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Encyclopedia > Haemophilus influenzae
Haemophilus influenzae
ICD-10 A49.2
ICD-9 041.5
?Haemophilus influenzae
H. influenzae on a blood agar plate.
H. influenzae on a blood agar plate.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Pasteurellales
Family: Pasteurellaceae
Genus: Haemophilus
Species: H. influenzae
Binomial name
Haemophilus influenzae
(Lehmann & Neumann 1896)
Winslow et al. 1917

Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic. It is generally aerobic, but can grow as a facultative anaerobe. H. influenzae was mistakenly considered to be the cause of the common flu until 1933, when the viral etiology of the flu became apparent. Still, H. influenzae is responsible for a wide range of clinical diseases. The following codes are used with International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... // A00-A79 - Bacterial infections, and other intestinal infectious diseases, and STDs (A00-A09) Intestinal infectious diseases (A00) Cholera (A01) Typhoid and paratyphoid fevers (A010) Typhoid fever (A02) Other Salmonella infections (A03) Shigellosis (A04) Other bacterial intestinal infections (A040) Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infection (A045) Campylobacter enteritis (A046) Enteritis due to Yersinia... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2934x1978, 4840 KB)Haemophilus influenzae bacteria cultured on a blood agar plate. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms (as opposed to folk taxonomy). ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Genera Actinobacillus Haemophilus Lonepinella Pasteurella Phocoenobacter The Pasteurellaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Genera Actinobacillus Haemophilus Lonepinella Pasteurella Phocoenobacter The Pasteurellaceae are a family of Proteobacteria, given their own order. ... Species H. ducreyi H. influenzae etc. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Coccobacillus is the singular of coccobacilli, which are bacteria of a slightly elongated shape. ... 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease that infects birds and mammals (primarily of the upper airways and lungs in mammals) and is caused by an RNA virus of the Orthomyxoviridae family (the influenza viruses). ... A pandemic (from Greek pan all + demos people) is an epidemic (an outbreak of an infectious disease) that spreads worldwide, or at least across a large region. ... An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ... A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. ...


Because of its small genome, H. influenzae became the first free-living organism with its entire genome sequenced. Its genome consists of 1,830,140 base pairs of DNA and contains 1740 genes. The sequencing project, completed and published in Science in 1995, was conducted at The Institute for Genomic Research under the direction of Dr. Robert Fleischmann. In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... Science is the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). ... The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), is a non-profit genomics research institute founded in 1992 by Craig Venter in Rockville, Maryland, United States. ...

Contents


Serotypes

In 1930, 2 major categories of H. influenzae were defined: the unencapsulated strains and the encapsulated strains. The pathogenesis of H. influenzae infections is not completely understood, although the presence of the encapsulated type b (HiB) is known to be the major factor in virulence. Their capsule allows them to resist phagocytosis and complement-mediated lysis in the non-immune host. Unencapsulated strains are less invasive, but they are able to induce an inflammatory response that causes disease, such as epiglottis. Vaccination with Hib conjugate vaccines is effective in preventing infection, and several vaccines are now available for routine use. Pathogenesis is the mechanism by which a certain etiological factor causes disease (pathos = disease, genesis = development). ... Phagocytosis (literally cell-eating) is a form of endocytosis wherein large particles are enveloped by the cell membrane of a (usually larger) cell and internalized to form a phagosome, or food vacuole. ... Lysis (Greek lusis from luein = to separate) refers to the death of a cell by bursting, often by viral or osmotic mechanisms that compromise the integrity of the cellular membrane. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Haha u cant see this b/c wiess The epiglottis is a thin, lid-like flap of cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane, attached to the root of the tongue, that guards the entrance of the glottis, the opening between the vocal cords. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to produce active immunity to a disease, in order to prevent or ameliorate the effects of infection by any natural or wild strain of the organism. ...


Diseases

Most strains of H. influenzae are opportunistic pathogens - that is, they usually live in their host without causing disease, but cause problems only when other factors (such as a viral infection or reduced immune function) create an opportunity. There are six generally recognized types of H. influenzae: a, b, c, d, e, and f.


Naturally-acquired disease caused by H. influenzae seems to occur in humans only. In infants and young children, H. influenzae type B (HIB) causes bacteremia, and acute bacterial meningitis. Occasionally, it causes cellulitis, osteomyelitis, epiglottitis, and joint infections. Due to routine use of the HIB conjugate vaccine in the U.S. since 1990, the incidence of invasive HIB disease has decreased to 1.3/100,000 children. However, HIB remains a major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and children in developing countries where vaccine is not widely used. Unencapsulated H. influenzae (non-B type) causes ear (otitis media) and eye (conjunctivitis) infections and sinusitis in children, and is associated with pneumonia. Bacteremia (Bacteræmia in British English) is the presence of bacteria in the blood. ... Meningitis is inflammation of the membranes (meninges) covering the brain and the spinal cord. ... Osteomyelitis is an infection of bone, usually caused by pyogenic bacteria or mycobacteria. ... Epiglottitis is inflammation of the epiglottis. ... Otitis media (also known as glue ear) is an inflammation of the middle ear segment of the ear. ... Sinusitis is inflammation of the paranasal sinuses from either bacterial, fungal, viral, allergic or autoimmune issues. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ...


Interaction with Streptococcus pneumoniae

Both type H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae can be found in the upper respiratory system of humans. A study of competition in a laboratory revealed that, in a petri dish, S. pneumoniae always overpowered H. influenzae by attacking it with a hydrogen peroxide and stripping off the surface molecules H. influenzae needs for survival. Binomial name Streptococcus pneumoniae (Klein 1884) Chester 1901 Streptococcus pneumoniae is a species of Streptococcus that is a major human pathogen. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water. ...


When both bacteria are placed together into a nasal cavity, within 2 weeks, only H. influenzae survives. When both are placed separately into a nasal cavity, each one survives. Upon examining the upper respiratory tissue from mice exposed to both bacteria species, an extraordinarily large number of neutrophils immune cells were found. In mice exposed to only one bacteria, the cells were not present. Neutrophil granulocytes (commonly referred to as neutrophils) are a class of white blood cells and are part of the immune system. ...


Lab tests showed that neutrophils exposed to dead H. influenzae were more aggressive in attacking S. pneumoniae than unexposed neutrophils. Exposure to dead H. influenzae had no effect on live H. influenzae.


Two scenarios may be responsible for this response:

  1. When H. influenzae is attacked by S. pneumoniae, it signals the immune system to attack the S. pneumoniae
  2. The combination of the two species together triggers an immune system response that is not set off by either species individually.

It is unclear why H. influenzae is not affected by the immune response. (Lysenko, et al., 2005)


References

  • Lysenko, E.S., A.J. Ratner, A.L. Nelson, and J.N. Weiser. In press. The role of innate immune responses in the outcome of interspecies competition for colonization of mucosal surfaces. PLoS Pathogens.
  • Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology, 4th ed., McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Haemophilus influenzae - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (570 words)
Haemophilus influenzae, formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae, is a non-motile Gram-negative coccobacillus first described in 1892 by Dr. Richard Pfeiffer during an influenza pandemic.
influenzae was mistakenly considered to be the cause of the common flu until 1933, when the viral etiology of the flu became apparent.
influenzae (non-B type) causes ear (otitis media) and eye (conjunctivitis) infections and sinusitis in children, and is associated with pneumonia.
Haemophilus influenzae (2557 words)
Haemophilus influenzae is a small, nonmotile Gram-negative bacterium in the family Pasteurellaceae, on the level with the Vibrionaceae and the Enterobacteriaceae.
Encapsulated strains of Haemophilus influenzae isolated from cerebrospinal fluid are coccobacilli, 0.2 to 0.3 to 0.5 to 0.8 um, similar in morphology to Bordetella pertussis, the agent of whooping cough.
influenzae is susceptible to lysis by antibody and complement.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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