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Encyclopedia > Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907)

The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international law. Single European Act A treaty is a binding agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Arms of The Hague Flag of The city of The Hague. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Development of the Geneva Conventions from 1864 to 1949. ... The two parts of the laws of war (or Law of Armed Conflict (LOAC)): Law concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war, like the Geneva Conventions, is called jus in bello; while law concerning allowable justifications for armed force is called jus ad bellum. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Contents

Hague Convention of 1899

The First Peace Conference was held from May 18 and signed on July 29, 1899 and entering into force on September 4, 1900, the Hague Convention of 1899 consisted of four main sections and three additional declarations (the final main section is for some reason identical to the first additional declaration): May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ... July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Year 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar, but a leap year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. ...

  • I - Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
  • II - Laws and Customs of War on Land
  • III - Adaptation to Maritime Warfare of Principles of Geneva Convention of 1864
  • IV - Prohibiting Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
  • Declaration I - On the Launching of Projectiles and Explosives from Balloons
  • Declaration II - On the Use of Projectiles the Object of Which is the Diffusion of Asphyxiating or Deleterious Gases
  • Declaration III - On the Use of Bullets Which Expand or Flatten Easily in the Human Body

The main effect of the Convention was to ban the use of certain types of modern technology in war: bombing from the air, chemical warfare, and hollow point bullets. The Convention also set up the Permanent Court of Arbitration. Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... .357 Magnum rounds. ... The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA), also known as the Hague Tribunal is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands. ...


The conference was summoned by Russia. Its delegates included Fyodor Martens and Ivan Bloch. Frederic Frommhold de Martens, better known as Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens in Russian and Friedrich von Martens in German (1845 - June 20, 1909) was a Russian diplomat and jurist who made important contributions to the science of international law. ... Ivan Stanislavovic Bloch (1836 - 1902) (aka Johann von Bloch, Jean de Bloch, Ivan Bliokh) was a Polish banker and railway financier who devoted his private life to the study of modern industrial warfare. ...


Hague Convention of 1907

The Second Peace Conference was held from June 15 to October 18, 1907, to expand upon the original Hague Convention, modifying some parts and adding others, with an increased focus on naval warfare. This was signed on October 18, 1907, and entered into force on January 26, 1910. It consisted of thirteen sections, of which twelve were ratified and entered into force: June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... October 18 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years). ... January 26 is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

  • I - The Pacific Settlement of International Disputes
  • II - The Limitation of Employment of Force for Recovery of Contract Debts
  • III - The Opening of Hostilities
  • IV - The Laws and Customs of War on Land
  • V - The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of War on Land
  • VI - The Status of Enemy Merchant Ships at the Outbreak of Hostilities
  • VII - The Conversion of Merchant Ships into War-Ships
  • VIII - The Laying of Automatic Submarine Contact Mines
  • IX - Bombardment by Naval Forces in Time of War
  • X - Adaptation to Maritime War of the Principles of the Geneva Convention
  • XI - Certain Restrictions with Regard to the Exercise of the Right of Capture in Naval War
  • XII - The Creation of an International Prize Court [Not Ratified][1]
  • XIII - The Rights and Duties of Neutral Powers in Naval War

Two declarations were signed as well:

  • Declaration I - extending Declaration II from the 1899 Conference to other types of aircraft
  • Declaration II - on the obligatory arbitration

The British delegation included the 11th Lord Reay (Donald James Mackay), Sir Ernest Satow and Eyre Crowe. The Russian delegation was led by Fyodor Martens. Donald James Mackay, 11th Lord Reay and 1st Baron Reay (in the Netherlands: Donald Jacob, Baron Mackay, Lord of Ophemert and Zennewijnen) KT, GCSI, GCIE, PC, DL, JP (22 December 1839-1 August 1921) was a Scottish peer and politician. ... Sir Ernest Mason Satow, G.C.M.G., P.C. (1843-1929), a British scholar-diplomat born to an ethnically German father (Hans David Christoph Satow, born in Swedish-occupied Wismar, naturalised British in 1846) and an English mother (Margaret, nee Mason) in Clapton, North London, and educated at Mill... Sir Eyre Crowe (July 30, 1864 - 28 April 1925) was a British diplomat, born in Leipzig, educated at Dusseldorf and Berlin, with a German mother and a German wife, his father had been a British consul-general. ... Frederic Frommhold de Martens, better known as Fyodor Fyodorovich Martens in Russian and Friedrich von Martens in German (1845 - June 20, 1909) was a Russian diplomat and jurist who made important contributions to the science of international law. ...


Geneva Protocol to Hague Convention

Though not negotiated in The Hague, the Geneva Protocol to the Hague Convention is considered an addition to the Convention. Signed on June 17, 1925 and entering into force on February 8, 1928, it permanently bans the use of all forms of chemical and biological warfare in its single section, entitled Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or Other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare. The protocol grew out of the increasing public outcry against chemical warfare following the use of mustard gas and similar agents in World War I, and fears that chemical and biological warfare could lead to horrific consequences in any future war. The protocol has since been augmented by the Biological Weapons Convention (1972) and the Chemical Weapons Convention (1993). The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Airborne exposure limit 0. ... Combatants Allied Powers: Russian Empire France British Empire Italy United States Central Powers: Austria-Hungary German Empire Ottoman Empire Bulgaria Commanders Nikolay II Aleksey Brusilov Georges Clemenceau Joseph Joffre Ferdinand Foch Robert Nivelle Herbert H. Asquith D. Lloyd George Sir Douglas Haig Sir John Jellicoe Victor Emmanuel III Luigi Cadorna... Biological Weapons Convention Opened for signature April 10, 1972 at Moscow, Washington and London Entered into force March 26, 1975 Conditions for entry into force ??? Parties ??? The Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction (usually referred to... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Chemical Weapons Convention Opened for signature January 13, 1993 in Paris Entered into force April 29, 1997 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by 50 states and the convening of a Preparatory Commission Parties 181 (as of Oct. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


See also

Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... Hague Secret Emissary Affair resulted from Korean Emperor, Gojong, sending confidential emissaries to the Second Peace Conference at The Hague, Netherlands. ...

References

  • Avalon Project at Yale Law School on The Laws of War — Contains the full texts of both the 1899 and 1907 conventions, among other treaties.
  • List of signatory powers
  • Hudson, Manley O. (January 1931). "Present Status of the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907". The American Journal of International Law 25: 114-117. 

Footnotes

  1. ^ The never-ratified Section XII would have established an international court for the resolution of conflicting claims to captured shipping during wartime.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hague Conventions (1899 and 1907) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (665 words)
The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of international law.
The main effect of the Convention was to ban the use of certain types of modern technology in war: bombing from the air, chemical warfare, and hollow point bullets.
Though not negotiated in The Hague, the Geneva Protocol to the Hague Convention is considered an addition to the Convention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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