FACTOID # 17: Though Rhode Island is the smallest state in total area, it has the longest official name: The State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Hafez" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Hafez
Persian scholar
Medieval era
Image:Hafez e Farshchian.jpg
Hafez-e Shiraz
Name: Khwajeh Hafez-e Shirazi
Birth: c. 1310/1337 CE
School/tradition: Islamic Irfan
Main interests: Poetry, Mysticism, Sufism, Metaphysics, ethics
Notable ideas: Hafez's work has been translated by a number of major Western poets
Hafez, detail of an illumination in a Persian manuscript of the Divan of Hafez, 18th century.
Image:Hafez Mausoleum in Shiraz.jpg
Hafez Mausoleum in Shiraz.

Khwajeh Shams al-Din Muhammad Hafez-e Shirazi (also spelled Hafiz) (خواجه شمس‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی in Persian) was a Persian mystic and poet. He was born sometime between the years 1310 and 1337 in Shiraz, Persia (Iran), son of a certain Baha-ud-Din. His lyrical poems, ghazals are noted for their beauty and bring to fruition the love, mysticism, and early Sufi themes that had long pervaded Persian poetry. Moreover, his poetry possessed elements of modern surrealism.[1] [edit] Events May 11 - In France, 64 members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake for heresy Abulfeda becomes governor of Hama. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War (c. ... Irfan (Arabic/Persian: عرفان) literally means knowing. ... The Chinese poem Quatrain on Heavenly Mountain by Emperor Gaozong (Song Dynasty) Poetry (from the Greek , poiesis, a making or creating) is a form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities in addition to, or in lieu of, its ostensible meaning. ... Mysticism (from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1])) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is one... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam and encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Ethics (via Latin from the Ancient Greek moral philosophy, from the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group. ... Image File history File links Mohammad_Shams_al-Din_Hafez. ... Image File history File links Mohammad_Shams_al-Din_Hafez. ... |official_name = Shirāz |other_name = |native_name = شیراز |nickname = |settlement_type = |motto = |image_skyline = |imagesize = |image_caption = |image_flag = |flag_size = |image_seal = |seal_size = |image_shield = |shield_size = |city_logo = |citylogo_size = |image_map = Shiraz. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Mysticism (from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1])) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is one... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... [edit] Events May 11 - In France, 64 members of the Knights Templar are burned at the stake for heresy Abulfeda becomes governor of Hama. ... // March 16 - Edward, the Black Prince is created Duke of Cornwall, becoming the first English Duke Beginning of the Hundred Years War (c. ... Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... In poetry (and as the lyrics in songs), the ghazal is a poetic form consisting of couplets which share a rhyme and a refrain. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Yves Tanguy Indefinite Divisibility 1942 Surrealism[1] is a cultural movement that began in the mid-1920s, and is best known for the visual artworks and writings of the group members. ...

Contents

Life

Divan of Hafez, 1969

Very little credible information is known about Hafez's life, particularly its early part; there is a great deal of more or less mythical anecdote. Judging from his poetry, he must have had a good education, or else found the means to educate himself. Scholars generally agree on the following: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (450x620, 110 KB)Image is from a 1969 copy of Divan e Hafez. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (450x620, 110 KB)Image is from a 1969 copy of Divan e Hafez. ... Diwan (Persian دیوان), also transliterated as Deewan or Divan, is a Persian word used also in to Arabic (Arabic: الدیوان) and Turkish, and was borrowed also at an earlier date into Armenian. ...


His father Baha-ud-Din is said to have been a coal merchant who died when Hafez was a child, leaving him and his mother in debt. It seems probable that he met with Attar of Shiraz (Zayn al-Attar), a somewhat disreputable scholar, and became his disciple. He is said to have later become a poet in the court of Abu Ishak, and so gained fame and influence in his hometown. It is possible that Hafez gained a position as teacher in a Qur'anic school at this time. Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Merchants function as professionals who deal with trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves, in order to produce profit. ... Ali ibn Husayn Ansari Shirazi, known as Hajji Zayn al-‘Attar, was a 14th century Persian physician. ... A disciple (from the Latin discipulus, a pupil) is one who receives instruction from another; a scholar; a learner; especially, a follower who has learned to believe in the truth of the doctrine of his teacher, and implies that the pupil is under the discipline of, and understands, his teacher...


In his early thirties Mubariz Muzaffar captured Shiraz and seems to have ousted Hafez from his position. Hafez apparently regained his position for a brief span of time after Shah Shuja took his father, Mubariz Muzaffar, prisoner. But shortly afterwards Hafez was forced into self-imposed exile when rivals and religious characters he had criticized began slandering him. Another possible cause of his disgrace can be seen in a love affair he had with a beautiful Turkish woman, Shakh-e Nabat. Hafez fled from Shiraz to Isfahan and Yazd for his own safety. The Muzaffarid dynasty were sultans of Gujarat in western India from 1391 to 1583. ... Shah Shuja was a 14th-century Muzaffarid ruler of Southern Iran. ... Part of Shah Abbas large urban project in his new capital, the Chahār Bāgh Four Gardens, is a four-kilometer avenue in the city of Isfahan. ... Yazd or Yezd (In Persian: یزد), is the capital of Yazd province, one of the most ancient and historic cities in Iran and a centre of Zoroastrian culture. ...


At the age of fifty-two, Hafez once again regained his position at court, and possibly received a personal invitation from Shah Shuja, who pleaded with him to return. He obtained a more solid position after Shah Shuja's death, when Shah Shuja ascended the throne for a brief period, before being defeated and killed by Tamerlane. Shah Shuja was a 14th-century Muzaffarid ruler of Southern Iran. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ...


When an old man, he apparently met Tamerlane to defend his poetry against charges of blasphemy.


It is generally believed that Hafez died at the age of 69. His tomb is located in the Musalla Gardens of Shiraz (referred to as Hafezieh). Eram Garden, Shiraz most popular garden. ...


Hafez took ear to his immense popularity during his lifetime, and agreed with many others (then and now) when he wrote:

نديدم خوشتر از شعر تو حافظ
به قرآنى كه اندر سينه دارى
I have never seen any poetry sweeter than thine, O Hafez,
I swear it by that Koran which thou keepest in thy bosom.

Translation by Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ...


Legends of Hafez

Many semi-miraculous mythical tales were woven around Hafez after his death. Four of them are:

  • It is said that, by listening to his father's recitations, Hafez had accomplished the task of learning the Qur'an by heart, at an early age. At the same time Hafez is said to have known by heart, the works of Molana (Jalal al-Din Muhammad Rumi), Sa'di, Farid al-Din Attar, and Nezami.
  • According to one tradition, before meeting Zayn al-Attar, Hafez had been working in a local bakery. Hafez delivered bread to a wealthy quarter of the town where he saw Shakh-e Nabat, allegedly a woman of great beauty, to whom some of his poems are addressed. In the knowledge that his love for her would not be requited and ravished by her beauty, he allegedly had his first mystic vigil in his desire to realize this union, whereupon, overcome by a being of a surpassing beauty (who identifies himself as an angel), he begins his mystic path of realization, in pursuit of spiritual union with the divine.
  • At age 60 he is said to have begun a Chilla-nashini (literally: 40 sitting/vigil), a 40 day and night vigil by sitting in a circle which he had drawn for himself. On the 40th day he once again met with Zayn al-Attar on what is known to be their fortieth anniversary and was offered a cup of wine. It was there where he is said to have attained 'Cosmic Consciousness'. Hafez hints at this episode in one of his verses, where he advises the reader to attain 'clarity of wine' by letting it 'sit for 40 days'.
  • In one famous tale, "a tradition too pretty to be trusted" says a noted historian,[citation needed] the famed conqueror Timur the Lame angrily summoned Hafez to him to give him an explanation for one of his verses
اگر آن ترك شيرازى بدست‌آرد دل مارا
به خال هندويش بخشم سمرقند و بخارا را
Belle of Shiraz, grant me but love's demand,
And for your mole - that clinging grain of sand
Upon a cheek of pearl - Hafiz would give
All of Bokhara, all of Samarkand...

With Samarkand being Timur's capital and Bokhara his kingdom's finest city. "With the blows of my lustrous sword," Timur complained, "I have subjugated most of the habitable globe...to embellish Samarkand and Bokhara, the seats of my government; and you, miserable wretch, would sell them for the black mole of a Turk of Shiraz!". Hafez, so the tale goes, bowed deeply and replied "Alas, O Prince, it is this prodigality which is the cause of the misery in which you find me". This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad Balkhī (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... Tomb of Sadi, Shiraz, Iran. ... Farid al-Din Attar (b. ... Nezami (1141–1209) Nezāmi-ye Ganjavī (Persian: ; Azerbaijani: ;‎ 1141 – 1209), or Nezāmī (Persian: ), whose full name was Nizām ad-Dīn Abū Muhammad Ilyās ibn-Yusūf ibn-Zakī ibn-Muayyid, is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial... Ali ibn Husayn Ansari Shirazi, known as Hajji Zayn al-‘Attar, was a 14th century Persian physician. ... chilla-nashini is the spiritual practice, known mostly in Indian and Persian folklore, of remaining seated in a circle without food, water, or sleep for forty days. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... Samarkand (Tajik: Самарқанд, Persian: ‎ , Uzbek: , Russian: ), population 412,300 in 2005, is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of Samarqand Province. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... For other uses, see Bukhara (disambiguation). ...


So surprised and pleased was Timur with this response that he dismissed Hafez with handsome gifts.


Translated by Clarence Streit Clarance K. Streit was a world federalist who wrote Union Now, a proposal to unite the democratic nations of the world under a federation[1]. The book, first published in 1938, sold over 300,000 copies. ...


Works and influence

Hafiz's mausoleum at night.
Hafiz's mausoleum at night.

Not much acclaimed in his own day and often exposed to the reproaches of orthodoxy, he greatly influenced subsequent Persian poets, and left his mark on such important Western writers as Ralph Waldo Emerson. His work was first translated into English in 1771 by William Jones. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 821 KB) Summary Mausoleum of Hafez in Shiraz, Fars province, Iran. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 821 KB) Summary Mausoleum of Hafez in Shiraz, Fars province, Iran. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... 1771 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... William Jones is a common name, especially in Wales, and there have been several well-known individuals of this name, including: // Academics and authors William Jones (historian) (1860–1932) Sir William Jones (mathematician) (~1675–1749), father of Sir William Jones (philologist) Sir William Jones (philologist) (1746–1794) son of Sir...


There is no definitive version of his collected works (or diwan); editions vary from 573 to 994 poems. In Iran, his collected works have come to be used as an aid to popular divination. Only since the 1940s has a sustained scholarly attempt - by Mas'ud Farzad, Qasim Ghani and others in Iran - been made to authenticate his work, and remove errors introduced by later copyists and censors. However, the reliability of such work has been questioned (Michael Hillmann in 'Rahnema-ye Ketab' No. 13 (1971), "Kusheshha-ye Jadid dar Shenakht-e Divan-e Sahih-e Hafez"), and in the words of Hafiz scholar Iraj Bashiri.... "there remains little hope from there (i.e.: Iran) for an authenticated diwan". Diwan (Persian دیوان), also transliterated as Deewan or Divan, is a Persian word used also in to Arabic (Arabic: الدیوان) and Turkish, and was borrowed also at an earlier date into Armenian. ... This article is about the religious practice of divination. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Iraj Bashiri is one of the leading scholars in the fields of Central Asian Studies and Iranian Studies. ...


The history of the translation of Hafiz has been a complicated one, and few English translations have been truly successful, in large part due to the fact that the figurative gesture for which he is most famous is ambiguity, and therefore interpreting of him correctly requires intuitive perception. Most recently, 'The Gift: Poems by Hafiz the Great Sufi Master' a collection of poems by Daniel Ladinsky and published in 1999, has been both commercially successful and a source of controversy. Ladinsky does read Persian and critics such as Murat Nemet-Nejat [1], a poet, essayist and translator of modern Turkish poetry, have asserted that his translations are largely Ladinsky's own inventions. ‘’’Daniel Ladinsky’’’ is an American author, poet and translator, best known for his interest in spiritual traditions around the world, particularly Hinduism and Islam. ...


Though Hafiz’s poetry is influenced by his Islamic faith, he is widely respected by Hindus, Christians and others. The Indian sage of Iranian descent Meher Baba, who syncretized elements of Sufism, Hinduism and Christian mysticism, would recite Hafiz's poetry until his dying day. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mysticism is the philosophy and practice of a direct experience of God. ...


The (instructive) poetry of Sufi schools (for reasons shared with other hermetic schools), liberally employ metaphorical language to mask the real meaning intended for a select audience, under a strict pedagogical spiritual regime in which the seeker is (sometimes literally) subject to the Pir or Master. The word hermetic is commonly applied to literary or graphical symbolism that is exceedingly obscure, convoluted, or esoteric. ...


Hafez's poetry is no exception in this regard and is heavily laced with coded phrases (wine, wind, hand), objects and instruments (cups, reeds, harps), places and occupants (tavern, winekeeper, cup-bearer), and of course a variety of flowers and birds (rose, narcissus, nightingale),etc.


Various content matter directly fix the semantic context of his work in both the Abrahamic traditions and Scripture, and, related metaphysical schools (specially references to Maghaan, or the Magi). It is, simply, the Grail Quest, with special shifts in symbolism based on the (overtly) Muslim point of view of the author. The cup, cup-bearer, wine, and the tavern are frequent features of his poetry. Hafez also clearly subscribes to a notion of apparent and hidden (occult) 'Teaching', and in one part, even claims "he was crucified for disclosing secrets". One aspect of the genius of his work then was his ability to weave such understanding in verses that afforded a variety of meaning, from the base (debauchery) to the sublime (drinking the holy wine and entering into holy intoxication.) This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


An interesting and meaningful aspect of his work is that each poem contains his name, Hafez. Sometimes 'Hafez' expresses an opinion, and sometimes, the learned voice of the meter instructs the author! (For example: "Oh Hafez, when you learn that your concern is the Wine and not the Cup, then will you become a King in both Realms". Which is indeed excellent insight and advice to Hafez.)


Hafez expresses a strong statement regarding the illusory nature of our earthly existence. This existence is generally coded as 'veeraaneh' or 'the ruins', symbolizing the ultimate end of materiality. He then paints a picture of the seeker, himself, having 'homes' in both 'the ruins' and in the other realm. As a mystic, Hafez is a very interesting figure, displaying a restlessness in conjunction with his innate (spiritual) repose, which was literally manifested in his life in both his obsession (with the Houri of the ruins, Shakeh Nabat) and his steadfast resolve on the path. That he expects discipline from himself (and in his station of mystic tutorage of his readers) is clear: "Do not complain to us! The Kingdom for he who will work for it".


In sum, the work in toto represents a sort of spiritual autobiography, and a diary of the Sufi Path, written, in part, as an instructive manual to other 'winged' readers. And perhaps, this acceptance of his work as a veritable expression of a holistic event -- self realization -- is no doubt a basis for the (long standing) insistence by some of the uncanny oracular properties of the Diwan-e Hafez-e Shirazi, a cherished poet and inspired light of the Iranians. It is said in the legend that Hafez was promised immortality, in stead of Shakeh Nabaat. And as of now, it looks like the angel kept his word!


The reader may be interested to learn that Hafez himself announced to "Hafez" in many of his works, that regardless of his crimes, he will find a happy home in the Life beyond the ruins.


The following ghazal (# 360 per Mr. Shahriari) is a fitting summation of the 'works' of Hafez by Hafez himself, indicating a clear goal and function to his poetic output -- the office of the said activity being in the MeyKhaaneh (the tavern) -- and the happy news of the achievement of his primary purpose -- "returning" to his "home" and "birthplace" -- with help from the "minister" of the "king" of his Vataan (or nation):


گر از این مـنزل ویران بـه سوی خانـه روم
دگر آن جا کـه روم عاقـل و فرزانـه روم
زین سـفر گر به سلامت به وطـن بازرسـم
نذر کردم کـه هـم از راه بـه میخانـه روم
تا بگویم که چه کشفم شد از این سیر و سلوک
بـه در صومـعـه با بربـط و پیمانـه روم
آشـنایان ره عـشـق گرم خون بـخورند
ناکـسـم گر بـه شکایت سوی بیگانه روم
بـعد از این دست من و زلف چو زنـجیر نـگار
چـند و چـند از پی کام دل دیوانـه روم
گر بـبینـم خـم ابروی چو مـحرابـش باز
سـجده شـکر کـنـم و از پی شکرانه روم
خرم آن دم کـه چو حافـظ بـه تولای وزیر
سرخوش از میکده با دوست به کاشانـه روم


Sample Translations

The meaning behind the poetry of Hafiz must, as with all art, be decided by the patron and observer of the work. Though credited as being "The Interpreter of Mysteries," there remain many mysteries regarding Hafiz that have yet to be solved. As the poet himself had said:

Am I a sinner or a saint,
Which one shall it be?
Hafiz holds the secret of his own mystery...

One of Hafez's greatest fondnesses was for wine, so when the Muzaffarids captured Shiraz in 1353 and declared prohibition it is no surprise that Hafez wrote a mournful elegy for the loss: The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ...

اگرچه باده فرح‌بخش و باد گل‌بيزست
به بانگ چنگ مخور مى، كه محتسب تيز است
Though wine gives delight, and the wind distills the perfume of the rose,
Drink not the wine to the strains of the harp, for the constable is alert.
در آستين مرقع باده پنهان كن
كه همچو چشم صراحي، زمانه خونريز است
به آب ديده بشوييم خرقه‌ها از مى
كه موسم ورع و روزگار پرهيز است
Hide the goblet in the sleeve of the patchwork cloak,
For the time, like the eye of the decanter, pours forth blood.
Wash the wine stain from your dervish cloak with tears,
For it is the season of piety, and the time for abstinence.

Translation by Edward Browne
Four years afterward, finding prohibition unfeasible for the wine-loving people of Shiraz, the ruler Shah Shuja repealed that act and for that reason Hafez immortalized his name in verse. Edward Granville Browne Edward Granville Browne (1862–1926) born in Stouts Hill, Uley, Gloucestershire, England, was a British orientalist who published numerous articles and books of academic value, mainly in the areas of history and literature. ... Shah Shuja was a 14th-century Muzaffarid ruler of Southern Iran. ...


Of course, Hafez's fondness for wine was overshadowed by that of love:

گفتم غم تو دارم، گفتا غمت سرآيد
گفتم كه ماه من شو، گفتا اگر برآيد
I said I long for thee
You said your sorrows will end.
Be my moon, rise up for me
Only if it will ascend.
گفتم ز مهرورزان رسم وفا بياموز
گفتا ز خوبرويان اين كار كمتر آيد
I said, from lovers learn
How with compassion burn
Beauties, you said in return
Such common tricks transcend.
گفتم كه برخيالت راه نظر ببندم
گفتا كه شبروست او، از راه ديگر آيد
Your visions, I will oppose
My mind's paths, I will close
You said, this night-farer knows
Another way will descend.
گفتم كه بوى زلفت گمراه عالـمم كرد
گفتا اگر بدانى هم‌اوت رهبر آيد
With the fragrance of your hair
I'm lost in my world's affair
You said, if you care, you dare
On its guidance can depend.
گفتم خوشا هوايى كز باد صبح خيزد
گفتا خنك نسيمى كز كوى دلبر آيد
I said hail to that fresh air
That the morning breeze may share
Cool is that breeze, you declare
With beloved's air may blend.
گفتم كه نوش لعلت ما را به آرزو كشت
گفتا تو بندگى كن، كو بنده‌پرور آمد
I said, your sweet and red wine
Granted no wishes of mine
You said, in service define
Your life, and your time spend.
گفتم دل رحيمت كى عزم صلح دارد
گفتا مگوى با كس تا وقت آن درآيد
I said, when will your kind heart
Thoughts of friendship start?
Said, speak not of this art
Until it's time for that trend.
گفتم زمان عشرت ديدى كه چون سرآمد؟
گفتا خموش حافظ كاين قصه هم سرآيد
I said, happiness and joy
Passing time will destroy.
Said, Hafiz, silence employ
Sorrows too will end my friend.

Translation by Shahriar Shahriari.

I have learned so much from God
That I can no longer call myself
meaning behind the poetry of Hafiz must, as with all art, be decided by the patron and observer of the work. Though credited as being "The Interpreter of Mysteries," there remain many mysteries regarding Hafiz that have yet to be solved. As the poet himself had said:
Am I a sinner or a saint,
Which one shall it be?
Hafiz holds the secret of his own mystery...

One of Hafez's greatest fondnesses was for wine, so when the Muzaffarids captured Shiraz in 1353 and declared prohibition it is no surprise that Hafez wrote a mournful elegy for the loss: The Muzaffarids were a Sunni Arab family that came to power in Iran following the breakup of the Ilkhanate in the 14th century. ... Events The Decameron was finished by Giovanni Boccaccio. ...

اگرچه باده فرح‌بخش و باد گل‌بيزست
به بانگ چنگ مخور مى، كه محتسب ت�هد و طفلست و به بازى روزى
بكشد زارم و در شرع نباشد گنهش
My sweetheart is a beauty and a child, and I fear that in play one day
He will kill me miserably and he will not be accountable according to the holy law.
I have a fourteen year old idol, sweet and nimble
For whom the full moon is a willing slave.
ميچكد شير هنوز از لب همچون شكرش
گرچه در شيوه‌گرى هر مژه‌اش قتاليست
His sweet lips have (still) the scent of milk
Even though the demeanor of his dark eyes drips blood. (Hafez, Divan, no 284)
And about the Magian baccha:
گر چنين جلوه كند مغبچه‌ى باده‌فروش
خاكروب در ميخانه كنم مژگان را
If the wine-serving magian boy would shine in this way
I will make a broom of my eyelashes to sweep the entrance of the tavern. (Divan, no 9)
گل بى‌رخ يار خوش نباشد
بى‌باده بهار خوش نباشد
Without the beloved’s face, the rose is not pleasant.
Without wine, spring is not pleasant.
طرف چمن و طواف بستان
بى‌لاله‌عذار خوش نباشد
The border of the sward and the air of the garden
Without the tulip-cheeked is not pleasant.
رقصيدن سرو و حالت گل
بى صوت هزار خوش نباشد
The dancing of the cypress, and the rapture of the rose,
Without the nightingale's song is not pleasant.
با يار شكرلب گل‌اندام
بى‌بوس و كنار خوش نباشد
With the beloved, sugar of lip, rose of body,
Without kiss and embrace is not pleasant.
هر نقش كه دست عقل بندد
جز نقش نگار خوش نباشد
Every picture that reasons's hand depicteth,
Save the picture of the idol is not pleasant.
جان نقد محقر است حافظ
از بهر نثار خوش نباشد
Hafez! the soul is a despicable coin:
For sacrificing, it is not pleasant.

Translation by Henry Wilberforce-Clarke Henry Wilberforce Clarke was the author of a critical translation of The Dīvān of Hafez, printed at his expense at the Central Press of the Government of India, Calcutta (1889-1891) The work (1891) was presented as follows: The Dīvān written in the fourteenth century by...


The Tomb of Hafez

When Hafez died, controversy raged as to whether or not Hafez should be given a religious burial in light of his clearly hedonistic lifestyle and, at most times, unorthodox ways. His friends, however, convinced the authorities using Hafez's own poetry to allow it. Twenty years after his death, an elaborate tomb (the Hafezieh) was erected to honor Hafez in the Musalla Gardens in Shiraz. Inside, Hafez's alabaster tombstone bore one of his poems inscribed upon it - "profoundly religious at last" (Durant): Hedonism is a word used to describe any way of thinking that gives pleasure a central role. ...

Hafez-Goethe memorial in Weimar.
Hafez-Goethe memorial in Weimar.
مژده‌ى وصل تو كو كز سر جان برخيزم
طاير قدسم و از دام جهان برخيزم
Where are the tidings of union? that I may arise-
Forth from the dust I will rise up to welcome thee!
My soul, like a homing bird, yearning for paradise,
Shall arise and soar, from the snares of the world set free.
به ولاى تو كه گر بنده‌ى خويشم خوانى
از سر خواجگى كون و مكان برخيزم
When the voice of thy love shall call me to be thy slave,
I shall rise to a greater far than the mastery
Of life and the living, time and the mortal span.
يارب از ابر هدايت برسان بارانى
پيشتر زانكه چو گردى ز ميان برخيزم
Pour down, O Lord! from the clouds of thy guiding grace,
The rain of a mercy that quickeneth on my grave,
Before, like dust that the wind bears from place to place,
I arise and flee beyond the knowledge of man.
بر سر تربت من با مى و مطرب بنشين
تا ببويت ز لحد رقص‌كنان برخيزم
When to my grave thou turnest thy blessed feet,
Wine and the lute thou shalt bring in thine hand to me;
Thy voice shall ring through the fold of my winding-sheet,
And I will arise and dance to thy minstrelsy.
گرچه پيرم، تو شبى تنگ درآغوشم كش
تا سحرگه ز كنار تو جوان برخيزم
Though I be old, clasp me one night to thy breast,
And I, when the dawn shall come to awaken me,
With the flush of youth on my cheek from thy bosom will rise.
خيز و بالا بنما اى بت شيرين‌حركات
كز سر جان و جهان دست‌فشان برخيزم
روز مرگم نفسى مهلت ديدار بده
تا چو حافظ ز سر جان و جهان برخيزم
Rise up! let mine eyes delight in thy stately grace!
Thou art the goal to which all men's endeavor has pressed,
And thou the idol of Hafez's worship; thy face
From the world and life shall bid him come forth and arise!

Translation by Gertrude Bell Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (pronounced [gø tə]) (August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832) was a German writer, politician, humanist, scientist, and philosopher. ... The city hall Goethe and Schiller in front of the Deutsche Nationaltheater Weimar is a city in Germany. ... Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell (July 14, 1868–July 12, 1926) was a British woman who had a major hand in creating the modern state of Iraq. ...


Nowadays, the Hafezieh is visited by millions each year and regarded by countless people to be a veritable shrine.


References

  • E.G. Browne. Literary History of Persia. (Four volumes, 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing). 1998. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X
  • Will Durant, The Reformation. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1957
  • Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company. 1968 OCLC 460598. ISBN 90-277-0143-1
  • Hafiz, Dikter, translated by Ashk Dahlén, Umeå, 2006. 91-85503-04-5 / 978-91-85503-04-9 (Swedish)
  • Hafiz, Divan-i-Hafiz, translated by Henry Wiberforce-Clarke, Ibex Publishers, Inc., 2007. ISBN 0-936347-80-5

Will Durant William James Durant (November 5, 1885–November 7, 1981) was an American philosopher, historian, and writer. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ... Ashk Dahlén Ashk Peter Dahlén (b. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Notes

See also

A Meeting of Some Iranian Poets: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Persian Mysticism or Persian Love tradition is a traditional interpretation of existence, life and love in Iran. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m