dejazmach Yilma Makonnen was made governor of Harar instead but died not long after taking office. Kulibi is a mountain located 70 kilometers east of Dire Dawa in Eastern Ethiopia. ...


Governor of Harar

Tafari was given the titular governorship of Sellale, although he did not administer the district directly. In 1907, he was appointed governor over part of the province of Sidamo. Following the death of his brother Dejazmach Yilma, Harar was granted to Menelik's loyal general, Dejazmach Balcha Saffo. However, the Dejazmach's time in Harar was not successful, and so during the last illness of Menelik II, and the brief tenure in power of Empress Taitu Bitul, Tafari Makonnen was made governor of Harar, and entered the city 11 April 1911. On 3 August of that year, he married Menen Asfaw of Ambassel, the niece of the heir to the throne, Lij Iyasu. Sidamo was a province in the southern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Irgalem, and later at Awasa. ... Taytu Betul (c. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Empress Menen Asfaw (March 1889 - February 15, 1962) was the wife and consort of Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. ... Ambassel is a mountain fortress in the Amhara highlands of Ethiopia. ... Iyasu V (Geez ኢያሱ), also known as Lij Iyasu (Geez ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1887 - 25 November 1935) was the designated but uncrowned monarch of Ethiopia (1913 - 1916). ...


Regent

Although Dejazmach Tafari played only a minor role in the movement that deposed Lij Iyasu on 27 September 1916, he was its ultimate beneficiary. The primary powers behind the move were the conservatives led by Fitawrari Habte Giorgis Dinagde, Menelik II's long time war minister. Dejazmach Tafari was included in order to get the progressive elements of the nobility behind the movement, as Lij, Iyasu was no longer regarded as the progressives' best hope for change. Iyasu's increasing flirtation with Islam, his disrespectful attitude to the nobles of his grandfather Menelik II, as well as his scandalous behavior in general, not only outraged the conservative power brokers of the Empire, but alienated the progressive elements as well. This led to the deposition of Iyasu on grounds of conversion to Islam, and the proclamation of Menelik II's daughter (Iyasu's aunt) as Empress Zewditu. Dejazmach Tafari Makonnen was elevated to the rank of Ras and was made heir apparent. In the power arrangement that followed, Tafari accepted the role of Regent (Inderase) and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ethiopian aristocratic and religious titles used in Ethiopia until the end of the Monarchy in 1974. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Empress Zaiditu of Ethiopia Zauditu (also known as Zawditu or Zewditu) (1876 - 1930) was reigning Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 to 1930. ...


As regent, the new Crown Prince developed the policy of careful modernization initiated by Menelik II, securing Ethiopia's admission to the League of Nations in 1923, re-abolishing slavery in the empire in 1924 (it had already been declared illegal several times by all the Emperors beginning with Tewodros, but with little practical result). He engaged in a tour of Europe that same year, inspecting schools, hospitals, factories, and churches; this left such an impression on the future emperor that he devoted over forty pages of his autobiography to the details of his European journey. Also on this trip, while visiting the Armenian monastery in Jerusalem, the Crown Prince met 40 Armenian orphans (አርባ ልጆች Arba Lijoch, "forty children") who had escaped from the Armenian genocide in Ottoman Empire. They impressed him so much that he received permission from the Armenian Patriarch of Jerusalem to adopt and bring them to Ethiopia, where he arranged for them to receive musical instruction, and they formed the Imperial brass band. The 40 teenagers arrived in Addis Ababa on 6 September 1924, and along with their bandleader Kevork Nalbandian, became the first official orchestra of the nation. Nalbandian composed the music for the Imperial National Anthem, Marsh Teferi (words by Yoftahé Negusé), which was official in Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974. [1] The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Slave redirects here. ... En route to Europe, while visiting the Armenian monastery in Jerusalem, Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia, then Crown Prince Ras Tafari, met 40 Armenian orphans (አርባ ልጆች Arba Lijoch, forty children) who had escaped from the Armenian genocide in Turkey. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... The Armenian Patriarchate of Jerusalem was founded in 638. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


King and Emperor

Haile Selassie I

Empress Zewditu crowned him as negus ("king," in Amharic) in 1928, under pressure from the progressive party, following a failed attempt to remove him from power by the conservative elements. The crowning of Tafari Makonnen was very controversial, as he occupied the same immediate territory as the Empress, rather than going off to one of the regional areas traditionally known as Kingdoms within the empire. Two monarchs, even with one being the vassal and the other the Emperor (in this case Empress), had never occupied the same location as their seat in Ethiopian history. Attempts to redress this "insult" to the dignity of the Empress' crown were made by conservatives including Dejazmach Balcha and others. The rebellion of Ras Gugsa Wele, husband of the Empress, was also in this spirit. He marched from his governorate at Gondar towards Addis Ababa but was defeated and killed at the Battle of Anchiem on 31 March 1930. News of Ras Gugsa's defeat and death had hardly spread through Addis Ababa, when the Empress died suddenly on 2 April 1930. Although it was long rumored that the Empress was poisoned upon the defeat of her husband, or alternately, that she collapsed upon hearing of his death and died herself, it has since been documented that the Empress had succumbed to an intense, flu-like fever and complications from diabetes. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Negus is the Amharic word for king. The term negus negust means king of kings, or Emperor. ... Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... Overview of the city with Fasilides castle in the center. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ...


Following the Empress Zewditu's sudden death, Tafari Makonnen was made Emperor and proclaimed Neguse Negest ze-'Ityopp'ya ("King of Kings of Ethiopia"). He was crowned on 2 November as Emperor Haile Selassie I at Addis Ababa's Cathedral of St. George, in front of representatives from 12 countries. (Haile Selassie had been the baptismal name given to Tafari at his christening as an infant meaning "Power of the Holy Trinity.") The representatives included Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (son of British King George V, and brother to Kings Edward VIII, and George VI), Marshal Franchet d'Esperey of France, and the Prince of Udine representing Italy. Evelyn Waugh was also present and wrote a contemporary report about the coronation and the events leading up to it (Remote People, 1931). is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester (Henry William Frederick Albert; 31 March 1900 – 10 June 1974) was a member of the British Royal Family, the third son of George V of the United Kingdom and Queen Mary, and thus uncle to Elizabeth II. He was appointed regent for his niece... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Edward VIII (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David; later The Prince Edward, Duke of Windsor; 23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was King of Great Britain, Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from the death of his father, George V (1910–36), on 20... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... Louis Félix Marie François Franchet dEspèrey ( 25 May 1856 – 3 July 1942) was a French general during the First World War. ... Udine (Friulian Udin, Slovene Videm) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of the historical region of Friuli, in the middle of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche), less than 40 km from the Slovenian border. ... Evelyn Waugh, as photographed in 1940 by Carl Van Vechten Arthur Evelyn St. ...


Upon his coronation as emperor and in keeping with the traditions of the Solomonic dynasty that had reigned in highland Ethiopia since 1297, Haile Selassie's throne name and title were joined to the imperial motto, so that all court documents and seals bore the inscription: "The Lion of the Tribe of Judah has conquered! Haile Selassie I, Elect of God King of Kings of Ethiopia." The use of this formula dates to the dynasty's Solomonic origins, as well as to the Christianized throne from the period of Ezana; all monarchs being required to trace their lineage back to Menelik I, who in the Ethiopian tradition was the offspring of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.


By Empress Menen, the Emperor had six children: Princess Tenagnework, Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen, Princess Tsehai, Princess Zenebework, Prince Makonnen, and Prince Sahle Selassie. Princess Tenagnework Haile Selassie (1912 - April 6, 2003) was the eldest child of Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen Asfaw. ... Emperor Amha Selassie of Ethiopia (1916–February 17, 1997) was the last Emperor of Ethiopia. ... Fully titled Her Imperial Highness, Princess Tsehai Haile Selassie, she was the second daughter and third child of Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen Asfaw. ... Princess Zenebework was the second daughter of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, and his wife Empress Menen Asfaw. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Fully titled His Imperial Highness, Prince Sahle Selassie Haile Selassie, Prince Sahle Selassie was the youngest child of Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen Asfaw of Ethiopia. ...


Emperor Haile Selassie I also had an older daughter, Princess Romanework Haile Selassie, who was born from an earlier alleged union to Woizero Altayech. Little is known about his relationship with Altayech beyond that it allegedly occurred when the Emperor was in his late teens. His Majesty never once mentioned any previous marriage, either in his Autobiography or in any other writings. The Princess is listed among the Emperor's children in the official Imperial Family Tree published after his coronation[citation needed], and in every version since[citation needed]. She was granted the title of Princess and given the dignity of "Imperial Highness" upon the Emperor's coronation along with his other children, not something that would have been granted an illegitimate or adopted child. Princess Romanework Haile Selassie, eldest child of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, by Woizero Altayech. ...


The Emperor introduced Ethiopia's first written constitution on 16 July 1931, providing for an appointed, bicameral legislature. It was the first time that non-noble subjects had any role in official government policy. However, the League's failure to stop Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, led him to five years in exile. The constitution also limited the succession to the throne to the descendants of Emperor Haile Selassie—a detail that caused considerable unhappiness among other dynastic princes, such as the princes of Tigrai and even his loyal cousin Ras Kassa Hailu. is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The most famous picture of Emperor Tewodros II with his trademark hair style. ...


War

Haile Selassie in 1942
Haile Selassie in 1942

Following the 1935 Italian invasion of Ethiopia, Emperor Haile Selassie I made an attempt at fighting the invaders personally. He joined the northern front by setting up headquarters at Desse in Wollo province. He issued his famous mobilization order on 3 October 1935: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1399x1019, 459 KB) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1399x1019, 459 KB) Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. ... Wollo was a province in the north-eastern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Dessye. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...

If you withhold from your country Ethiopia the death from cough or head-cold of which you would otherwise die, refusing to resist (in your district, in your patrimony, and in your home) our enemy who is coming from a distant country to attack us, and if you persist in not shedding your blood, you will be rebuked for it by your Creator and will be cursed by your offspring. Hence, without cooling your heart of accustomed valour, there emerges your decision to fight fiercely, mindful of your history that will last far into the future . . . If on your march you touch any property inside houses or cattle and crops outside, not even grass, straw, and dung excluded, it is like killing your brother who is dying with you . . . You, countryman, living at the various access routes, set up a market for the army at the places where it is camping and on the day your district-governor will indicate to you, lest the soldiers campaigning for Ethiopia's liberty should experience difficulty. You will not be charged excise duty, until the end of the campaign, for anything you are marketing at the military camps: I have granted you remission . . . After you have been ordered to go to war, but are then idly missing from the campaign, and when you are seized by the local chief or by an accuser, you will have punishment inflicted upon your inherited land, your property, and your body; to the accuser I shall grant a third of your property . . . .

On 19 October 1935 he gave more precise orders for his army to his Commander-in-Chief, Ras Kassa: is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...

  1. When you set up tents, it is to be in caves and by trees and in a wood, if the place happens to be adjoining to these―and separated in the various platoons. Tents are to be set up at a distance of 30 cubits from each other.
  2. When an aeroplane is sighted, one should leave large open roads and wide meadows and march in valleys and trenches and by zigzag routes, along places which have trees and woods.
  3. When an aeroplane comes to drop bombs, it will not suit it to do so unless it comes down to about 100 metres; hence when it flies low for such action, one should fire a volley with a good and very long gun and then quickly disperse. When three or four bullets have hit it, the aeroplane is bound to fall down. But let only those fire who have been ordered to shoot with a weapon that has been selected for such firing, for if everyone shoots who possesses a gun, there is no advantage in this except to waste bullets and to disclose the men's whereabouts.
  4. Lest the aeroplane, when rising again, should detect the whereabouts of those who are dispersed, it is well to remain cautiously scattered as long as it is still fairly close. In time of war it suits the enemy to aim his guns at adorned shields, ornaments, silver and gold cloaks, silk shirts and all similar things. Whether one possesses a jacket or not, it is best to wear a narrow-sleeved shirt with faded colours. When we return, with God's help, you can wear your gold and silver decorations then. Now it is time to go and fight. We offer you all these words of advice in the hope that no great harm should befall you through lack of caution. At the same time, We are glad to assure you that in time of war We are ready to shed Our blood in your midst for the sake of Ethiopia's freedom..."[1]

The Italians had the advantage of much better and a larger number of modern weapons, including a large air force. The Italians also extensively used chemical warfare and bombed Red Cross tent hospitals, in violation of the Geneva Convention[2]. Following the defeat of the northern armies of Ras Seyoum Mengesha and Ras Imru Haile Selassie I in Tigray, the Emperor made a stand against them himself at Maychew in southern Tigray. Although giving Italian pilots quite a scare[citation needed], his army was defeated and retreated in disarray and he found himself being attacked by rebellious Raya and Azebu tribesmen as well. Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Geneva Conventions consist of treaties formulated in Geneva, Switzerland that set the standards for international law for humanitarian concerns. ... Tigray was a province of Ethiopia. ... Maychew (Tigrinya ማይጭው Salty water, also transliterated Mai Ceu, Maichew, and Mai Cio) is a town in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. ...


The Emperor made a solitary pilgrimage to the churches at Lalibela, at considerable risk of capture, before returning to his capital. After a stormy session of the council of state, it was agreed that because Addis Ababa could not be defended, the government would relocate to the southern town of Gore, and that in the interests of preserving the Imperial house, the Empress and the Imperial family should leave immediately by train for Djibouti and from there to Jerusalem. After further debate over whether the Emperor would also go to Gore or he should take his family into exile, it was agreed that the Emperor should leave Ethiopia with his family and present the case of Ethiopia to the League of Nations at Geneva. The decision was not unanimous and several participants angrily objected to the idea that an Ethiopian monarch should flee before an invading force. Some, like the progressive noble, Blatta Takele, an erstwhile ally of the Emperor, were to permanently hold a grudge against him for agreeing to leave the country. The Emperor appointed his cousin Ras Imru Haile Selassie as Prince Regent in his absence, departing with his family for Djibouti on 2 May 1936. This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... The Bete Giyorgis, one of the many rock-hewn churches at the holy site of Lalibela, Ethiopia Lalibela is a town in northern Ethiopia. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Gore is a town in western Ethiopia, lying south of Metu. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... May 2 is the 122nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (123rd in leap years). ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Marshal Pietro Badoglio led the Italian troops into Addis Ababa on May 5 and Mussolini declared King Victor Emanuel III Emperor of Ethiopia and Ethiopia an Italian province. On this occasion, Badoglio declared the first Viceroy of Ethiopia and made "Duke of Addis Ababa," returned to Rome and took with him Haile Selassie's throne as a "war trophy," converting it into his dog's couch. At Djibouti, the Emperor boarded a British ship bound for Palestine. The Imperial family disembarked at Haifa and then went on to Jerusalem, where the Emperor and his officials prepared for their presentation at Geneva. Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871 - November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. ... // is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “Mussolini” redirects here. ... Victor Emmanuel III Victor Emmanuel III (Italian: Vittorio Emanuele III) (November 11, 1869 - December 28, 1947), nicknamed The Soldier, was the King of Italy (July 29, 1900 - May 9, 1946), and claimed the titles Emperor of Ethiopia (1936 - 1943) and King of Albania (1939 - 1943). ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... The Holy Land or Palestine Showing not only the Old Kingdoms of Judea and Israel but also the 12 Tribes Distinctly, and Confirming Even the Diversity of the Locations of their Ancient Positions and Doing So as the Holy Scriptures Indicate, a geographic map from the studio of Tobiae Conradi... Hebrew חֵיפָה Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ...


Emperor Haile Selassie I was the only head of state to address the General Assembly of the League of Nations. When he entered the hall, and the President of the Assembly announced "Sa Majesté Imperiale, l'Empereur d'Ethiopie," the large number of Italian journalists in the galleries erupted in loud shouts, whistles, and catcalls, stamping their feet and clapping their hands. As it turned out, they had earlier been issued whistles by the Italian foreign minister (and Mussolini's son-in-law) Count Galeazzo Ciano. The Emperor stood in quiet dignity. For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... Gian Galeazzo Ciano, Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (March 18, 1903 – January 11, 1944), was Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Benito Mussolinis son-in-law. ...


The Emperor waited quietly for security to clear the Italian press out of the gallery before commencing his speech. Although fluent in French, the working language of the League, the Emperor chose to deliver his historic speech in his native Amharic. The Emperor asked the League to live up to its promise of collective security. He spoke eloquently of the need to protect weak nations against the strong. He detailed the death and destruction rained down upon his people by the use of Mussolini's chemical agents. He reminded the League that "God and History would remember . . . [their] judgement." He pleaded for help and asked "What answer am I to take back to my people?" [2]. His eloquent address moved all who heard it and turned him into an instant world celebrity. He became Time Magazine's "Man of the Year" and an icon for anti-Fascists around the world. He failed, however, in getting what he requested to help his people fight the invasion: the League agreed to only partial and ineffective sanctions on Italy and several members recognized the Italian conquest. Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ...

See also: Second Italo-Abyssinian War

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Exile

Emperor Haile Selassie I spent his five years of exile (1936–1941) mainly in Bath, United Kingdom, in Fairfield House, which he bought. After his return to Ethiopia, he donated it to the city of Bath as a residence for the aged, and it remains so to this day. There are numerous accounts of "Haile Selassie was my next-door neighbour" among people who were children in the Bath area during his residence, and he attended Holy Trinity Church in Malvern (with the same dedication as Trinity Cathedral back in Ethiopia). The Emperor also spent extended periods in Jerusalem. Bath is a city in Somerset, England most famous for its baths fed by three hot springs. ... The Fairfield House was the residence of Emperor Haile Selassie I during the five years he spent in exile (1936–1941). ... Malvern is the name of a town in Worcestershire, England. ...


During this period, Emperor Haile Selassie I suffered several personal tragedies. His two sons-in-law, Ras Desta Damtew and Dejazmach Beyene Merid, were both executed by the Italians. His daughter Princess Romanework, along with her children, was taken in captivity to Italy, where she died in 1941. His grandson Lij Amha Desta died in Britain just before the restoration, and his daughter Princess Tsehai died shortly after. Ras Desta Damtew (died February 24, 1937) was an Ethiopian governor and one of the sons-in-law of Emperor Haile Sellassie. ... Princess Romanework Haile Selassie, eldest child of Emperor Haile Selassie of Ethiopia, by Woizero Altayech. ... Fully titled Her Imperial Highness, Princess Tsehai Haile Selassie, she was the second daughter and third child of Emperor Haile Selassie and Empress Menen Asfaw. ...


1940s and 1950s

On 18 January 1941, during the East African Campaign, Emperor Selassie crossed the border between the Sudan and Ethiopia near the village of Um Iddla. The standard of the Lion of Judah was raised again. Two days later, he and a force of Ethiopian patriots joined Gideon Force which was already in Ethiopia and preparing the way.[3] is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa Eritrea Ethiopia Italian Somaliland German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke... Lion of Judah has its origins in the Book of Genesis of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) where the Israelite tribe of Judah had the lion as its symbol. ... The Gideon Force was a British-led African guerrilla force fighting the Italian occupation forces in Abyssiania (modern-day Ethiopia) during the World War II. Leader and creator of the force was British major Charles Orde Wingate. ...


Haile Selassie I regained power in Ethiopia after Italy was defeated by a force of the United Kingdom, the Commonwealth of Nations, Free France, Free Belgium, and Ethiopian patriots. On 5 May 1941, Emperor Selassie enterred Addis Ababa. He did this five years to the day after he was forced to flee his capital in 1936. The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Flag De Jure territory Capital Paris Capital-in-exile London, Algiers Government Republic Leader Charles de Gaulle Historical era World War II  - de Gaulles appeal June 18, 1940  - Liberation of Paris August, 1944 The Free French Forces (French: , FFL) were French fighters in World War II, who decided to... The Free Belgian Forces were members of the Belgian armed forces in World War II who continued fighting against the Axis after the surrender of Belgium and its subsequent occupation by the Germans. ... // is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


After World War II, Ethiopia became a charter member of the United Nations (UN). In 1951, a UN plebiscite voted 46 to 10 to have Eritrea (the former Italian colony) be federated with Ethiopia which was later stipulated on 2 December 1950 in resolution 390 (V). Eritrea would have its own parliament and administration and would be represented in what had been the Ethiopian parliament and was now the federal parliament. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A charter is a document bestowing certain rights on a town, city, university or institution; sometimes used as a loan of money. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1948, the Ogaden, a region disputed with Somalia, was granted to Ethiopia. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the geographical area. ...


Despite his centralization policies that had been made before World War II, Emperor Selassie still found himself unable to push for all the programs he wanted. In 1942, Haile Selassie attempted to institute a progressive tax scheme, but this failed due to opposition from the nobility, and only a flat tax was passed; in 1951, he agreed to reduce this as well. In addition, the land tax was generally passed by the land owners to the peasants. Despite his wishes, the tax burden remained primarily on the peasants. Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Between 1948 and 1956, Haile Selassie took steps to establish the autocephaly of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. This was accomplished by obtaining permission from the native Egyptian Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All Africa Cyril VI in 1959, to appoint the patriarch of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, instead of the traditional system, where the head could only be appointed by the patriarch of Alexandria. The Ethiopian Church remained affiliated, however, with the Alexandrian Church. Selassie also created enough new bishoprics so that Ethiopians could elect their own patriarch. In addition to this, he changed the Ethiopian church-state relationship by introducing taxation of church lands, and by taking away the privilege of clergy to be tried in their own courts for civil offenses. Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... It has been suggested that Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church be merged into this article or section. ... St Kyrellos VI, 116th Pope of Alexandria His Holiness Pope Cyril (Kyrellos) VI of Alexandria, born Azer Ioseph Atta ( August 8, 1902 – March 9, 1971), was Coptic Orthodox Pope from 1959 to 1971. ...


In keeping with the principle of collective security, for which he was an outspoken proponent, he sent a contingent under General Mulugueta Bulli, known as the Kagnew Battalion, to take part in the UN Conflict in Korea. It was attached to the American 7th Infantry Division, and fought in a number of engagements including the Battle of Pork Chop Hill.[4] Collective Security is a system aspiring to the maintenance of peace, in which participants agree that any breach of the peace is to be declared to be of concern to all the participating states, and will result in a collective response. ... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... The 7th Infantry Division (Light), nicknamed Lightfighters and sometimes referred to as the The Bayonet Division is a reserve combat division of the United States Army currently made up of National Guard units. ... The Battle of Pork Chop Hill refers to a pair of related Korean War engagements during the spring and summer of 1953. ...


During the celebrations of his Silver Jubilee in November 1955, Haile Selassie I introduced a revised constitution, [3] whereby he retained effective power, while extending political participation to the people by allowing the lower house of parliament to become an elected body. Party politics were not provided for. Modern educational methods were more widely spread throughout the Empire, and the country embarked on a development scheme and plans for modernization, tempered by Ethiopian traditions, and within the framework of the ancient monarchical structure of the state.


Haile Selassie compromised when practical with the traditionalists in the nobility and church. He also tried to improve relations between the state and ethnic groups, and granted autonomy to Afar lands that were difficult to control. Still, his reforms to end feudalism were slow and weakened by the compromises he made with the entrenched aristocracy. This would be a key factor in the downfall of his regime.


His international fame and acceptance also grew. In 1954, he visited the then West Germany to become the first head of state to do so after the end of the second world war. Many elderly Germans still vividly remember and are inspired by this visit by an African king as it signalled their acceptance back to the world, as a peaceful nation. He donated blankets produced by the Debre Birhan Blanket Factory, in Ethiopia, to the then war torn Germany.


Later years

Haile Selassie on a state visit to Washington, 1963
Haile Selassie on a state visit to Washington, 1963

On December 13, 1960, while the emperor was on a state visit to Brazil, his Imperial Guard forces staged an unsuccessful coup attempt, briefly proclaiming Haile Selassie I's eldest son Asfa Wossen as the new Emperor. The coup d'état was crushed by the regular Army and police forces. The coup attempt (although lacking wide popular support, denounced by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and crushed by the Army, Air and Police forces) gained support among students of the University and elements of the young educated technocrats in the country. It marked the beginning of an increased radicalization of Ethiopia's student population, and the University was in an almost constant state of protest against the regime for the next decade.[5] Image File history File links Haile_Selassie_1963. ... Image File history File links Haile_Selassie_1963. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Emperor Amha Selassie of Ethiopia (1916–February 17, 1997) was the last Emperor of Ethiopia. ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Addis Ababa University is a school of higher education in Ethiopia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


After the coup, Haile Selassie attempted to increase reform, especially in the form of land grants to military and police officials, however there was little organization to this effort.


Following this, he continued to be a staunch ally of the West, while pursuing a firm policy of decolonisation in Africa, which was still largely under European colonial rule at this time. The United Nations conducted a lengthy inquiry regarding the status of Eritrea, with the superpowers each vying for a stake in the state's future. Britain, the last administrator at the time, put forth the suggestion to partition Eritrea between Sudan and Ethiopia, separating Christians and Muslims. It was instantly rejected by Eritrean political parties as well as the UN.[19]. The United States point of view was expressed by its then chief foreign policy advisor John Foster Dulles who said: Decolonization generally refers to a movement following the Second World War in which the various European colonies of the world were granted independence. ...


"From the point of view of justice, the opinions of the Eritrean people must receive consideration. Nevertheless, the strategic interests
of the United States in the Red Sea Basin and considerations of security and world peace make it necessary that the country [Eritrea] has to be linked with our ally, Ethiopia," — John Foster Dulles, 1952.


A UN plebiscite voted 46 to 10 to have Eritrea be federated with Ethiopia which was later stipulated on December 2 of 1950 in resolution 390 (V). Eritrea would have its own parliament and administration and would be represented in what had been the Ethiopian parliament and was now the federal parliament.[20] In 1961 the 30-year Eritrean Struggle for Independence, began after years of peaceful student protests against Ethiopian violation of Eritrean democratic rights and autonomy had culminated in violent repression and the Emperor of Ethiopia Haile Selassie I's dissolution of the federation in 1961 followed by shutting down the parliament and declaring Eritrea the 14th province of Ethiopia in 1962.


In 1963, the Emperor presided over the establishment of the Organisation of African Unity, with the new organisation setting up its headquarters in Addis Ababa. As more and more African states won their independence, he played a pivotal role as a Pan-Africanist, and along with Modibo Keïta of Mali, was successful in negotiating the Bamako Accords, which brought an end to a border conflict between Morocco and Algeria. The Organization of African Unity (OAU) or Organisation de lUnité Africaine (OUA) was established on May 25, 1963. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Modibo Keita (or Kéïta); (4 June 1915 - 16 May 1977) was the first President of Mali (1960 - 1968) and the Prime Minister of the Mali Federation. ...


In 1966, the Emperor attempted to create a more modern, progressive tax that included registration of land that would significantly weaken the nobility. Even with alterations, this law led to a revolt in Gojam which was repressed although enforcement of the tax was abandoned. This encouraged other landowners to defy the emperor, though on a lesser scale.


As in other countries, the increasingly radical student movement took hold in Haile Selassie University and high school campuses in the late 60s and early 70s, and student unrest became a regular feature of Ethiopian life. Marxism took root in large segments of the Ethiopian intelligentsia, particularly among those who had studied abroad and had been exposed to radical and left-wing sentiments that were becoming fashionable in other parts of the globe. Resistance by conservative elements at the Imperial Court and Parliament, in addition to within the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, made the Emperor's proposals of widespread land reform policies difficult to implement, and also damaged the standing of the government. This bred resentment among the peasant population. Efforts to weaken unions also hurt his image. As these issues began to pile up, Haile Selassie left much of domestic governance to his Prime Minister, Aklilu Habte Wold, and concentrated more on foreign affairs. Extremism is a term used to describe the actions or ideologies of individuals or groups outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common standards of ethics and reciprocity. ... Student movements accompany university life since the nineteenth century. ... Addis Ababa University is a university in Ethiopia. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold (1912 - 1974) was an Ethiopian politician under Emperor Haile Selassie. ...


Outside of Ethiopia, however, the Emperor continued to enjoy enormous prestige and respect. As the longest serving Head of State then in power, the Emperor was usually given precedence over all other leaders at most international state events, such as the celebration of the 2500 years of the Persian Empire, the summits of the Non-aligned movement, and the state funerals of John F. Kennedy and Charles de Gaulle. His frequent travels around the world raised Ethiopia's international image. “Persia” redirects here. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... An aerial view of the casket of JFK during his funeral at St. ... For other uses, see Charles de Gaulle (disambiguation). ...


Wollo Famine

Famine mostly in Wollo, northeastern Ethiopia, as well as in some parts of Tigray is estimated to have killed up to 200,000 Ethiopians between 1972-73.[6][7][8] Even though this region is famous for having recurrent crop failures with continuous food shortage and risk of starvation, the death of around 200,000 people in 1973 became one of the worst famines in African history. It led to the 1973 production of a BBC programme labeled “The Unknown Famine” by Jonathan Dimbleby, along with a team of ITV broadcasters. [9] It was dubbed the world’s first “television catastrophe” of a famine. [10] Some studies showed that the small food produced in the famine-stricken Wollo area was moved out, thus strengthening the argument of a government attempt to use food as a weapon against pro-rebel regions. [11] In addition to the exposure of the attempt by corrupt local officials to cover up the famine from the Imperial government, the media painting Selassie's Ethiopia as a backwards social system (relative to the purported utopia of Marxist-Leninism) contributed to the popular uprising that led to its downfall and the rise of Mengistu Haile Mariam to power.[12] Independent Television (generally known as ITV, but also as ITV Network) is a public service network of British commercial television broadcasters, set up under the Independent Television Authority (ITA) to provide competition to the BBC. ITV is the oldest commercial television network in the UK. Since 1990 and the Broadcasting...


Final years

A devastating drought in the Province of Wollo in 1972–73 that caused a large famine, which was covered up by the officials and correlated with Haile Selassie's 80th birthday with much pomp and ceremony, led to more dissent in the country. When a BBC documentary narrated by British journalist Jonathan Dimbleby exposed the existence and scope of the famine, the government was seriously undermined, and the Emperor's once unassailable personal popularity fell. Simultaneously, economic hardship caused by high oil prices and widespread military mutinies in the country further weakened him. Enlisted men began to seize their senior officers and held them hostage, demanding higher pay, better living conditions, and investigation of alleged widespread corruption in the higher ranks of the military. The Derg, a committee of low-ranking military officers and enlisted men, set up to investigate the military's demands, took advantage of the government's disarray to depose Emperor Haile Selassie I on 12 September 1974. General Aman Michael Andom served briefly as provisional head of state pending the return of the Crown Prince from abroad where he was receiving medical treatment. The Emperor was placed under house arrest briefly at the 4th Army Division in Addis Ababa, while most of his family were detained at the late Duke of Harrar's residence in the north of the capital. The Emperor was then moved to a house on the grounds of the old Imperial Palace where the new government set up its headquarters. Later, most of the Imperial family were imprisoned in the Central prison in Addis Ababa known as "Alem Bekagn", or "I am finished with the world." On 23 November 1974, 61 former high officials of the Imperial government known as "the Sixty," were executed without trial. The executed included the Emperor's grandson, Rear Admiral Iskinder Desta, two former Prime Ministers, Lij Endelkachew Makonnen, and Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Haptewold, former provisional Head of State, General Aman Michael Andom, and others. Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Wollo was a province in the north-eastern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Dessye. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Jonathan Dimbleby, (born 31 July 1944, Aylesbury) is a British presenter of current affairs and political radio and television programmes, a political commentator and a writer. ... Derg party badge, c1979. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Aman Mikale Andom (1924&#8211;1974) was an important leader in the military coup which occurred in Ethiopia on September 12, 1974, in which a military committee deposed Emperor Haile Selassie. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Endelkachew Makonnen (1927 - November 24, 1974) was an Ethiopian politician. ... Tsehafi Taezaz Aklilu Habte-Wold (1912 - 1974) was an Ethiopian politician under Emperor Haile Selassie. ...


Death

On 28 August 1975, the state media reported that the "ex-monarch" Haile Selassie I had died on 27 August of "respiratory failure" following complications from a prostate operation. [13] is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 239th day of the year (240th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


His doctor, Professor Asrat Woldeyes denied that complications had occurred and rejected the government version of his death. Some believe that he was suffocated in his sleep. One western correspondent in Ethiopia at the time commented not long afterwards, "While it is not known what actually happened, there are strong indications that no efforts were made to save him. It is unlikely that he was actually killed. Such rumors were bound to arise no matter what happened, given the atmosphere of suspicion and distrust prevailing in Addis Ababa at the time."[14] Professor Asrat Woldeyes was born in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on June 20, 1928 and died May 14, 1999. ...


After the fall of the Derg in 1991, witnesses came forward to reveal that the Emperor's remains had been buried beneath the floor of a palace lavatory. On 5 November 2000 Emperor Haile Selassie I was given an Imperial funeral by the Ethiopian Orthodox church. The current post-communist government refused to give it the status of a state funeral. Although such prominent Rastafari figures such as Rita Marley and others participated in the grand funeral, most Rastafari rejected the event and refused to accept that the bones were the remains of the Emperor. is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Post-Soviet states, also commonly known as former Soviet republics, are the independent nations which split off from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


There remains some debate, particularly within the Rastafari movement, as to whether Haile Selassie I actually died at this time. Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ...


The Rastafari Messiah

Today Haile Selassie I is considered to be God incarnate among followers of the Rastafari movement, which emerged in Jamaica during the 1930s under the influence of Marcus Garvey's "Back to Africa" movement, and as the Black Messiah who will lead the peoples of Africa and the African diaspora to freedom. He has been greatly popularized through reggae music and also the distinctive dreadlocks of the Rastafari, along with their worship of him using cannabis as a sacred herb which they believe brings them closer to him and has become the basis for claims of religious persecution against the Rastafari movement[citation needed]. His official titles, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings and Elect of God, and his traditional lineage from Solomon and Sheba[citation needed], are seen by Rastafarians to be confirmation of the titles of the returned Messiah in the prophetic Book of Revelation in the New Testament: King of Kings, Lord of Lords, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah and Root of David. Rastafari faith in the incarnate divinity of Emperor Haile Selassie I began after news reports of his coronation reached Jamaica,[citation needed] particularly via the two Time magazine articles about the coronation the week before and the week after the event. Selassie's own spiritual teachings permeate the philosophy of the movement.[citation needed] Image File history File links 1101301103_400. ... Image File history File links 1101301103_400. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Incarnation, which literally means enfleshment, refers to the DNA-encoding, conception, and live birth of a sentient creature (generally human) who is the material manifestation of an entity or force whose original nature is immaterial. ... Haile Selassie I Rasta, or the Rastafari movement, is a religion that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, whom they call Jah. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... For an island of the Philippines, see Negros. ... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... A poster of African Reparation, Reconciliation and Restoration Conference The dispersion of Africans during and after the trans-Atlantic slave trade and others enroute to India as slaves and source of labor. ... Reggae is a music genre developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... Dreadlocks, sometimes called simply locks or dreads, are matted ropes of hair which will form by themselves if the hair is allowed to grow naturally without the use of brushes, combs, razors or scissors for a long period of time. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Persecution of members of the Rastafari movement, a group founded in Jamaica in the early 1930s and who worship Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia as Almighty God, has been fairly continuous since the movement began but nowadays is particularly concerning their spiritual use of cannabis, an illegal drug almost... In Judaism, the Messiah (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ; Aramaic: , ; Arabic: , ; the Anointed One) at first meant any person who was anointed with oil on rising to a certain position among the ancient Israelites, at first that of High priest, later that of King and also that of a prophet. ... Visions of John of Patmos, as depicted in the Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ...


When Haile Selassie I visited Jamaica on 21 April 1966, somewhere between one and two hundred thousand Rastafari from all over Jamaica descended on Norman Manley International Airport in Kingston[citation needed], having heard that the man whom they considered to be God was coming to visit them. Cannabis was widely and openly smoked[citation needed]. When Haile Selassie I arrived at the airport he refused to get off the airplane for an hour until Mortimer Planno, a well-known Rasta, persuaded him that it was safe to do so[citation needed]. From then on the visit was a success.[citation needed] Rita Marley, Bob Marley's wife, converted to the Rastafarian faith after seeing Haile Selassie I.[citation needed] She claimed, in interviews, that she saw scars on the palms of Selassie's hands (as he waved to the crowd) that resembled the envisioned markings on Christ's hands from being nailed to the cross—a claim that was not supported by other sources, but nonetheless a claim that was used as evidence for her and other Rastafarians to suggest that Selassie I was indeed their Messiah. [citation needed] is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... Norman Manley International Airport (IATA: KIN, ICAO: MKJP) is an airport in Kingston, Jamaica. ... The City of Kingston is the capital and largest city of Jamaica. ... Mortimo Kumi Planno, (September 6, 1929, Cuba – March 6, 2006, Kingston, Jamaica) was a renowned drummer and Rastafari elder and considered one of the ideological founders of this back-to-Africa movement. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ...


Haile Selassie I's attitude to the Rastafarians

Haile Selassie I had no role in organizing or promoting the Rastafari movement, which for many Rastas is seen as proof of his divinity, in that he was no false prophet claiming to be God in order to enjoy the benefits of being a cult leader.[citation needed] He was a devout member of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, as demanded by his political role in Ethiopia, and it was to his role as Emperor of Ethiopia that he devoted his life. His publicly known views towards the Rastafarians varied from sympathy to polite interest reinforced by the fact that his political inclinations, including African emancipation, were those of the Rastafari movement. [citation needed] The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Church until it was granted its own Patriarch by Cyril VI, the Coptic Pope, in 1959. ...


Yet, in his speeches and writings, there is substantial material about the spiritual life and he often addressed his audience in the tone of a spiritual teacher. For instance, he wrote, "Knowing that material and spiritual progress are essential to man, we must work ceaselessly for the attainment of both . . . No one should question the faith of others, for no human can judge the ways of God." During the Emperor's visit to Jamaica, he told Rastafari community leaders that they should not emigrate to Ethiopia until they had liberated the people of Jamaica. [citation needed] On another occasion, Selassie said, "We have been a child, a boy, a youth, an adult, and finally an old man. Like everyone else. Our Lord the Creator made us like everyone else," (in an interview with Oriana Fallaci, Chicago Tribune, 24 June 1973) and the Rastafarians do see Selassie as man or flesh incarnate. On numerous occasions Selassie expressed his belief in his faith, stating that one is doomed apart from faith in Christ, who in the Tewahedo faith is considered both man and God: "A rudderless ship is at the mercy of the waves and the wind, drifts wherever they take it and if there arises a whirlwind it is smashed against the rocks and becomes as if it has never existed. It is our firm belief that a soul without Christ is bound to meet with no better fate." (One Race, One Gospel, One Task, address to the World Evangelical Congress, Berlin, October 28, 1966). He also encouraged religious freedom and tolerance. "Since nobody can interfere in the realm of God we should tolerate and live side by side with those of other faiths… We wish to recall here the spirit of tolerance shown by Our Lord Jesus Christ when He gave forgiveness to all including those that crucified Him." (op. cit.). Oriana Fallaci Oriana Fallaci (born July 29, 1930) is an Italian journalist , author, and political interviewer. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ኦርቶዶክስ ተዋሕዶ ቤተክርስትያን Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of Alexandria and Patriarch of All... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


In order to help the Rastas and their aspirations of returning to Africa the Emperor donated a piece of land at Shashamane, 250 km south of Addis Ababa, for the use of Jamaican Rastafarians and there is a community there to this day.[15][4] Shashamane (or Shashemene) is a town in the Ethiopian province of Shoa, about 150 miles from the capital of Addis Ababa. ...


Quotations

  • "A house built on granite and strong foundations, not even the onslaught of pouring rain, gushing torrents and strong winds will be able to pull down. Some people have written the story of my life representing as truth what in fact derives from ignorance, error or envy; but they cannot shake the truth from its place, even if they attempt to make others believe it." — Preface to My Life and Ethiopia's Progress, Autobiography of H.M. Haile Selassie I (English translation).
  • "That until the philosophy which holds one race superior and another inferior is finally and permanently discredited and abandoned: That until there are no longer first-class and second class citizens of any nation; That until the color of a man's skin is of no more significance than the color of his eyes; That until the basic human rights are equally guaranteed to all without regard to race; That until that day, the dream of lasting peace and world citizenship and the rule of international morality will remain but a fleeting illusion, to be pursued but never attained." – English translation of 1968 Speech delivered to the United Nations and popularized in a song called War by Bob Marley.
  • "Apart from the Kingdom of the Lord there is not on this earth any nation that is superior to any other. Should it happen that a strong Government finds it may with impunity destroy a weak people, then the hour strikes for that weak people to appeal to the League of Nations to give its judgment in all freedom. God and history will remember your judgment." — Address to the League of Nations, 1936.
  • "Throughout history, it has been the inaction of those who could have acted, the indifference of those who should have known better, the silence of the voice of justice when it mattered most, that has made it possible for evil to triumph." — H.I.M. Haile Selassie I.

Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference in 1919–1920. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Flags

Honours

Many honours were bestowed upon Haile Selassie I during his life and reign; here are a number of them:


Knight of the Order of the Annunciation-1928 Annunciade (and various alternate spellings) is a denomination common to several orders, both religious and military, instituted with a view of the Annunciation. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Order of the Elephant-1954 Coat of arms of Frederick IV of Denmark and Norway surrounded by the collars of the Order of the Elephant and the Order of the Dannebrog. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Golden Lion of the House of Nassau of Luxembourg-1924 Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Collar of the Order of the Seraphim-1954 The Order of the Seraphim or the Order of His Majesty the King (Swedish Serafimerorden or ) is a Swedish Royal order of chivalry created by King Frederick I of Sweden on 23 February 1748, together with the Order of the Sword and the Order of the Polar Star. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Maha Chakri-1954 Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Collar of the Orders of Muhammad Ali of Egypt-1930 Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum-1930 The Breast Star of the Order of the Chrysanthemum The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum (大勲位菊花章 daikuni kikkashō, literally Grand Order of the Badge of the Chrysanthemums) is Japans highest order. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Grand Cordon of the Legion d'Honneur-1924 French Legion of Honor The Légion dhonneur (Legion of Honor ( AmE) or Legion of Honour ( ComE)) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Chief Commander of the Legion of Merit-1945 The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Grand Collar of the Order of Pahlavi-1964 Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ...


Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle-1954 Medal of the Order The Order of the Aztec Eagle (Spanish: Orden del Águila Azteca) is the highest decoration awarded to foreigners in Mexico. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Royal Victorian Chain-1930 The Royal Victorian Chain is a British award, instituted in 1902 by HM King Edward VII as a personal award of the British Monarch (i. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... NNDB, ostensibly standing for Notable Names Database, produced by Soylent Communications, is an online database of biographical details of notable people. ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... War is a song by Bob Marley, derived from a speech made by Ethiopian Emperor Haile Selassie I (1891-1975). ...

References

  1. ^ My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: Chapter 35
  2. ^ http://www.icrc.org/Web/eng/siteeng0.nsf/html/5GKD8K
  3. ^ Barker, A. J., "The Rape of Ethiopia 1936, p. 156
  4. ^ As described at the Ethiopian Korean War Veterans website.
  5. ^ Bahru Zewde, A History of Modern Ethiopia, second edition (Oxford: James Currey, 2001), pp. 220–26.
  6. ^ an estimated 200,000 died due to famine in Wollo Province
  7. ^ around 200,000 Ethiopians said to be lost from Wollo famine
  8. ^ 1972-73 famine in Wollo and Tigray regions
  9. ^ the Unknown Famine in Ethiopia 1973
  10. ^ Jonathan Dimbleby and the hidden famine
  11. ^ systematic impoverishment of Wollo as a possibility
  12. ^ famine cover-up and policy failures helped rise of Mengistu
  13. ^ "Haile Selassie of Ethiopia Dies at 83", New York Times, August 28, 1975. Retrieved on 2007-07-21. “Haile Selassie, the last emperor in the 3,000-year-old Ethiopian monarchy, who ruled for half a century before he was deposed by military coup last September, died yesterday in a small apartment in his former palace. He was 83 years old. His death was played down by the military rulers who succeeded him in Addis Ababa, who announced it in a normally scheduled radio newscast there at 7 A.M. They said that he had been found dead in his bed by a servant, and that the cause of death was probably related to the effects of a prostate operation Haile Selassie underwent two months ago.” 
  14. ^ Marina and David Ottaway, Ethiopia: Empire in Revolution (New York: Africana, 1978), p. 109 n. 22
  15. ^ Jamaican Rastafarian Development Community website

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...

Further reading

  • Haile Selassie I. My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Sellassie I. Translated from Amharic by Edward Ullendorff. New York: Frontline Books, 1999. ISBN 0-948390-40-9
  • Paul B. Henze. "The Rise of Haile Selassie: Time of Troubles, Regent, Emperor, Exile" and "Ethiopia in the Modern World: Haile Selassie from Triumph to Tragedy" in Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. New York: Palgrave, 2000. ISBN 0-312-22719-1
  • Ryszard Kapuściński, The Emperor: Downfall of an Autocrat. 1978. ISBN 0-679-72203-3
  • Dread, The Rastafarians of Jamaica, by Joseph Owens ISBN 0-435-98650-3
  • Haile Selassie I : Ethiopia's Lion of Judah, 1979, ISBN 0-88229-342-7
  • Haile Selassie's war : the Italian-Ethiopian Campaign, 1935-1941, 1984, ISBN 0-394-54222-3
  • Haile Selassie, western education, and political revolution in Ethiopia, 2006, ISBN 978-19-3404320-2
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Zauditu
Emperor of Ethiopia
1930 – 1974
Deposed
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
Emperor deposed
— TITULAR —
Emperor of Ethiopia
1974 – 1975
Succeeded by
Amha Selassie
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
Time's Man of the Year
1935
Succeeded by
Wallis Simpson

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Haile Selassie of Ethiopia (439 words)
Haile Selassie (The Holy Trinity or Power of Trinity), born: July 23, 1892 in a town-village of Ejersa Goro[?], Ethiopia, died: August 27, 1975, Addis Ababa, was the last Emperor (1930 - 1936;1941 - 1974) of Ethiopia.
Selassie was born as Tafari Makonnen to father Ras Makonnen, the governor of Harar[?] and to mother Wezero (lady) Yeshimebet Ali.
The media at the time reported that Selassie died in prison on August 27, 1975, officially following a prostate operation; however, it is widely believed by historians that he was strangled and his remains buried beneath the president's personal office.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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