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Encyclopedia > Hadrian
Hadrian
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Hadrian
Reign August 10, 117-
July 10, 138
Full name Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus
Born 24 January 76(76-01-24)
Rome
Died July 10, 138 (aged 62)
Baiae
Buried 1) Puteoli
2) Gardens of Domitia (Rome)
3) Hadrian's Mausoleum (Rome)
Predecessor Trajan
Successor Antoninus Pius
Consort to Vibia Sabina
Issue Lucius Aelius,
Antoninus Pius
(both adoptive)
Dynasty Nervan-Antonine
Father Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer
Mother Domitia Paulina
Roman imperial dynasties
Nervo-Trajanic Dynasty
Nerva
Children
   Natural - (none)
   Adoptive - Trajan
Trajan
Children
   Natural - (none)
   Adoptive - Hadrian
Hadrian
Children
   Natural - (none)
   Adoptive - Lucius Aelius
   Adoptive - Antoninus Pius

Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. A member of the gens Aelia, Hadrian was the third of the "Five Good Emperors." His reign had a faltering beginning, a glorious middle, and a tragic conclusion.[1] Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 480 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1700 × 2125 pixel, file size: 2. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 76. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... Baiae (Italian: Baia), in the Campania region of Italy on the Bay of Naples, today a frazione of the comune of Bacoli, was for several hundred years a fashionable and luxurious coastal resort, especially towards the end of the period of the Roman Republic. ... Puteoli, the ancient predecessor of Pozzuoli, was an Italian city of Roman times on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay running north from the Bay of Naples. ... For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Vibia Sabina was an Empress and wife to Emperor Hadrian. ... Lucius Aelius as Caesar. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... The Five Good Emperors. ... Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer was a Roman who lived in the 1st century. ... Paulina can refer to several women, the most notable being three in Ancient Rome, the mother, a sister and a niece of Emperor Hadrian. ... Also known as the Nervan dynasty, the Ulpian dynasty (after their common gens nomen Ulpius), or combined with the subsequent Antonine dynasty to form the Nervan-Antonian Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Lucius Aelius as Caesar. ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 76. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Trajan subdued a Judean revolt, then fell seriously ill, leaving Hadrian in command of the east. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... GENS is an open source emulator for the Sega Genesis (Sega Megadrive). ... Aelius was the nomen of the ancient Roman gens Aelia. ... The Five Good Emperors is a term used by the 18th century historian, Edward Gibbon, in The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. ...


Hadrian was born in Italica to a well-established family which had originated in Picenum in Italy and had subsequently settled in Italica, Hispania Baetica (originally Hispania Ulterior). He was a first cousin once removed of his predecessor Trajan (a grandson of Hadrian's father's sister). Trajan never officially designated a successor, but, according to his wife, Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. However, Trajan's wife was well-disposed toward Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to her. The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000 Italicas amphitheatre pit Pits were filled with water for the naumachia A walkway in Italica A hallway that circles the ampitheatre The House of the Birds complete with mosaic floor The House of the Planetarium The city of Italica (north of... Regio V - Picenum Picenum was a region of ancient Roman Italy. ... The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000 Italicas amphitheatre pit Pits were filled with water for the naumachia A walkway in Italica A hallway that circles the ampitheatre The House of the Birds complete with mosaic floor The House of the Planetarium The city of Italica (north of... Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Pompeia Plotina Claudia Phoebe Piso or Pompeia Plotina or Plotina (died c. ...

Contents

Early life

Though there was a late tradition that Hadrian was born in Hispania Baetica (the southernmost Roman province in the Iberian Peninsula, comprising modern Spain and Portugal), he himself stated in his autobiography, now lost, that he was born in Rome on 24 January 76 of a family originally Italian but Hispanian for many generations. [2] His father was Hispanian Roman Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, who as a senator of praetorian rank would spend much of his time in Rome. [3] Hadrian’s forefathers came from Hadria, modern Atri, an ancient town of Picenum in Italy, but the family had settled in Italica in Hispania Baetica soon after its founding by Scipio Africanus. Afer was a paternal cousin of the future Emperor Trajan. His mother was Domitia Paulina who came from Gades (Cádiz). Paulina was a daughter of a distinguished Hispanian Roman Senatorial family. Hadrian’s elder sister and only sibling was Aelia Domitia Paulina, his niece was Julia Serviana Paulina and his great-nephew was Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. His parents died in 85/86 when Hadrian was nine, and the boy then became a ward of both Trajan and Publius Acilius Attianus (who was later Trajan’s Praetorian Prefect). [4] Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamed Graeculus ("Little Greek"). Roman province of Hispania Baetica, 120 CE In Hispania, which in Greek is called Iberia, there were three Imperial Roman provinces, Hispania Baetica in the south, Lusitania, corresponding to modern Portugal, in the west, and Hispania Tarraconensis in the north and northeast. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... For other uses, see number 76. ... Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer was a Roman who lived in the 1st century. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Atri Cathedral Atri (Greek: or ; Latin: Adria, Atria, Hadria, or Hatria) is a commune in the Province of Teramo in the Abruzzo region of Italy. ... The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000 Italicas amphitheatre pit Pits were filled with water for the naumachia A walkway in Italica A hallway that circles the ampitheatre The House of the Birds complete with mosaic floor The House of the Planetarium The city of Italica (north of... Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus Major (Latin: P·CORNELIVS·P·F·L·N·SCIPIO·AFRICANVS¹) (235–183 BC) was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Paulina can refer to several women, the most notable being three in Ancient Rome, the mother, a sister and a niece of Emperor Hadrian. ... Location Location of Cádiz Coordinates : Time Zone : General information Native name Cádiz (Spanish) Spanish name Cádiz Postal code – Website http://www. ... Paulina can refer to several women, the most notable being three in Ancient Rome, the mother, a sister and a niece of Emperor Hadrian. ... Paulina can refer to several women, the most notable being three in Ancient Rome, the mother, a sister and a niece of Emperor Hadrian. ... Events Roman Empire Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89. ... Events Roman Empire Domitian introduces the Capitoline Games. ... Publius Acilius Attianus (1st –2nd century ad) was a powerful Roman official who played a significant though obscure role in the transfer of the imperial power from Trajan to Hadrian. ... Aristocracy is a form of government in which rulership is in the hands of an upper class known as aristocrats. ...


Hadrian visited Italica when he was 14 and enlisted in the army there, but was recalled by Trajan who thereafter looked after his development. He never returned to Italica although it was later made a colonia in his honour. His first military service was as a tribune of the Legio II Adiutrix. Later, he was to be transferred to the Legio I Minervia in Germany. When Nerva died in 98, Hadrian rushed to inform Trajan personally. He later became legate of a legion in Upper Pannonia and eventually governor of said province. He was also archon in Athens for a brief time, and was elected an Athenian citizen. The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000 Italicas amphitheatre pit Pits were filled with water for the naumachia A walkway in Italica A hallway that circles the ampitheatre The House of the Birds complete with mosaic floor The House of the Planetarium The city of Italica (north of... A Roman colonia (plural coloniae) was originally a Roman outpost established in conquered territory to secure it. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Legio II Adiutrix Pia Fidelis (supporter, faithful and loyal), was a Roman legion levied by emperor Vespasian on 70 AD, from Roman navy marines in Ravenna. ... Legio I Minervia was a Roman legion levied by emperor Domitian in 82 AD, for the campaign against the Germanic tribe of the Chatti. ... For other uses, see Nerva (disambiguation). ... Events Roman emperor Nerva succeeded by Trajan Tacitus finished his Germania (approximate date) Births Deaths January 27: Nerva, Roman emperor Apollonius of Tyana, Greek/Roman philosopher and mathematician (b. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... The Roman Legion (from Latin , from lego, legere, legi, lectus — to collect) is a term that can apply both as a transliteration of legio (conscription or army) to the entire Roman army and also, more narrowly (and more commonly), to the heavy infantry that was the basic military unit of... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... Look up Archon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the V Macedonica) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes. Due to an absence of military action in his reign, Hadrian's military skill is not well attested, however his keen interest and knowledge of the army and his demonstrated skill of administration show possible strategic talent. Dacia, in ancient geography the land of the Daci, named by the ancient Greeks Getae, was a large district of Southeastern Europe, bounded on the north by the Carpathians, on the south by the Danube, on the west by the Tisa, on the east by the Tyras or Nistru, now... This coin was issued by Roman emperor Gallienus to celebrate the V Macedonica, whose symbol, the eagle, is crowned of wrath by Victoria. ...


Hadrian joined Trajan's expedition against Parthia as a legate on Trajan’s staff.[5] Neither during the initial victorious phase, nor during the second phase of the war when rebellion swept Mesopotamia did Hadrian do anything of note. However when the governor of Syria had to be sent to sort out renewed troubles in Dacia, Hadrian was appointed as a replacement, giving him an independent command.[6] Trajan, seriously ill by that time, decided to return to Rome while Hadrian remained in Syria to guard the Roman rear. Trajan only got as far as Selinus before he became too ill to go further. While Hadrian may have been the obvious choice as successor, he had never been adopted as Trajan's heir. As Trajan lay dying, nursed by his wife, Plotina (a supporter of Hadrian), he at last adopted Hadrian as heir. Allegations that the order of events was the other way round have never quite been resolved.[7] Selinunte is an ancient Greek archaeological site in the south province of Trapani, in the island of Sicily. ...


Emperor

Securing power

Marble statue of Emperor Hadrian (Istanbul Archeological Museum).
Marble statue of Emperor Hadrian (Istanbul Archeological Museum).

Hadrian quickly secured the support of the legions — one potential opponent, Lusius Quietus, was instantly dismissed.[8] The Senate's endorsement followed when possibly falsified papers of adoption from Trajan were presented (although he had been the ward of Trajan). The rumor of a falsified document of adoption carried little weight — Hadrian's legitimacy arose from the endorsement of the Senate and the Syrian armies. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (428x1024, 159 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hadrian Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (428x1024, 159 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hadrian Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Lusius Quietus was a Roman general and governor of Judea in AD 117 Originally a Moorish prince, his military ability won him the favor of Trajan, who even designated him as his successor. ...


Hadrian did not at first go to Rome — he was busy sorting out the East and suppressing the Jewish revolt that had broken out under Trajan, then moving on to sort out the Danube frontier. Instead, Attianus, Hadrian's former guardian, was put in charge in Rome. There he "discovered" a plot involving four leading Senators including Lusius Quietus and demanded of the Senate their deaths. There was no question of a trial — they were hunted down and killed out of hand. Because Hadrian was not in Rome at the time, he was able to claim that Attianus had acted on his own initiative. According to Elizabeth Speller the real reason for their deaths was that they were Trajan's men.[9] This article is about the Danube River. ...


Hadrian and the military

Extent of the Roman Empire under Hadrian.
Extent of the Roman Empire under Hadrian.

Despite his own great stature as a military administrator, Hadrian's reign was marked by a general lack of major military conflicts, apart from the Second Roman-Jewish War. He surrendered Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia, considering them to be indefensible. There was almost a war with Parthia around 121, but the threat was averted when Hadrian succeeded in negotiating a peace. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (930x434, 51 KB) Summary The Roman Empire under Hadrian, from the US Military Academy History archives (copyright US government?) Source: Department of History, U.S. Military Academy URL: [1] Background information: Licensing File links The following pages link to this file... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (930x434, 51 KB) Summary The Roman Empire under Hadrian, from the US Military Academy History archives (copyright US government?) Source: Department of History, U.S. Military Academy URL: [1] Background information: Licensing File links The following pages link to this file... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... 121 is a traditional clan of RA3 in Sao Paulo, Brazil. ...


The peace policy was strengthened by the erection of permanent fortifications along the empire's borders (limites, sl. limes). The most famous of these is the massive Hadrian's Wall in Great Britain, and the Danube and Rhine borders were strengthened with a series of mostly wooden fortifications, forts, outposts and watchtowers, the latter specifically improving communications and local area security. To maintain morale and keep the troops from getting restive, Hadrian established intensive drill routines, and personally inspected the armies. Although his coins showed military images almost as often as peaceful ones, Hadrian's policy was peace through strength, even threat.[10] In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... // Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... Table of Fortification, from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Outpost may mean: a trading post is a place for trading goods, typically in a remote wilderness area Outpost (computer game) outpost (chess) Outpost. ... A watchtower is a type of fortification used in many parts of the world. ...


The Second Roman-Jewish War

In 130, Hadrian visited the ruins of Jerusalem left after the First Roman-Jewish War of 66-73. He promised to rebuild the city, but planning it as a pagan metropolis to be called Aelia Capitolina. A new pagan temple on the ruins of the Second Temple was to be dedicated to Jupiter.[11] In addition, Hadrian abolished circumcision (brit milah), which he, as an avid Hellenist, viewed as mutilation.[12] A Roman coin inscribed Aelia Capitolina was issued in 132. Hadrian's policies triggered the massive Jewish uprising (132135), led by Bar Kokhba and Akiba ben Joseph. Following the outbreak of the revolt, Hadrian called his general Sextus Julius Severus from Britain, and troops were brought from as far as the Danube. Roman losses were very heavy, and it is believed that an entire legion, the XXII Deiotariana was destroyed. [13] Roman losses were so heavy that Hadrian's report to the Roman Senate omitted the customary salutation "I and the legions are well" [14]. Hadrian's army eventually defeated the revolt however. According to Cassius Dio, during the war 580,000 Jews were killed, 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed. After the end of the war, Hadrian continued the religious persecution of Jews, according to the Babylonian Talmud[15]. He attempted to root out Judaism, which he saw as the cause of continuous rebellions, prohibited the Torah law, the Hebrew calendar and executed Judaic scholars. The sacred scroll was ceremoniously burned on the Temple Mount. At the former Temple sanctuary, he installed two statues, one of Jupiter, another of himself. In an attempt to erase any memory of Judea, he removed the name off the map and replaced it with Syria Palaestina, after the Philistines, the ancient enemies of the Jews. He reestablished Jerusalem as the Roman pagan polis of Aelia Capitolina, and Jews were forbidden from entering it. For other uses, see number 130. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... For the 1925-1927 Syrian uprising, see Syrian Revolution. ... This article is about the year 66. ... This article is about the year 73. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ... A stone (2. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... It has been variously proposed that male circumcision began as a religious sacrifice, as a rite of passage marking a boys entrance into adulthood, as a form of sympathetic magic to ensure virility, as a means of suppressing sexual pleasure, as an aid to hygiene where regular bathing was... Set of implements used in the performance of brit milah, displayed in the Göttingen city museum Brit milah (Hebrew: בְרִית מִילָה [bÉ™rÄ«t mÄ«lā] literally: covenant [of] circumcision), also berit milah (Sephardi), bris milah (Ashkenazi pronunciation) or bris (Yiddish) is a religious ceremony within Judaism to welcome infant Jewish... The term Hellenistic, established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen, is used to refer to the shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. ... Mutilation or maiming is an act or physical injury that degrades the appearance or function of the (human) body, usually causing death. ... This article is about the year 132. ... Combatants Roman Empire Jews of Iudaea Commanders Hadrian Simon Bar Kokhba Strength  ?  ? Casualties Unknown 580,000 Jews (mass civilian casualties), 50 fortified towns and 985 villages razed (per Cassius Dio). ... This article is about the year 132. ... For other uses, see number 135. ... Simon bar Kokhba was a Jewish military leader who led a revolt against the Romans in AD 132. ... Akiba ben Joseph (ca. ... Sextus Julius Severus was an accomplished Roman general of the 2nd century AD. He was consul in 127 and then served as governor of Moesia; he was appointed governor of Roman Britain around AD 131. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Legio XXII Deiotariana (légio vigésima secúnda) was a Roman legion, levied approximately in 48 BC and destroyed in the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–135. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs and history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Torah () is the most important document in Judaism, revered as the inspired word of G-d (the vocal is never spelled), traditionally said to have been revealed to Moses. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ‎) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... Map of the southern Levant, c. ... See related article Occupations of Palestine. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... A polis (πόλις, pronunciation pol-is) plural: poleis (πόλεις) is a city, a city-state and also citizenship and body of citizens. ... Aelia Capitolina was a city built by the emperor Hadrian in the year 131, and occupied by a Roman colony, on the site of Syrian dominions. ...


Cultural pursuits and patronage

Castel Sant'Angelo, the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum.
Castel Sant'Angelo, the ancient Hadrian Mausoleum.

Hadrian has been described, by Ronald Syme among others, as the most versatile of all the Roman Emperors. He also liked to display a knowledge of all intellectual and artistic fields. Above all, Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian's Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost in large part to the despoliation of the ruins by the Cardinal d'Este who had much of the marble removed to build Villa d'Este. In Rome, the Pantheon, originally built by Agrippa but destroyed by fire in 80, was rebuilt under Hadrian in the domed form it retains to this day. It is among the best preserved of Rome's ancient buildings and was highly influential to a many of the great architects of the Italian Renaissance and Baroque periods. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 279 KB) photo by Radomil 28. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x960, 279 KB) photo by Radomil 28. ... For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... St. ... The villas recreation of Canopus, a resort near Alexandria, as seen from the temple of Serapis Theatrical masks of Tragedy and Comedy in refined mosaic, from the villa (Capitoline Museum, Rome) The Villa of the Emperor Hadrian at Tivoli, Italy, even in ruined condition is one of the most... Tivoli, the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town in Lazio, about 30 km from Rome, at the falls of the Aniene river, where it issues from the Sabine hills. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Ippolito (II) dEste (1509 - December 2, 1572) was an Italian cardinal. ... Park of the Villa dEste, Carl Blechen, 1830 The gardens at the Villa dEste The Villa dEste is a masterpiece of Italian architecture and garden design. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... The Italian Renaissance began the opening phase of the Renaissance, a period of great cultural change and achievement in Europe that spanned the period from the end of the 14th century to about 1600, marking the transition between Medieval and Early Modern Europe. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


From well before his reign, Hadrian displayed a keen interest in architecture, but it seems that his eagerness was not always well received. For example, Apollodorus of Damascus, famed architect of the Forum of Trajan, dismissed his designs. When Trajan, predecessor to Hadrian, consulted Apollodorus about an architectural problem, Hadrian interrupted to give advice, to which Apollodorus replied, "Go away and draw your pumpkins. You know nothing about these problems." "Pumpkins" refers to Hadrian's drawings of domes like the Serapeum in his Villa. It is rumored that once Hadrian succeeded Trajan to become emperor, he had Apollodorus exiled and later put to death. It is very possible that this latter story was a later attempt to defame his character, as Hadrian, though popular among a great many across the empire, was not universally admired, either in his lifetime or afterward. Apollodorus of Damascus, a famous Greek architect, engineer, designer and sculptor, flourished during the 2nd century AD. He was a favourite of Trajan, for whom he constructed Trajans Bridge over the Danube (104) for the campaign in Dacia. ... The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum, although the Romans referred to it more often as the Forum Magnum or just the Forum) was the central area around which ancient Rome developed, in which commerce, business, trading and the administration of justice took place. ... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ...

Hadrian, wreathed and in Greek dress offers a sprig of laurel to Apollo; marble, from the temple of Apollo at Cyrene, ca. 117-125.
Hadrian, wreathed and in Greek dress offers a sprig of laurel to Apollo; marble, from the temple of Apollo at Cyrene, ca. 117-125.

Hadrian wrote poetry in both Latin and Greek; one of the few surviving examples is a Latin poem he reportedly composed on his deathbed (see below). He also wrote an autobiography – not, apparently, a work of great length or revelation, but designed to scotch various rumours or explain his various actions. The work is lost but was apparently used by the writer - whether Marius Maximus or someone else – on whom the Historia Augusta principally relied for its vita of Hadrian: at least, a number of statements in the vita have been identified (by Ronald Syme and others) as probably ultimately stemming from the autobiography. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2150 × 3590 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 359 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2150 × 3590 pixel, file size: 3. ... Cyrene can refer to: The USS Cyrene (AGP-13), a motor torpedo boat tender Cyrene, a figure from Greek mythology Cyrene, a Greek colony in Libya (north Africa) 133 Cyrene, an asteroid Cyrene, fictional character who is the mother of Xena in the series Xena: Warrior Princess See also: Cyrenaica... Marius Maximus was a Roman biographer, writing in Latin, who in the early decades of the 3rd century AD wrote a series of biographies of twelve Emperors, imitating and continuing Suetonius. ... Ronald Syme Sir Ronald Syme (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989), New Zealand-born historian, was the preeminent classicist of the 20th century. ...


Another of Hadrian's contributions to the arts was the beard. The portraits of emperors up to this point were all clean shaven, idealized images of Greek athletes. Hadrian wore a beard as evidenced by all his portraits. Subsequent emperors would be portrayed with beards for more than a century and a half.


Hadrian was a humanist and deeply Hellenophile in all his tastes. He favoured the doctrines of the philosophers Epictetus, Heliodorus and Favorinus and was generally considered an Epicurean, as were some of his friends such as Caius Bruttius Praesens. At home he attended to social needs. Hadrian mitigated but did not abolish slavery, had the legal code humanized and forbade torture. He built libraries, aqueducts, baths and theaters. Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him "the Empire's first servant," and Edward Gibbon admired his "vast and active genius," as well as his "equity and moderation." Look up Humanist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek people that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ... Favorinus (2nd century AD), was a Greek sophist and philosopher who flourished during the reign of Hadrian. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c340-c270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. ... Caius or Gaius Bruttius Praesens Lucius Fulvius Rusticus (68-140) was an important Roman senator of the reigns of Roman emperors Trajan, Hadrian and Antoninus Pius. ...


While visiting Greece in 125, he attempted to create a kind of provincial parliament to bind all the semi-autonomous former city states across all Greece and Ionia (in Asia Minor). This parliament, known as the Panhellenion, failed despite spirited efforts to instill cooperation among the Hellenes. Hadrian was especially famous for his romance with a Greek youth, Antinous. While touring Egypt, Antinous mysteriously drowned in the Nile in 130. Deeply saddened, Hadrian founded the Egyptian city of Antinopolis. Hadrian drew the whole Empire into his mourning, making Antinous the last new god of antiquity. Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ... A parliament is a legislature, especially in those countries whose system of government is based on the Westminster system modelled after that of the United Kingdom. ... Location of Ionia Ionia (Greek Ιωνία; see also list of traditional Greek place names) was an ancient region of southwestern coastal Anatolia (in present-day Turkey, the region nearest Ä°zmir,) on the Aegean Sea. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... The Panhellenion or Panhellenium (Greek: All Greece) was an organization established in the year 125 by the Roman Emperor Hadrian while he was touring the Roman provinces of Greece. ... Antinous or Antinoös (Greek: ) born circa 110 or 111 CE, died 130 CE), was the lover of the Roman Emperor Hadrian Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome // He was born to a Greek family in Bithynion-Claudiopolis, in the Roman province of Bithynia in what... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... For other uses, see number 130. ... Antinopolis (modern Sheikh Ibada) was the city commemorating Antinous, which was founded to commemorate his deified lover by Hadrian, on the east bank of the Nile, not far from the site in Upper Egypt where Antinous drowned in 130. ... Look up deity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


Hadrian died at his villa in Baiae. He was buried in a mausoleum on the western bank of the Tiber, in Rome, a building later transformed into a papal fortress, Castel Sant'Angelo. The dimensions of his mausoleum, in its original form, were deliberately designed to be slightly larger than the earlier Mausoleum of Augustus. Baiae (Italian: Baia), in the Campania region of Italy on the Bay of Naples, today a frazione of the comune of Bacoli, was for several hundred years a fashionable and luxurious coastal resort, especially towards the end of the period of the Roman Republic. ... St. ... Tiber River in Rome. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ...


A strange fragment from the Roman History of Cassius Dio of uncertain context:

"After Hadrian's death there was erected to him a huge equestrian statue representing him with a four-horse chariot. It was so large that the bulkiest man could walk through the eye of each horse, yet because of the extreme height of the foundation persons passing along on the ground below believe that the horses themselves as well as Hadrian are very small."

Hadrian's travels

Purpose

This aureus by Hadrian celebrates the games held in honor of the 874th birthday of Rome.
This aureus by Hadrian celebrates the games held in honor of the 874th birthday of Rome.

The Stoic-Epicurean Emperor traveled broadly, inspecting and correcting the legions in the field. Even prior to becoming emperor, he had traveled abroad with the Roman military, giving him much experience in the matter. More than half his reign was spent outside of Italy. Other emperors often left Rome to simply go to war, returning soon after conflicts concluded. A previous emperor, Nero, once traveled through Greece and was condemned for his self indulgence. Hadrian, by contrast, traveled as a fundamental part of his governing, and made this clear to the Roman senate and the people. He was able to do this because at Rome he possessed a loyal supporter within the upper echelons of Roman society, a military veteran by the name of Marcius Turbo. Also, there are hints within certain sources that he also employed a secret police force, the frumentarii, to exert control and influence in case anything should go wrong while he journeyed abroad. Image File history File links Aureus_-_Adriano_-_RIC_0144. ... Image File history File links Aureus_-_Adriano_-_RIC_0144. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Marcius Turbo (also referred to as Quintus Marcius Turbo) was a Roman general who served under two of the Five Good Emperors, Trajan and Hadrian. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... The Imperial Secret Service. ...


Hadrian's visits were marked by handouts which often contained instructions for the construction of new public buildings. Hadrian was willful of strengthening the Empire from within through improved infrastructure, as opposed to conquering or annexing perceived enemies. This was often the purpose of his journeys; commissioning new structures, projects and settlements. His almost evangelical belief in Greek culture strengthened his views: like many emperors before him, Hadrian's will was almost always obeyed. His traveling court was large, including administrators and likely architects and builders. The burden on the areas he passed through were sometimes great. While his arrival usually brought some benefits it is possible that those who had to carry the burden were of different class to those who reaped the benefits. For example, huge amounts of provisions were requisitioned during his visit to Egypt, this suggests that the burden on the mainly subsistence farmers must have been intolerable, causing some measure of starvation and hardship.[16] At the same time, as in later times all the way through the European Renaissance, kings were welcomed into their cities or lands, and the financial burden was completely on them, and only indirectly on the poorer class. For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Like most farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, this Cameroonian man cultivates at the subsistence level. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ...


Hadrian's first tour came in 121 and was initially aimed at covering his back to allow himself the freedom to concern himself with his general cultural aims. He traveled north, towards Germania and inspected the Rhine-Danube frontier, allocating funds to improve the defenses. However it was a voyage to the Empire's very frontiers that represented his perhaps most significant visit; upon hearing of a recent revolt, he journeyed across the sea to Britannia. Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ...


Britannia

Hadrian's Wall, a fortification in Northern England.
Hadrian's Wall, a fortification in Northern England.

Prior to Hadrian's arrival on Great Britain there had been a major rebellion in Britannia, spanning roughly two years (119–121)[17]. It was here he initiated the building of Hadrian's Wall during 122. The wall was built chiefly to safeguard the frontier province of Britannia, by preventing future possible invasions from the northern country of Caledonia (now modern day Scotland). Caledonia was inhabited by tribes known to the Romans as Caledonians. Hadrian realized that the Caledonians would refuse to cohabitate with the Romans. He also was aware that although Caledonia was valuable, the harsh terrain and highlands made its conquest costly and unprofitable for the Empire at large. Thus, he decided instead on building a wall. Unlike the Germanic limes, built of wood palisades, the lack of suitable wood in the area required a stone construction [18]. Hadrian is perhaps most famous for the construction of this wall whose ruins still span many miles and to date bear his name. In many ways it represents Hadrian's will to improve and develop within the Empire, rather than waging wars and conquering. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x1152, 253 KB) Part of Hadrians wall near Housesteads. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (864x1152, 253 KB) Part of Hadrians wall near Housesteads. ... // Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... // Hadrians Wall is a stone and turf fortification built by the Roman Empire across the width of modern-day England. ... Events Roman Emperor Hadrian orders that a 72-mile wall be built in northern Britain. ... Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Roman Empire to a northern area of the island of Great Britain. ... This article is about the country. ... // The Caledonians (Latin: Caledonii) or Caledonian Confederacy, is a name given by historians to a group of the indigenous Picts of Scotland during the Iron Age. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


Under him, a shrine was erected in York to Britain as a Goddess, and coins were struck which introduced a female figure as the personification of Britain, labeled BRITANNIA [19] By the end of 122 he had concluded his visit to Britannia, and from there headed south by sea to Mauretania. York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John... For other uses, see Britannia (disambiguation). ... In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ...


Parthia and Anatolia

In 123, he arrived in Mauretania where he personally led a campaign against local rebels.[20] However this visit was to be short, as reports came through that the Eastern nation of Parthia was again preparing for war, as a result Hadrian quickly headed eastwards. On his journey east it is known that at some point he visited Cyrene during which he personally made available funds for the training of the young men of well bred families for the Roman military. This might well have been a stop off during his journey East. Cyrene had already benefited from his generosity when he in 119 had provided funds for the rebuilding of public buildings destroyed in the recent Jewish revolt.[21] Roman Emperor Hadrians villa at Tivoli was built. ... In Antiquity, Mauretania was originally an independent Berber kingdom on the Mediterranean coast of north Africa (named after the Maure tribe, after whom the Moors were named), corresponding to western Algeria, and northern Morocco. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... Cyrene, the ancient Greek city (in present-day Libya) was the oldest and most important of the five Greek cities in the region and gave eastern Libya the classical name Cyrenaica that it has retained to modern times. ... Events Roman Empire Roman Emperor Hadrian stations the Legio VI Victrix in Roman Britain, to assist in quelling a local rebellion. ...

Hadrian's Gate, in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 AD.
Hadrian's Gate, in Antalya, southern Turkey was built to honour Hadrian who visited the city in 130 AD.

When Hadrian arrived on the Euphrates, he characteristically solved the problem through a negotiated settlement with the Parthian king (probably Chosroes). He then proceeded to check the Roman defenses before setting off West along the coast of the Black Sea.[22] He probably spent the winter in Nicomedia, the main city of Bithynia. As Nicomedia had been hit by an earthquake only shortly prior to his stay, Hadrian was generous in providing funds for rebuilding. Thanks to his generosity he was acclaimed as the chief restorer of the province as a whole. It is more than possible that Hadrian visited Claudiopolis and there espied the beautiful Antinous, a young boy who was destined to become the emperor's eromenos — his pederastic beloved. Sources say nothing about when Hadrian met Antinous, however, there are depictions of Antinous that shows him as a young man of 20 or so. As this was shortly before Antinous's drowning in 130 Antinous would more likely have been a youth of 13 or 14.[23] It is possible that Antinous may have been sent to Rome to be trained as page to serve the emperor and only gradually did he rise to the status of imperial favorite.[24] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Hadrians Gate, Antalya, Turkey. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 526 KB) Hadrians Gate, Antalya, Turkey. ... Hadrians Gate in Antalya,Turkey. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ... Khosrau, Khusrau, Khosru and also Khusraw (Kasrâ in Arabic; Chosroes or Chosroës in Greek) was the name of a mythical Persian leader, in the Avesta known as Kavi Haosravah, with the meaning with good reputation. A number of rulers of Persia and the Middle East were known by this... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Nicomedia (modern Ä°zmit, also known as Iznik) was founded by Nicomedes I of Bithynia at the head of the Gulf of Astacus (which opens on the Propontis) in 264 BC. The city has ever since been one of the chief towns in this part of Asia Minor. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ... Claudiopolis is the Ancient name of a number of cities named after a Claudius, notably: Bithynion, in Bithynia (presently in Anatolia) a site in Cappadocia, now Mut, Mersin, in Cataonia Ninica Cluj-Napoca in present Romania See also Neoclaudiopolis Category: ... Antinous or Antinoös (Greek: ) born circa 110 or 111 CE, died 130 CE), was the lover of the Roman Emperor Hadrian Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome // He was born to a Greek family in Bithynion-Claudiopolis, in the Roman province of Bithynia in what... In the pederastic tradition of Classical Athens, the eromenos (Greek ἐρόμενος, pl. ... Pederastic courtship scene Athenian black-figure amphora, 5th c. ... For other uses, see number 130. ... A page is a young male servant. ...


After meeting Antinous, Hadrian traveled through Anatolia. The route he took is uncertain. Various incidents are described such as his founding of a city within Mysia, Hadrianutherae, after a successful boar hunt. (The building of the city was probably little more than a mere whim — lowly populated wooded areas such as the location of the new city were already ripe for development). Some historians dispute whether Hadrian did in fact commission the city's construction at all. At about this time, plans to build a temple in Asia minor were written up. The new temple would be dedicated to Trajan and Hadrian and built with dazzling white marble.[25] Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ...


Greece

Temple of Zeus in Athens.
Temple of Zeus in Athens.

The climax of this tour was the destination that the hellenophile Hadrian must all along have had in mind, Greece. He arrived in the autumn of 124 in time to participate in the Eleusinian Mysteries. By tradition at one stage in the ceremony the initiates were supposed to carry arms but this was waived to avoid any risk to the emperor among them. At the Athenians' request he conducted a revision of their constitution — among other things a new phyle (tribe) was added bearing his name.[26] Image File history File links The Temple of Zeus in Athens. ... Image File history File links The Temple of Zeus in Athens. ... Events Roman emperor Hadrian begins to rebuild the Olympeion in Athens. ... The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... There are things that have the name Phyle: A soliological analog of a biological phyla, mentioned in a novel The Diamond Age by Neal Stephenson which includes three great tribes. ...


During the winter he toured the Peloponnese. His exact route is uncertain, however Pausanias reports of tell-tale signs, such as temples built by Hadrian and the statue of the emperor built by the grateful citizens of Epidaurus in thanks to their "restorer". He was especially generous to Mantinea which supports the theory that Antinous was in fact already Hadrian's lover because of the strong link between Mantinea and Antinous's home in Bithynia.[27] Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... Panoramic view of the theater at Epidaurus Epidaurus (Epidauros) was a small city (polis) in ancient Greece at the Saronic Gulf. ... Mantinea is a city in the central Peloponnese that was the site of two significant battles in Classical Greek history. ... Bithynia was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine (today Black Sea). ...


By March of 125, Hadrian had reached Athens presiding over the festival of Dionysia. The building program that Hadrian initiated was substantial. Various rulers had done work on building a temple to Olympian Zeus — it was Hadrian who ensured that the job would be finished. He also initiated the construction of several public buildings on his own whim and even organized the building of an aqueduct.[28] Events Construction of the Pantheon (Rome) as it stands today by Hadrian. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honour of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ...


Return to Italy

The Pantheon was rebuilt by Hadrian.
The Pantheon was rebuilt by Hadrian.

On his return to Italy, Hadrian made a detour to Sicily. Coins celebrate him as the restorer of the island though there is no record of what he did to earn this accolade.[29] Image File history File links Pantheon, Rome pic by Briséis File links The following pages link to this file: Hadrian ... Image File history File links Pantheon, Rome pic by Briséis File links The following pages link to this file: Hadrian ... The Pantheon, Rome The Pantheon is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the Roman state religion, but which has been a Christian church since the 7th century. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Back in Rome he was able to see for himself the completed work of rebuilding the Pantheon. Also completed by then was Hadrian's villa nearby at Tibur a pleasant retreat by the Sabine Hills for whenever Rome became too much for him. At the beginning of March 127 Hadrian set off for a tour of Italy. Once again, historians are able to reconstruct his route by evidence of his hand-outs rather than the historical records. For instance, in that year he restored the Picentine earth goddess Cupra in the town of Cupra Maritima. At some unspecified time he improved the drainage of the Fucine lake. Less welcome than such largesse was his decision to divide Italy into 4 regions under imperial legates with consular rank. Being effectively reduced to the status of mere provinces did not go down well and this innovation did not long outlive Hadrian.[30] Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... Tivoli (population 55,000), the classical Tibur, is an ancient Italian town some 20 km from Rome (Latium), at the falls of the Aniene, where it issues from the Sabine hills. ... Sabina, the region in the Sabine Hills of Latium named for the Sabines, is the ancient territory that is today identified with the Province of Rieti, in Lazio (Roman Latium). ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Cupra is the name of two ancient Italian municipia in Picenum. ... Cupra is the name of two ancient Italian municipia in Picenum. ... The Fucine Lake (Italian: Lago Fucino or Lago di Celano) was a large lake in central Italy. ...


Hadrian fell ill around this time, though the nature of his sickness is not known. Whatever the illness was, it did not stop him from setting off in the spring of 128 to visit Africa. His arrival began with the good omen of rain ending a drought. Along with his usual role as benefactor and restorer he found time to inspect the troops and his speech to the troops survives to this day.[31] Hadrian returned to Italy in the summer of 128 but his stay was brief before setting off on another tour that would last three years.[32] Events King Gaeru of Baekje succeeded the throne of Baekje in Korean peninsula. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ...


Greece and Asia

In September of 128 Hadrian again attended the Eleusinian mysteries. This time his visit to Greece seems to have concentrated on Athens and Sparta — the two ancient rivals for dominance of Greece. Hadrian had played with the idea of focusing his Greek revival round Amphictyonic League based in Delphi but he by now had decided on something far grander. His new Panhellenion was going to be a council that would bring together Greek cities wherever they might be found. The meeting place was to be the new temple to Zeus in Athens. Having set in motion the preparations — deciding whose claim to be a Greek city was genuine would in itself take time — Hadrian set off for Ephesus.[33] Events King Gaeru of Baekje succeeded the throne of Baekje in Korean peninsula. ... The Amphictyonic League (Amphictyony) was a form of Greek Hellenic religious organization that was formed to support specific temple or sacred place. ... Map of Lydia in ancient times showing location of Ephesus and other ancient cities in western Anatolia Ephesus (Greek: , Turkish: ) was an Ionian Greek city in ancient Anatolia, founded by colonists from Athens in the 10th century BC[1]. The city was located in Ionia, where the Cayster River (K...


In October 130, while Hadrian and his entourage were sailing on the Nile, Antinous drowned, for unknown reasons, though accident, suicide, murder or religious sacrifice have all been postulated. The emperor was grief struck. He ordered Antinous deified, and cities were named after the boy, medals struck with his effigy, and statues erected to him in all parts of the empire. Temples were built for his worship in Bithynia, Mantineia in Arcadia, and Athens, festivals celebrated in his honour and oracles delivered in his name. The city of Antinoöpolis or Antinoe was founded on the ruins of Besa where he died (Dio Cassius lix. 11; Spartianus, Hadrian). For other uses, see number 130. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Antinous or Antinoös (Greek: ) born circa 110 or 111 CE, died 130 CE), was the lover of the Roman Emperor Hadrian Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome // He was born to a Greek family in Bithynion-Claudiopolis, in the Roman province of Bithynia in what... Antinous or Antinoös (Greek: ) born circa 110 or 111 CE, died 130 CE), was the lover of the Roman Emperor Hadrian Bust of Antinous in the Palazzo Altemps museum in Rome // He was born to a Greek family in Bithynion-Claudiopolis, in the Roman province of Bithynia in what... Antinoopolis or Antinoe (Greek: , Ptol. ...


Greece, Palestine, Illyricum

Hadrian’s movements subsequent to the founding of Antinoöpolis on October 30, 130 are obscure. Whether or not he returned to Rome, he spent the winter of 131-2 in Athens and probably remained in Greece or further East because of the Jewish rebellion which broke out in 132. Inscriptions make it clear that he took the field in person against the rebels with his army in 133; he then returned to Rome, probably in that year and almost certainly (judging again from inscriptions) via Illyricum.[34] This article is about the year 132. ... This article is about the year 133. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ...


Final years

Succession

Bust of Hadrian, National Archaeological Museum of Athens
Bust of Hadrian, National Archaeological Museum of Athens

Hadrian spent the final years of his life at Rome. In 134, he took an Imperial salutation for the end of the Jewish War (which was not actually concluded until the following year). In 136, he dedicated a new Temple of 'Venus and Rome' on the former site of Nero's Golden House. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (497 × 660 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (497 × 660 pixel, file size: 153 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 134 ... Salutation can have several meanings. ... Events Pope Hyginus succeeds Pope Telesphorus First year of Yonghe era of the Chinese Han Dynasty Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Eleutherius to Patriarch Felix Births Deaths Category: ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... The Domus Aurea (Latin for Golden House) was a large palace built by the Roman emperor Nero after the fire that devastated Rome in 64 AD had cleared the aristocratic dwellings on the slopes of the Esquiline Hill. ...


About this time, suffering from poor health, he turned to the problem of the succession. In 136 he adopted one of the ordinary consuls of that year, Lucius Ceionius Commodus, who took the name Lucius Aelius Caesar. He was both the stepson and son-in-law of Gaius Avidius Nigrinus, one of the ‘four consulars’ executed in 118, but was himself in delicate health. Granted tribunician power and the governorship of Pannonia, Aelius Caesar held a further consulship in 137, but died on January 1, 138.[35] This article is about the highest office of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Aelius as Caesar. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... For other uses, see number 137. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ...


Following Aelius’s death Hadrian next adopted Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus (the future emperor Antoninus Pius), who had served as one of the four imperial legates of Italy (a post created by Hadrian) and as proconsul of Asia. On 25 February 138 Antoninus received tribunician power and imperium. Moreover, to ensure the future of the dynasty, Hadrian required Antoninus to adopt both Lucius Ceionius Commodus (son of the deceased Aelius Caesar) and Marcus Annius Verus (who was the grandson of an influential senator of the same name who had been Hadrian’s close friend; Annius was already betrothed to Aelius Caesar’s daughter Ceionia Fabia). Hadrian’s precise intentions in this arrangement are debatable. Though the consensus is that he wanted Annius Verus (who would later become the Emperor Marcus Aurelius) to succeed Antoninus, it has also been argued that he actually intended Ceionius Commodus, the son of his own adopted son, to succeed, but was constrained to show favour simultaneously to Annius Verus because of his strong connections to the Hispano-Narbonensian nexus of senatorial families of which Hadrian himself was a part. It may well not have been Hadrian, but rather Antoninus Pius – who was Annius Verus’s uncle – who advanced the latter to the principal position. The fact that Annius would divorce Ceionia Fabia and re-marry to Antoninus' daughter Annia Faustina points in the same direction. When he eventually became Emperor, Marcus Aurelius would co-opt Ceionius Commodus as his co-Emperor (under the name of Lucius Verus) on his own initiative.[36] Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ... Roman conquest of Asia minor The Roman province of Asia was the administrative unit added to the late Republic, a Senatorial province governed by a proconsul. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Marcus Annius Verus was a Roman man who lived in the first and second century. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180 . ... Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus (December 15, 130 – 169), known simply as Lucius Verus, was Roman co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius (161–180), from 161 until his death. ...


The ancient sources present Hadrian's last few years as marked by conflict and unhappiness. The adoption of Aelius Caesar proved unpopular, not least with Hadrian's brother-in-law Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus and Servianus' grandson Gnaeus Pedanius Fuscus Salinator. Servianus, though now far too old, had stood in line of succession at the beginning of the reign; Fuscus is said to have had designs on the imperial power for himself, and in 137 he may have attempted a coup in which his grandfather was implicated. Whatever the truth, Hadrian ordered that both be put to death.[37] Servianus is reported to have prayed before his execution that Hadrian would "long for death but be unable to die".[38] The prayer was fulfilled; as Hadrian suffered from his final, protracted illness, he had to be prevented from suicide on several occasions.[39] Lucius Julius Ursus Servianus (45-136) was a Spanish Roman Politician. ... Coup redirects here. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


Death

Hadrian died in 138 on the tenth day of July, in his villa at Baiae at age 62. However, the man who had spent so much of his life traveling had not yet reached his journey's end. He was buried first at Puteoli, near Baiae, on an estate which had once belonged to Cicero. Soon after, his remains were transferred to Rome and buried in the Gardens of Domitia, close by the almost-complete mausoleum. Upon the completion of the Tomb of Hadrian in Rome in 139 by his successor Antoninus Pius, his body was cremated, and his ashes were placed there together with those of his wife Vibia Sabina and his first adopted son, Lucius Aelius, who also died in 138. Antoninus also had him deified in 139 and given a temple on the Campus Martius. Events February 25 - Roman emperor Hadrian adopted Antoninus Pius on condition that Antonius would adopt Marcus Annius Aurelius Verus. ... The Roman Empire contained many kinds of villas. ... Baiae (Italian: Baia), in the Campania region of Italy on the Bay of Naples, today a frazione of the comune of Bacoli, was for several hundred years a fashionable and luxurious coastal resort, especially towards the end of the period of the Roman Republic. ... Puteoli, the ancient predecessor of Pozzuoli, was an Italian city of Roman times on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay running north from the Bay of Naples. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Castel SantAngelo Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Events Births Deaths Zhang Heng, Chinese mathematician Categories: 139 ... Titus Aurelius Fulvus Boionius Arrius Antoninus Pius (September 19, 86–March 7, 161) was Roman emperor from 138 to 161. ... Vibia Sabina was an Empress and wife to Emperor Hadrian. ... Lucius Aelius as Caesar. ... The facade Vasi drawing of the Temple, c. ... The Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 km² (600 acres) in extent. ...


Poem by Hadrian

According to the Historia Augusta Hadrian composed shortly before his death the following poem:[40] The Augustan History (Lat. ...

Animula, vagula, blandula
Hospes comesque corporis
Quae nunc abibis in loca
Pallidula, rigida, nudula,
Nec, ut soles, dabis iocos...
P. Aelius Hadrianus Imp.
Little soul, roamer and charmer
Body's guest and companion
Who soon will depart to places
Darkish, chilly and misty
An end to all your jokes...

Notes

  1. ^ Following Hadrian: Elizabeth Speller, pp. 61 – 62
  2. ^ Historia Augusta, 'Hadrian', I-II, here explicitly citing the autobiography. This is one of the passages in the Historia Augusta where there is no reason to suspect invention.
  3. ^ On the numerous senatorial families from Hispania residing at Rome and its vicinity around the time of Hadrian’s birth see R.Syme, 'Spaniards at Tivoli', in Roman Papers IV (Oxford, 1988), pp.96-114. Tivoli (Tibur) was of course the site of Hadrian’s own imperial villa.
  4. ^ Royston Lambert, Beloved And God, pp. 31 – 32
  5. ^ Anthony Birley, Hadrian the Restless Emperor, p. 68
  6. ^ Anthony Birley, p. 75
  7. ^ Elizabeth Speller, p. 26
  8. ^ Royston Lambert
  9. ^ Elizabeth Speller.
  10. ^ Elizabeth Speller, p. 69
  11. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman history 69.12.1
  12. ^ Historia Augusta, Hadrian 14.2.
  13. ^ livius.org account(Legio XXII Deiotariana)
  14. ^ Cassius Dio 69, 14.3
  15. ^ Gittin 57a-58b; Lamentations Rabbah 2.2 §4;
  16. ^ Elizabeth Speller, pp. 74–81.
  17. ^ The Historia Augusta notes that 'the Britons could not be kept under Roman control; Pompeius Falco was sent to Britain to restore order (Birley 123) and coins of 119-120 refer to this.
  18. ^ Birley 131-133
  19. ^ Britannia on British Coins. Chard. Retrieved on 2006-06-25.
  20. ^ Royston Lambert, pp. 41–42.
  21. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 151–152.
  22. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 153 – 155
  23. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 157–158.
  24. ^ Royston Lambert, pp. 60–61.
  25. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 164–167.
  26. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 175-177.
  27. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 177 – 180
  28. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 182–184.
  29. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 189–190.
  30. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 191–200.
  31. ^ Royston Lambert, pp. 71–72.
  32. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 213–214.
  33. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 215–220.
  34. ^ Ronald Syme, "Journeys of Hadrian" (1988), pp. 164-169.
  35. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 289-292.
  36. ^ The adoptions: Anthony Birley, pp. 294-295; T.D. Barnes, 'Hadrian and Lucius Verus', Journal of Roman Studies (1967), Ronald Syme, Tacitus, p. 601. Antoninus as a legate of Italy: Anthony Birley, p. 199.
  37. ^ Anthony Birley, pp. 291-292.
  38. ^ Dio 69.17.2
  39. ^ Anthony Birley, p. 297.
  40. ^ Historia Augusta, Hadrian 25.9; Antony Birley, p. 301.

The Augustan History (Lat. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

Primary sources

Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... The Augustan History (Lat. ...

Secondary sources

  • Barnes, T. D. (1967). "Hadrian and Lucius Verus". Journal of Roman Studies 57 (1/2): 65-79. 
  • Birley, Anthony R. (1997). Hadrian. The restless emperor. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16544-X. 
  • Lambert, Royston (1997). Beloved and God: the story of Hadrian and Antinous. London: Phoenix Giants. ISBN 1-85799-944-4. 
  • Speller, Elizabeth (2003). Following Hadrian: a second-century journey through the Roman Empire. London: Review. ISBN 0-7472-6662-X. 
  • Syme, Ronald [1958] (1997). Tacitus. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814327-3. 
  • Syme, Ronald (1988). "Journeys of Hadrian" (pdf). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 73: 159-170. Retrieved on 2006-12-12.  Reprinted in Syme, Ronald (1991). Roman Papers VI. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 346-357. ISBN 0-19-814494-6. 
  • Yourcenar, Marguerite [1951]. Memoirs of Hadrian. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. ISBN 0-374-52926-4. 
  • Edward Gibbon, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. I, 1776;

Ronald Syme Sir Ronald Syme (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989), New Zealand-born historian, was the preeminent classicist of the 20th century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marguerite Yourcenar was the pseudonym of French novelist Marguerite Cleenewerck de Crayencour (June 8, 1903 - December 17, 1987). ... Cover of the English language edition. ...

Further reading

  • Bernard W. Henderson, Life and Principate of the Emperor Hadrian, 1923;

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Preceded by
Trajan
Roman Emperor
117 – 138
Succeeded by
Antoninus Pius
Five Good Emperors
96 – 180
Nervan-Antonian Dynasty
96 – 192
Preceded by
Trajan
Nervo-Trajanic Dynasty
96 – 138
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Quintus Aquilius Niger and Marcus Rebilus Apronianus
Consul of the Roman Empire
118- 119
Succeeded by
Lucius Catilius Severus Iulianus Claudius Reginus and Antoninus Pius

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hadrian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3345 words)
Hadrian was the third of the "Five Good Emperors", although according to Elizabeth Speller he was the first emperor whose assessment moved beyond the stereotype of good and bad emperors.
Hadrian was born in Rome and was the son of Publius Aelius Hadrianus Afer, a cousin of Trajan, from Italica in Hispania Baetica.
Hadrian was active in the wars against the Dacians (as legate of the V Macedonica) and reputedly won awards from Trajan for his successes.
Hadrian - Facts, Information, and Encyclopedia Reference article (2860 words)
Hadrian was born in Italica, Baetica (originally Hispania Ulterior), to a well-established settler family which had originated in Picenum in Italy.
Hadrian enlisted in the army sometime in the reign of Domitian.
Above all Hadrian patronized the arts: Hadrian's Villa at Tibur (Tivoli) was the greatest Roman example of an Alexandrian garden, recreating a sacred landscape, lost now in large part to the despoliation of the ruins by the Cardinal d'Este who had much of the marble removed to build his gardens.
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