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Encyclopedia > Hafez al Assad
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Hafez al-Assad (October 6, 1930 - June 10, 2000) was the President of Syria from 1971 to 2000. Jump to: navigation, search October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1930 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Jump to: navigation, search June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year 2000. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1971 is a common year starting on Friday (click for link to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year 2000. ...

Assad was born in rural Syria as part of the minority Alawite community. He was the first member of his family to attend High School and finished top of his class. Because his family had no money to send him to university Assad went to the Syrian Military Academy and received a free higher education. He showed real talent, so the military sent him to be trained in the Soviet military. He joined the Ba'ath party in 1946 at the age of 16. He rose through the ranks of the military and became an important figure. Assad opposed the creation of the United Arab Republic and despite being stationed in Cairo worked with other officers to end the union between Syria and Egypt. The Alawites form a Middle Eastern religious group prominent in Syria. ... The Japanese word for a high school is kōtōgakkō (高等学校; literally high school), or kōkō (高校) in short. ... Jump to: navigation, search A professor giving a lecture at the Helsinki University of Technology A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Baath Party flag The Ba‘ath Parties (also spelled Baath or Ba‘th; Arabic: اﻟﺒﻌﺚ) comprise political parties representing the political face of the Ba‘ath movement. ... Capital Cairo Created 1958 Dissolved 1961 Demonym Arab The United Arab Republic (Arabic: لجمهورية العربية المتحدة - al jumhuriya al-arabia al-muttahida) (UAR) was the state formed by the union between the republics of Egypt and Syria in 1958. ... Jump to: navigation, search Although technically in Giza, The Great Pyramids have become a symbol of Cairo internationally Cairo (Arabic: القاهرة; transliterated: al-Qāhirah) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ...

The union collapsed in 1961. In the chaos that followed the dissolution the Ba'athists seized power and Assad was appointed head of the airforce in 1964. The state was officially ruled by Amin al-Hafiz, a Sunni Muslim, but it was run by a coterie of young Alawites, a religious minority in Syria to which Assad belonged. Jump to: navigation, search 1961 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Syrian Air Force (Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al Arabiya as-Souriya in Arabic) is the Aviation branch of the Syrian armed forces. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ...

In 1966 these Alawites lanched a coup d'etat. Assad became Minister of Defence, and the true ruler of the country. After being discredited by the failure of the Syrian military in the Six-Day War in 1967, and enraged by the aborted Syrian intervention in the Jordanian-Palestinian Black September war, al-Assad overthrew the civilian government and became ruler of Syria in 1970. 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (link goes to calendar) // Events January January 1 - In a coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa ousts president David Dacko and takes over the Central African Republic. ... Current Minister is General Hassan Tourkmani, born in Aleppo on 1933, ... Jump to: navigation, search The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים transliteration: Milhemet Sheshet Hayamim), also known as the 1967 Arab-Israeli War, Six Days War, or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The expression Black September may refer to: Black September, a Palestinian paramilitary organization The Black September in Jordan, a conflict between Palestinian militant organizations and Hashemite King Hussein of Jordan that began in September 1970 and ended in July 1971 with the expulsion of the PLO to Lebanon. ... Jump to: navigation, search 1970 was a common year starting on Thursday. ...

Assad ruled Syria through the power of the army. He did achieve some popularity because of social reforms and infrastructure projects, the vast increase in Syria's military power and Arab nationalist stances, but was always mistrusted by the population for his secularism and his Alawite roots. This was dealt with by setting up a police state, that soon became the prime instrument of his rule. A shrewd power player, al-Assad would use diplomacy, terrorism and tank armadas to the same effect: invariably, he strived to build a strong Syria under his own one-man rule. Jump to: navigation, search // Definition Secularism means: in philosophy, the belief that life can be best lived by applying ethics, and the universe best understood, by processes of reasoning, without reference to a god or gods or other supernatural concepts. ...

During al-Assad's presidency, Syria played a major role in the 1973 Arab-Israeli war, which despite heavy losses and Israeli advances is presented by the Syrian government as a victory. Since then it has carefully respected the cease-fire line in the occupied Golan Heights, instead using non-Syrian clients such as the Hizbullah and various Palestinian extremist groups to exert pressure on Israel. The Yom Kippur War (also known as the 1973 Arab-Israeli War, the October War and Ramadan War), was fought from October 6 (the day of Yom Kippur) to October 22/24, 1973, between Israel and a coalition of Egypt and Syria. ... Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... Hezbollah militant Guerrilla carrying Hezbollah Flag Hezbollah (Arabic ‮حزب الله‬, meaning Party of God) is a political and military organization in Lebanon founded in 1982 to fight Israel in southern Lebanon. ...

Syria also deployed troops, ostensibly as a peacekeeping force, to Lebanon in 1976. There it warred to counter Israeli pressure in south Lebanon and secure Syrian primacy, and eventually turned into an occupation army. In 1991 the Syrians crushed the last factions resisting their rule, and promptly set about writing treaties of "cooperation and friendship" with a puppet Lebanese government. This de facto-occupation of northern Lebanon (and from 2000, the whole of Lebanon) would not end until 2005. Jump to: navigation, search 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Al-Assad, who sought control over the Palestinians in the same way he sought control over Lebanon, also remained an implacable enemy of Yassir Arafats PLO, sponsoring the 1983 rebellion inside Arafats Fatah-movement, and attempting on several occasions to kill Arafat himself, but with no success. A more effective strategy was undermining Arafat through support for radical terrorist groups both outside and inside the PLO, literally blowing up any attempts at negotiation with the US and Israel. In 1999, Al-Assad had his right-hand man, the trusted defence minister Mustafa Tlass, make an on-the-record statement labelling Arafat "the son of 60,000 whores and 60,000 dogs", in addition to comparing him to a strip-tease dancer and a black cat, calling him a coward and, finally, pointing out that the Palestinian leader was getting uglier. Yasser Arafat Yasser Arafat (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Muhammad `Abd ar-Rauf al-Qudwa al-Husayni (Arabic محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known as Abu `Ammar (ابو عمّار), was co-founder and Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969–2004... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Fatah official emblem shows two fists holding rifles and a hand grenade superimposed on a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1999 is a common year starting on Friday Anno Domini (or the Current Era), and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...

Relations to the Iraqi ruler Saddam Hussein were similarly strained, with Iraq listed in Syrian passports as one of the two countries no Syrian citizen could visit (the other being Israel). But with the exception of a few skirmishes and support for cross-border raids by opposition groups, no heavy fighting ever broke out until 1991, when Syria joined the US-led United Nations coalition to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Jump to: navigation, search Saddam Hussein Wikinews has news related to this article: Saddam Hussein Saddām Hussein ʻAbd al-Majīd al-Tikrīti, sometimes spelled Husayn or Hussain; (Arabic صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; born April 28, 1937 ) was President of Iraq from 1979 until his removal and capture during the 2003 invasion... Jump to: navigation, search The United Nations, or UN, is an international organization established in 1945. ...

The most brutal act of Assad's reign took place in 1982. The Muslim Brotherhood, a Sunni fundamentalist movement with branches in most Muslim countries, staged a series of bomb attacks and assassinations against the government and its officials throughout 1980 and 1981, culminating in an insurrection in the town of Hama in February 1982 in which Ba'ath party members and Alawites were killed. In response Rifat Assad's special forces and Mukhabarrat agents blasted the city into submission, and then began torturing and executing large numbers of Hama citizens in what became known as the Hama massacre. Robert Fisk, who was in Hama shortly after the massacre, estimated that 10,000 to 20,000 citizens were killed. Much of the old city was destroyed, including its palaces, mosques, ancient ruins and Beit Azem museum. According to Thomas Friedman Rifat later boasted of killing 38,000 people. After the Hama uprising, government repression in Syria hardened considerably. The Muslim Brotherhood or Muslim Brothers (Arabic: al-Ikhwan al-muslimoon, full title جماعة الإخوان المسلمين Jamaat al-ikhwan al-muslimin, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-Ikhwan, the Brotherhood) is the name of several Islamist organisations in the Middle East. ... Fundamentalism is a movement to maintain strict adherence to founding principles. ... The Hama Massacre beginning February 2, 1982 occurred when the government of Syria attacked the town of Hama and killed thousands of people. ... Thomas L. Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist, and author, currently working as an Op-Ed columnist for the New York Times. ...

During the 1980s Tadmor Prison was home to thousands of people who were arrested arbitrarily, subjected to long-term detention and summary justice in the form of military trials. Torture and execution (by military policemen who were mostly from Assad's Alawi minority) were routine. [1]

Assad ruled the country until his death in 2000 due to a heart attack while speaking on the telephone with Lebanese President Emile Lahoud. He was succeeded by his son Bashar al-Assad. Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the year 2000. ... Jump to: navigation, search A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... Émile Lahoud General Émile Geamil Lahoud (Arabic:اميل لحود) (born January 12, 1936) is the current President of Lebanon. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bashar al-Assad Bashar al-Assad (بشار الاسد) (born September 11, 1965) is the current President of Syria (The Syrian Arab Republic) and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ...


  • Fisk, Robert (2001, 3rd edition). Pity the Nation: Lebanon at War. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192801309 (pp. 181-187)
  • Friedman, Thomas (1990, British edition). From Beirut to Jerusalem. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0006530702 (pp. 76-105)
  • Human Rights Watch (1996). Syria's Tadmor Prison. HRW Report, Vol. 8, No. 2.

External links

  • Syrian Massacare at Hama
  • Syria - Cuba of the Middle east?
Preceded by:
Nureddin al-Atassi
Prime Minister of Syria
Succeeded by:
Abdul Rahman Khleifawi
Preceded by:
Ahmed Khatib
(Head of State)
President of Syria
Succeeded by:
Abdul-Halim Khaddam



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