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Hadith (الحديث transliteration: al-ḥadīth) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. Hadith collections are regarded as important tools for determining the Sunnah, or Muslim way of life, by all traditional schools of jurisprudence. The Arabic plural is aḥādīth (أحاديث). In English academic usage, hadith is often both singular and plural. Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Muhammad (Arabic محمد, also transliterated Mohammad, Mohammed, and formerly Mahomet, following the Latin) is revered by Muslims as the final prophet of God. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Madhhab(مذهب) (Madhahib, pl) is an Islamic term that refers to a school of thought or religious jurisprudence (fiqh) within Sunni Islam. ...

Contents

Linguistic Definition

Linguistically the word ‘hadith’ (حَدِيْث) means: that which is new from amongst things or a piece of information conveyed either in a small quantity or large. The plural form is ahaadeeth (أَحادِيْث)… And hadith is what is spoken by the speaker (الحديث ما يحدِّثُ به المُحَدِّثُ تَحْدِيْثًا). Tahdith(تَحْدِيْث) is the infinitive, or verbal noun, of the original verb form (حَدَّثَ). Therefore, hadith is not the infinitive,[1] rather it is a noun.[2]


As Religious Terminology

In religious terminology, hadith is the term given to a statement, action, or affirmation attributed to the Prophet of Islam, Muhammad.[3] The relationship between the linguistic meaning and the terminology is perhaps apparent in the statement of the prominent hadith specialist Ahmad ibn Ali ibn Hajr Al-Asqalani (773 AH/1372 CE -- 852 AH/1448 CE) that the intended meaning of hadith in religious tradition is something attributed to the Prophet, as though in contrast to the Quran, which has preceded it.[4] Hadith can be divided into three categories based upon their content: Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For other uses, see Ibn Hajar. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwīm-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate...

  1. A statement of the Prophet (قَوْل).
  2. An action of the Prophet (فِعْل).
  3. The Prophet’s affirmation of an action done by someone other than him (تَقْرِير).

The Sanad and the Matn

The sanad and matn are the primary elements of a hadith. The sanad is the information provided regarding the route by which the matn has been reached. It is so named due to the reliance of the hadith specialists upon it in determining the authenticity or weakness of a hadith. The term sanad is synonymous with the similar term isnad. The matn is the actual wording of the hadith by which its meaning is established, or stated differently, the objective at which the sanad arrives at consisting of speech. [5] The sanad consists of a ‘chain’ of the narrators each mentioning the one from whom they heard the hadith until mentioning the originator of the matn along with the matn itself. The first people who received hadith were the Companions; so they preserved and understood it, knowing both its generality and particulars, and then conveyed it to those after them as they were commanded. Then the generation following them, the Followers received it thus conveying it to those after them and so on. So the Companion would say, “I heard the Prophet say such and such.” The Follower would then say, “I heard a Companion say, ‘I heard the Prophet .’” The one after him (after the Follower) would then say, “I heard someone say, ‘I heard a Companion say, ‘I heard the Prophet …’’” and so on.[6]


Overview

Ahadith were originally an oral tradition relevant to the actions and customs of Muhammad. Starting with the first Fitna of the 7th century those receiving ahadith started to question their sources.[7] This resulted in a list of transmitters, for example "A told me that B told him that Muhammad said." This list of the chain of testimony by which a hadith was transmitted is called an Isnad. The text itself came to be known as Matn. The First Fitna, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Matn (literally body, text [1]) is a Islamic term that is used in relation to Hadith evaluation. ...


The hadith were eventually recorded in written form, had their Isnad evaluated and were gathered into large collections mostly during the reign of Umar II (bin Abdul Aziz, grandson of Umar bin Khattab(RAA)2nd Caliph) during 8th century, something that solidified in the 9th century. These works are still today referred to in matters of Islamic law and History. The Science of hadith is the process that Muslim scholars use to evaluate hadith. ... Hadith collection a Hadith collection is a book that includes several hadith. ... Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (c. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... The History of Islam involves the history of the Islamic faith as a religion and as a social institution. ...


History

Main article: History of Hadith

Traditions regarding the life of Prophet Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down orally for more than a hundred years after the death of Muhammad in 632. This article goes through the historical evolution of the hadith literature from its begining in the 7th century to present day // Traditions regarding the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down orally for more than a hundred years after the death of Muhammad in 632...


Muslim historians say that it was the caliph Uthman (the third caliph, or successor of Muhammad, who had formerly been Muhammad's secretary), who first urged Muslims both to write down the Qur'an in a fixed form, and to write down the hadith. Uthman's labors were cut short by his assassination, at the hands of aggrieved soldiers, in 656. For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, or global Islamic nation. ... For other uses of the name, see Uthman (name). ...


The Muslim community (ummah) then fell into a prolonged civil war, termed the Fitna by Muslim historians. After the fourth caliph, Ali ibn Abi Talib, was assassinated, control of the Islamic empire was seized by the Umayyad dynasty in 661. Ummayad rule was interrupted by a second civil war (the Second Fitna), re-established, then ended in 758, when the Abbasid dynasty seized the caliphate, to hold it, at least in name, until 1258. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The First Islamic civil war, 656–661 CE, followed the assassination of the caliph Uthman ibn Affan, continued during the brief caliphate of Ali ibn Abu Talib, and was ended, on the whole, by Muawiyas assumption of the caliphate. ... For other uses, see Ali (disambiguation). ... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... The Second Fitna, or Second Islamic civil war, was a period of general political and military disorder that afflicted the Islamic world during the early Umayyad dynasty, following the death of the caliph Muawiya I. There seems to be a lack of solid consensus on the exact range of years... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ...


Muslim historians say that hadith collection and evaluation continued during the first Fitna and the Umayyad period. However, much of this activity was presumably oral transmission from early Muslims to later collectors, or from teachers to students. If any of these early scholars committed any of these collections to writing, they have not survived. The histories and hadith collections we possess today were written down at the start of the Abbasid period, more than one hundred years after the death of Muhammad.


The scholars of the Abbasid period were faced with a huge corpus of miscellaneous traditions, some of them flatly contradicting each other. Many of these traditions supported differing views on a variety of controversial matters. Scholars had to decide which hadith were to be trusted as authentic narrations and which had been invented for various political or theological purposes. For this purpose, they used a number of techniques which Muslims now call the science of hadith.


Use

The overwhelming majority of Muslims consider hadith to be essential supplements to and clarifications of the Qur'an, Islam's holy book. In Islamic jurisprudence, the Qur'an contains many rules for the behavior expected of Muslims. However, there are many matters of concern, both religious and practical, on which there are no specific Qur'anic rules. Muslims believe that they can look at the way of life, or sunnah, of Muhammad and his companions to discover what to imitate and what to avoid. Muslim scholars also find it useful to know how Muhammad or his companions explained the revelations, or upon what occasion Muhammad received them. Sometimes this will clarify a passage that otherwise seems obscure. Hadith are a source for Islamic history and biography. For the vast majority of devout Muslims, authentic hadith are also a source of religious inspiration. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...


However, some contemporary Muslims argue that the Qur'an alone is sufficient. Examples of such Muslims groups are Tolu-e-Islam (Resurgence of Islam), Free Minds, and United Submitters International. Muslims who take the "Qur'an alone" viewpoint are regarded as deviant by mainstream Muslim scholars, and by the vast majority of Muslims. Hadith-trusting Muslims argue that many Qur'anic instructions are impossible to fulfill without guidance from the ahadith. (The Qur'an does not, for example, specify how many prayer cycles constitute fulfillment of each of the daily prayers. See salat.) It is also important to note that most Muslims claim that the Qur'an cannot be fully explained by itself alone or read with complete understanding -- which is why the Hadith is referred to as the "second source" of Islam. While the Qur'an states "We have made it (the Qur'an) easy to understand and in your own tongue (language) may you take heed." (Qur'an 44:58), there are great debates between Muslims regarding the views stated in the Qur'an, and also those stated in the Hadith. Quran alone Muslims, Quranic Muslims or sometimes, anti-hadith Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith, or preserved traditions of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, and follow the Quran, a sacred text of Islam, exclusively. ... Tolu-e-Islam (English: Resurgence of Islam), also known as Bazm-e-Tolu-e-Islam, is a group of Muslims that interpete Quran as the main source of guidance and deny the authority (but not necessarily the authenticity) of the Hadiths. ... The United Submitters International (USI) is a religious group, founded by Rashad Khalifa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


The origins of some verses and statements in the Hadith cannot be verified as regards their source of origin.


Muslim scholars classify hadith relating to Muhammad as follows: Muslim scholars are people who profess Islam as a religion and work in one or several fields of Islamic studies. ...

  • What Muhammad said (قول) (qawl)
  • What Muhammad did (فعل) (fi'l)
  • What Muhammad approved (تقرير) (taqrir) in others' actions

There are also hadith relating to the words and deeds of the companions, but they may not have the same weight as those about Muhammad. Many actually believe that the Hadith was written hundreds of years after Muhammed died.


Non-Muslim scholars note that there is a great overlap between the records of early Islamic traditions. Accounts of early Islam are also to be found in:

  • sira (stories, especially biographies of Muhammad)
  • tafsir (commentary on the Qur'an)
  • fiqh (jurisprudence)

Some of these accounts are also found as hadith; some aren't. For a Non-Muslim historian, these are all simply historical sources; for the Muslim scholar, hadith have a special status. They cite sura [Qur'an 7:157] (Yusuf Ali translation): For the river and also village in Norway named Sira, see Sira, Norway. ... A tafsir ( (Arabic: تفسير) tafsÄ«r, Arabic explanation) is Quranic exegesis or commentary. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Sura (sometimes spelt Surah , plural Suwar ) is an Arabic term literally meaning something enclosed or surrounded by a fence or wall. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...

Those who follow the messenger, the unlettered Prophet, whom they find mentioned in their own (scriptures),- in the Law and the Gospel;- for he commands them what is just and forbids them what is evil; he allows them as lawful what is good (and pure) and prohibits them from what is bad (and impure); He releases them from their heavy burdens and from the yokes that are upon them. So it is those who believe in him, honour him, help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him,- it is they who will prosper.

They take this and other Qur'anic verses to require Muslims to follow authentic hadith. However, a growing number of "Quran-only" Muslims disagree with this view and interpret these verses differently; they argue that the hadith are of human creation and have no authority. Quran alone Muslims are those Muslims who reject hadith, or recorded Islamic traditions, and claim to follow the Quran, Islams sacred text, without any further human additions. ...


Their argument is strengthened by verses of the Quran which criticise the following of "hadith other than quran", the Arabic word "hadith" means "sayings".


Science of hadith

Main article: science of hadith

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Science of hadith

The Science of hadith is the process that Muslim scholars use to evaluate hadith. ... The Science of hadith is the process that Muslim scholars use to evaluate hadith. ...

Terminology
Terminology
technical terms
Regarding authenticity



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The most common technique consists of a careful examination of the isnad, or chain of transmission. Each hadith is accompanied by an isnad: A heard it from B who heard it from C who heard it from a companion of Muhammad. Isnads are carefully scrutinized to see if the chain is possible (for example, making sure that all transmitters and transmittees were known to be alive and living in the same area at the time of transmission to make sure they met ) and if the transmitters are reliable. This article goes through the historical evolution of the hadith literature from its begining in the 7th century to present day // Traditions regarding the life of Muhammad and the early history of Islam were passed down orally for more than a hundred years after the death of Muhammad in 632... Ilm ar-Rijal (Arabic) is the science of biography especially as practiced in Islam, where it was first applied to the sira, the life of the Prophet Muhammad. ... The Sunnah of Muhammad was told by way of an oral tradition before they were written down. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... Matn (literally body, text [1]) is a Islamic term that is used in relation to Hadith evaluation. ... Riwayah is a word that means narrative from the Arabic word Rawa, meaning to relate. As an Islamic term, it denotes the narrating of Hadith [1]. ^ http://www. ... Musnad is a term used in the science of hadith to classify a certain type of hadith. ... Mursal (lit. ... Ahaad is an (Arabic word آحاد) meaning singles or ones. It is an Islamic term used in hadith terminology to mean that the narration has been transmitted by only one narrator at some point in the chain. ... Munqati (lit. ... Muttasil (is a Islamic term used in the Hadith evaluation process. ... Gharib (lit. ... Shadhdh (lit. ... Munkar (lit. ... Daif jiddan (lit. ... Israiliyat is a term in the Science of hadith who referes to material that origin from Judeo-Christian traditions, rather than from the Islamic prophet Muhammad [1]. Muslims classify them in three categories [1]: Those known to be true because the revelation to the Prophet Muhammad confirms them. ... Mutawatir is an Arabic term meaning agreed upon. ... Sahih is a Islamic term that means authentic. ... Hasan is a Arabic word. ... In Islamic context, Daif is a the categorization of a hadiths authenticity as weak. Other categorizations include sound (as in, a sound proposal), good and fabricated. ... In Islamic context, Maudu is a the categorization of a hadiths authenticity as fabricated. Other categorizations include sound (as in, a sound proposal), good and weak. ... Mudtarib (lit. ... Sharh is a Islamic term. ... This is a sub-article of hadith. ... The isnad (Arabic اسناد or in Quranic era Arabic اسند) are the citations or backings that establish the legitimacy of the hadith, which are the sayings of Muhammad, Prophet of Islam. ... In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...


Examples of Hadith

  • "One learned man is harder on the devil than a thousand worshippers."[1]
  • "Riches are not from an abundance of worldly goods, but from a contented mind."
  • "He who wishes to enter the paradise at the best door must please his mother and father."[2]
  • "No man is a true believer unless he desires for his brother that he desires for himself."[3]
  • "When the bier of anyone passes by you, whether Jew, Christian, or Muslim, rise to your feet."[4]
  • "The thing which is lawful but is disliked by God is divorce."[5]
  • "Women are twin-halves of men."[6]
  • "Actions will be judged according to intentions.”[7]
  • "That which is lawful is clear and that which is unlawful likewise, but there are certain doubtful things between the two from which it is well to abstain."[8]
  • "The proof of a Muslim's sincerity is that he pays no attention to that which is not his business."
  • "That person is nearest to God, who pardons…him who would have injured him."[9]
  • "…yield obedience to my successor, although he may be an Abyssinian slave."[10]
  • "Admonish your wives with kindness."
  • "One hour's meditation on the work of the Creator is better than seventy years of prayer."
  • "God saith: '...whoso seeketh to approach Me one span, I seek to approach one cubit; and whoso seeketh to approach Me one cubit, I seek to approach two fathoms; and whoso walketh towards Me, I run towards him!'"

Here is a list of famous Muslim reports: // Hadith of the pond of Khumm — Shia and Sunni Mutawatir Hadith of the two weighty things — Shia and Sunni Mutawatir Hadith of Persians and belief — Shia and Sunni Sahih Hadith of the Twelve Successors — Shia and Sunni Sahih... A bier from Grendon church A bier is a flat frame, traditionally wooden but sometimes made of other materials, used to carry a corpse for burial in a funeral procession. ...

Views

Currently there is little communication between the world of Muslim hadith scholarship and Western academia. Muslim scholars reject the Westerners as Orientalists who are hostile to religion in general and Islam in particular. Western academics tend to dismiss Muslim scholars as irrelevant, bound as they are to a millennia-old technique of hadith evaluations which modern scholarship regards as out-dated. For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ...


However, some Muslim scholars have undergone Western academic training and attempted to mediate between the traditional Muslim and the secular Western view. Notable among these was Fazlur Rahman (1919-1988) who argued that while the chain of transmission of the hadith may often be spurious, the content, the matn, can still be used to understand how Islam can be lived in the modern world. Liberal movements within Islam tend to agree with Rahman's views to varying degrees. Fazlur Rahman Malik (Urdu: فضل الرحمان ملک) (September 21, 1919 – July 26, 1988) was a well-known scholar of Islam; M. Yahya Birt of the Association of Islam Researchers described him as probably the most learned of the major Muslim thinkers in the second-half of the twentieth century, in terms of both... Matn (literally body, text [1]) is a Islamic term that is used in relation to Hadith evaluation. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Muslim view

Muslims who accept hadith believe that trusted hadith are in most cases the words of Muhammad and not the word of God, like the Qur'an. Hadith Qudsi forms a partial exception; these (few) hadith are said to recount divine revelations given to Muhammad but not included in the Qur'an. However, the words (as opposed to the substance) are believed to Muhammad's own, and not divinely inspired. Hadith Qudsi (or Sacred Hadith) are a sub-category of hadith, which are sayings of Muhammad. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


While both hadith and Qur'an have been translated, most Muslims believe that translations of the Qur'an are inherently deficient, amounting to little more than a commentary upon the text. There is no such belief regarding hadith. Practicing Muslims cleanse themselves (wudu) before reading or reciting the Qur'an; there is no such requirement for reading or reciting the hadith. Even for Muslims who accept the hadith, they are lower in rank when compared to the Qur'an. This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ...


Sunni view

The Sunni canon of hadith took its final form more than 230 years after the death of Muhammad (632 CE). Later scholars may have debated the authenticity of particular hadith but the authority of the canon as a whole was not questioned. This canon, called the Six major Hadith collections, includes: The Six major Hadith collections are the works of some individuals Islamic scholars who by their own initiative started collecting sayings that people attributed to Muhammad approximately 200 years after his death. ...

name Collector Size
Sahih Bukhari Imam Bukhari (d. 870) 7275 hadiths
Sahih Muslim Muslim b. al-Hajjaj (d. 875) included 9200
Sunan Abi Da'ud Abu Da'ud (d. 888)
Sunan al-Tirmidhi al-Tirmidhi (d. 892)
Sunan al-Sughra al-Nasa'i (d. 915)
Sunan Ibn Maja Ibn Maja (d. 886)

Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim are usually considered the most reliable of these collections. There is some debate over whether the sixth member of this canon should be Ibn Maja or the Muwatta of Imam Malik, which is the earliest hadith canon but predates much of the methodology developed by the classic hadith scholars. The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Muhammad Ibn Ismail Ibn Ibrahim Ibn al-Mughirah Ibn Bardizbah al-Bukhari محمد بن اسماعيل بن ابراهيم بن المغيرة بن بردز&#1576... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, á¹£aḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Abul Husayn Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj Qushayri al-Nisaburi (Arabic: أبو الحسين مسلم بن الحجاج القشيري النيسابوري) (born 204 A.H. - 261 (or 268?) A.H/ 875), Muslim Author of the second most widely recognized collection of Hadith in Sunni Islam. ... Sunan Abi Daud is the one of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Abu Daud. ... Abu Daud or Abu Dawod, full name Abu Daud Sulayman ibn Ash`ath al-Azadi al-Sijistani, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote the third of the six canonical hadith collections recognized by Sunni Muslims, Sunan Abi Daud. ... Sunan al-Tirmidhi is one of the six most authentic canonical hadith collections of the Sunnis, collected by al-Tirmidhi. ... Al-Tirmidhi, full name Abu Isa Muhammad ibn Isa ibn Musa ibn al-Dahhak al-Sulami al-Tirmidhi (824-892, ie 209 AH - 13 Rajab 279 AH) was a medieval collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), who wrote the Sunan al-Tirmidhi, one of the six canonical hadith compilations used... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Al-Nasāī, full name Aḥmad ibn Shu`ayb ibn Alī ibn Sīnān Abū `Abd ar-Raḥmān al-Nasāī, was a noted collector of hadith (sayings of Muhammad), and wrote one of the six canonical... Sunan Ibn Maja is the last compiled of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Ibn Maja. ... Ibn Maja, full name Abu `Abdallah Muhammad ibn Yazid Ibn Maja al-Rab`i al-Qazwini, was a medieval scholar of hadith (the sayings of Muhammad). ... Malik ibn Anas ibn Malik ibn Amr (714 - 796) was one of the most highly respected scholars of fiqh in the Sunni sect of Islam. ...


While there are still many traditional Muslims who rely on the ulema and its long tradition of hadith collection and criticism, other contemporary Sunni Muslims are willing to reconsider tradition. Liberal Muslims are most apt to trust the individual conscience, but there are also Salafis who demand the same freedom. The Salafis claim that the ordinary believer can trust his or her own judgment (even if he or she is not trained in Islamic scholarship) if he or she relies on Bukhari and Muslim, the commentators deemed to be most correct (sahih), and ignores the weak hadith. Ulema (, transliteration: , singular: , transliteration: , scholar) (The people of Islamic Knowledge) refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. ... This article is on the beliefs of the followers of the Salaf. ...


Shi'a view

Shi'a Muslims trust traditions transmitted by Muhammad's descendants through Fatima Zahra. There are various sects within Shi'a Islam and within each sect, various traditions of scholarship. Each sect, and each scholar, may differ as to the hadith to be accepted as reliable and those to be rejected. Shī‘a Islam, also Shi‘ite Islam, or Shi‘ism (Arabic ) is the second largest denomination of the Islamic faith. ... This article is about Muhammads daughter. ...


Four prominent Shi'a hadith collections are:

  • Usul al-Kafi
  • Al-Istibsaar
  • Al-Tahdheeb
  • Mun La YahDuruHu al-Faqeeh

It should be noted that Shi'a scholars do not believe that everything in the four major books are sahih. Every hadith must be individually examined through the process of ilm-ul-hadith. Any hadith that conflicts with the Quran is immediately thrown out. The purpose for the existence of such hadith in Shi'a books is to be used as examples of unusable zaif (weak) hadith.[8] Usul al-Kafi (literally, Sufficing fundamentals) is one of the most authoritative Shia hadith collections, collected by Muhammad Yaqub Kulainy. ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ...


Ibadi view

Ibadi Islam (found mainly in the Arabian kingdom of Oman) accepts many Sunni hadith, while rejecting others, and accepts some hadith not accepted by Sunnis. Ibadi jurisprudence is based only on the hadith accepted by Ibadis, which are far less numerous than those accepted by Sunnis. Several of Ibadism's founding figures - in particular Jabir ibn Zayd - were noted for their hadith research, and Jabir ibn Zayd is accepted as a reliable narrator by Sunni scholars as well as Ibadi ones. Al-Ibāḍiyyah (Arabic الاباضية) is a form of Islam distinct from the Shiite and Sunni denominations. ...


The principal hadith collection accepted by Ibadis is al-Jami'i al-Sahih, also called Musnad al-Rabi ibn Habib, as rearranged by Abu Ya'qub Yusuf b. Ibrahim al-Warijlani. A large proportion of its narrations are via Jabir ibn Zaid or Abu Yaqub; most are reported by Sunnis, while several are not. The total number of hadith it contains is 1005, and an Ibadi tradition recounted by al-Rabi has it that there are only 4000 authentic prophetic hadith. The rules used for determining the reliability of a hadith are given by Abu Ya'qub al-Warijlani, and are largely similar to those used by Sunnis; they criticise some of the companions (sahaba), believing that some were corrupted after the reign of the first two caliphs. The Ibadi jurists accept hadith narrating the words of Muhammad's companions as a third basis for legal rulings, alongside the Qur'an and hadith relating Muhammad's words. In Islam, the Ṣaḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ...


Non-Muslim view

Early Western exploration of Islam consisted primarily of translation of the Qur'an and a few histories, often supplemented with disparaging commentary. In the nineteenth century, scholars made greater attempts at impartiality, and translated and commented upon a greater variety of texts. By the beginning of the twentieth century, Western scholars of Islam started to critically engage with the Islamic texts, subjecting them to the same agnostic, searching scrutiny that had previously been applied to Christian texts (see higher criticism). Ignaz Goldziher is the best known of these turn-of-the-century iconoclasts, who also included D. S. Margoliuth, Henri Lammens, and Leone Caetani. Goldziher writes, in his Muslim Studies: Higher criticism, also known as historical criticism, is a branch of literary analysis that attempts to investigate the origins of a text, especially the text of the Bible. ... Ignaz Goldziher (June 22, 1850 - 1921), was a Jewish Hungarian orientalist and is widely considered among the founders of modern Islamic studies in Europe. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... David Samuel Margoliouth (October 17, 1858 - March 22, 1940) was the UK orientalist. ... Henri Lammens (1862-1937) was a prominent Belgian-born Jesuit and Orientalist. ... Leone Caetani (September 12, 1869 - December 25, 1935) was an Italian. ...

... it is not surprising that, among the hotly debated controversial issues of Islam, whether political or doctrinal, there is not one in which the champions of the various views are unable to cite a number of traditions, all equipped with imposing isnads

The next generations of Western scholars were also sceptics, on the whole: Joseph Schacht, in his Origins of Muhammadan Jurisprudence (1959), argued that isnads going back to Muhammad were in fact more likely to be spurious than isnads going back to the companions. John Wansbrough, in the 1970s, and his students Patricia Crone and Michael Cook were even more sweeping in their dismissal of Muslim tradition, arguing that even the Qur'an was likely to have been collected later than claimed. Joseph Schacht (1902-1969), Schact was professor of Arabic and Islamics at Columbia University in New York. ... John Edward Wansbrough (19 February 1928, Peoria Illinois - 10 June 2002, Montaigu-de-Quercy France) was a historian of Islam who taught at SOAS in London. ... Patricia Crone, Ph. ... Michael Cook is an American historian and scholar of Islamic history. ...


Contemporary Western scholars of hadith include:

Madelung has immersed himself in the hadith literature and has made his own selection and evaluation of tradition. Having done this, he is much more willing to trust hadith than many of his contemporaries. Herbert Berg was trained at the University of Torontos Centre for Religious Studies in the late 1980s and early 1990s; he is an Associate Professor in the Department of Philosophy and Religion, at the University of North Carolina Wilmington and is Director of their Graduate Liberal Studies program. ... Fred M. Donner is an Islamic scholar, professor of Near East Studies at the University of Chicago. ... Wilferd Madelung is the Laudian Professor of Arabic at the University of Oxford. ...


Some quotes:

  • Wilferd Madelung[9]
work with the narrative sources, both those that have been available to historians for a long time and others which have been published recently, made it plain that their wholesale rejection as late fiction is unjustified and that with [not without] a judicious use of them, a much more reliable and accurate portrait of the period can be drawn than has been realized so far.

Harald Motzki:[10] Harald Motzki is a notable non-Muslim Islamic scholar who is well versed in the science of hadith. ...

the mere fact that ahadith and asanid were forged must not lead us to conclude that all of them are fictitious or that the genuine and the spurious cannot be distinguished with some degree of certainty.

Gregor Schoeler:[11] Gregor Schoeler is a contemporary non-Muslim Islamic scholar [1] ^ http://www. ...

The current research on the life of Muhammad is characterized by the fact that two groups of researchers stand directly opposed to one another: The one group advocates, somewhat aggressively, the conviction that all transmitted traditions, in part because of great inner contradictions, legendary forms, and so forth, are to be rejected. The other group is opposed to that view. According to these researchers, the Islamic transmission, despite all these defects, has at least a genuine core, which can be recognized using the appropriate source-critical methods. The difficulty certainly consists of finding criteria by which the genuine is to be differentiated from the spurious.

Controversy

The hadith Ahmed, Vol. 1, page 171 says: "Do not write down anything of me except the Qur'an. Whoever writes other than that should delete it." Some have interpreted this as the Hadith should never have been written. Companions used memory in the early time to transfer Hadith.


However, according to most scholars and researchers, this hadith was specific to the time when the Qur'an was still being written. The reason behind this command was to prevent any risk of confusing the Qur'an with Hadith. However, once the revelation was completed and it was certain that no more verses were going to be descended, it was permissible; and even an obligation to write down the Hadith to preserve it throughout time, because, had the memorisers of the Hadith passed away before writing it down, the Hadiths could have disappeared.


Muslims have been ordered to follow the Sunna of Muhammad because it is an order clearly stated in the Qur'an in several places such as in Surah al-Imran (3) verses 32 and 132, Surah an-Nisa' (4) verse 59, Surah al-Maidah (5) verse 92, Surah al-Anfal (8) verses 1, 20, 46, Surah an-Noor (24) verses 54, 56, Surah Muhammad (47) verse 33, etc. (IslamiCity.com)


See also

BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF ADIS DUDERIJA: Born in in Sarajevo ,Bosnia and Hercegovina ,1977. ...

References

  1. ^ Lisan al-Arab, by Ibn Manthour, vol. 2, pg. 350; Dar al-Hadith edition.
  2. ^ al-Kuliyat by Abu al-Baqa’ al-Kafawi, pg. 370; Al-Resalah Publishers. This last phrase is quoted by al-Qasimi in Qawaid al-Tahdith, pg. 61; Dar al-Nafais.
  3. ^ Qawaid al-Tahdith, pg. 61.
  4. ^ Fath al-Bari, vol. 1, pg. 193 (page number of the original Maktabah al-Salafiyah edition as appears in the Dar Taibah printing). Al-Suyuti quotes this in his Tadrib al-Rawi, vol. 1, pg. 42 (Dar al-Asimah edition).
  5. ^ Tadrib al-Rawi, vol. 1, pgs. 39-41 with abridgement; I left out the majority if not the entirety of the etymology of each term. Suyuti refers this discussion to either both Tibi and Ibn Jama’ah or one to the exception of the other; for details refer to the text.
  6. ^ Ilm al-Rijal wa Ahimiyatih, by Mualami, pg. 16, Dar al-Rayah. I substituted the word ‘sunnah’ with the word ‘hadith’ as they are synonymous in this context.
  7. ^ http://people.uncw.edu/bergh/par246/L21RHadithCriticism.htm
  8. ^ http://al-islam.org/short/alhadith/Pages/Page1.html#forged
  9. ^ The Succession to Muhammad, page xi
  10. ^ http://people.uncw.edu/bergh/par246/L21RHadithCriticism.htm
  11. ^ Gregor Schoeler, Berg (2003), p. 21

The Succession to Muhammad is a book written by Wilferd Madelung and released by the Cambridge University Press in 1997. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Pro-hadith

Hadith collections

Supporting hadith study

  • Hadeeth Articles
  • Authentic Hadith
  • Examples of First Century Hadith Collections
  • The International Hadith Study Association Network (The IHSAN Network)
  • Thesaurus Islamicus Foundation (The Sunna Project)
  • Hadeeth Blog: A daily hadeeth and commentary
  • An Introduction to the Science of Hadith
  • A Comparison between Modern Historical Methodology and Hadeeth Methodology
  • The Sunnah: A Source of Civilization By Prof. Yusuf Al-Qaradawi
  • Shi'a Perspective on Hadith: Outlines of the Development of the Science of Hadith
  • Hadith Sciences Virtual University

Critical of hadith study

  • - The status of hadith ForPeopleWhoThink.org website under the theologian and specialist in classical Islamic law - "Allama Dr. Abu Yusuf Khaleel Al-Corentini" pseudonyms "Mohamad K. Yusuff" and Khaleel Mohammed
  • Editorial - The Sunnah ForPeopleWhoThink.org website under the theologian and specialist in classical Islamic law - "Allama Dr. Abu Yusuf Khaleel Al-Corentini" pseudonyms "Mohamad K. Yusuff" and Khaleel Mohammed
  • The Authority of Al Qur'an
  • The Hadith Conspiracy & the Distortion of Islam - Critical Views
  • Skeptical views of hadith
  • Aboutquran.com / Mutazila.com(This page cites work of Muslim scholars, who are commonly labeled as Modernist, Rationalist, Quran-alone, Reformist, Anti-Hadith, or Mutazila.)
  • Hadith - critical views
  • Understanding Islam Through Hadis: Religious faith or Fanaticism? by Sri Ram Swarup
  • Sunnata Allahi 'Allah's Sunnah'
  • Hadith Criticism - Lecture at MIT by Prof. Johnathan Brown'
  • [11]Hadees-e-Nabawi; The Truth behind its Variations and Controversies.

An Allamah (Persian: علامه), also spelled Allameh and Allama, is an honorary title carried by only the very highest scholars of Islamic thought, jurisprudence, and philosophy. ... East Berbice-Corentyne (Region 6) is one of ten regions in Guyana covering the whole of the east of the country. ... A pseudonym or allonym is a name (sometimes legally adopted, sometimes purely fictitious) used by an individual as an alternative to their birth name. ... Khaleel Mohammed is a professor of Religion at San Diego State University, and a core faculty member of the universitys Center for Islamic and Arabic Studies. ...

Hadith study - General

  • Islamic Law and the use and abuse of Hadith by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq
  • Sahih as 'Rigorously authenticated' and Hasan as 'Authenticated': Unwarranted translations and creating misperceptions by Dr. Mohammad Omar Farooq
  • [12]

Other

  • A Large Collection Of*[http://www.fonsvitae.com/prophetic.html Books on Hadith Studies - Fons Vitae
  • Sunnah and hadith Texts - very good article and book collection- authentic knowledge according to Ahl-us-Sunnah Wal jamah
  • A collection of hadith related literature
  • Islam-fact - Hadith, Hadith reference.

For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Aqidah (sometimes spelled as Aqeeda, Aqida or Aqeedah) (Arabic: عقيدة) is an Islamic term meaning creed. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Islam reveres the One and Only God, known as Allah (الله) in Arabic. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... Prophets of Islam are male human beings who are regarded by Muslims to be prophets chosen by God. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Five Pillars of Islam (Arabic: أركان الإسلام) is the term given to the five duties incumbent on every Muslim. ... White flag featuring the Shahada text as used by the Taliban. ... Salat redirects here. ... Sawm (Arabic: صوم) is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic economical jurisprudence. ... A supplicating pilgrim at Masjid Al Haram, the mosque which was built around the Kaaba (the cubical building at center). ... Muslim history began in Arabia with Muhammads first recitations of the Quran in the 7th century. ... Islamic religious leaders have traditionally been persons who, as part of the clerisy, mosque, or government, performed a prominent role within their community or nation. ... There is much more to Muslim history than military and political history; this particular chronology is almost entirely of military and political history. ... Ahl al-Bayt (Arabic: ) is a phrase meaning People of the House, or family. ... In Islam, the SÌ£aḥābah (Arabic: ‎ companions) were the companions of Muhammad. ... The Rightly Guided Caliphs or The Righteous Caliphs ( transliteration: ) is a term used in Sunni Islam to refer to the first four Caliphs. ... This article is about the Shia concept, for the more general Islamic term, see Imam. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... The religion of Islam has many divisions, sects, schools, traditions, and related faiths. ... Sunni Muslims are the largest denomination of Islam. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ... 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This article is about the attitudes of Islam regarding animals. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... This article discusses childrens rights given by Islam, childrens duties towards their parents, parents treatment of their children, both males and females, biological and foster children, also discussed are some of the differences regarding rights with respect to different schools of thoughts. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... Muslim holidays generally celebrate the events of the life of Islams main prophet, Muhammad, especially the events surrounding the first hearing of the Kuran. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Islam as a political movement has a diverse character that has at different times incorporated elements of many other political movements, while simultaneously adapting the religious views of Islamic fundamentalism, particularly the view of Islam as a political religion. ... In the history of science, Islamic science refers to the science developed under the Islamic civilisation between the 8th and 15th centuries (the Islamic Golden Age). ... The complex relationship between women and Islam is defined by both Islamic texts and the history and culture of the Muslim world. ... This article lists various controversies related to Islam and Muslims. ... Criticism of Islam has existed since Islams formative stages on philosophical, scientific, ethical, political and theological grounds. ... This is a sub-article to Criticism of Islam. ... Muslims believe that the Quran is the literal word of God (Allah) as recited to Muhammad through the Angel Gabriel. ... This is a sub-article to Quran and Islamic view of miracles. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Apostasy in Islam (Arabic: ارتداد, irtidād or ridda) is commonly defined as the rejection of Islam in word or deed by a person who has been a Muslim. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and antisemitism. ... The extent to which domestic violence is sanctioned or opposed by Islam is a matter of debate. ... This article is about political For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... This box:      Islamophobia is a criticized[1][2] though increasingly accepted[3][4] term that refers to prejudice or discrimination against Islam or Muslims. ... This article contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Conflicts between Muslims and non-Muslims made the persecution of both Muslims and non-Muslims a recurring phenomenon during the history of Islam. ... Qutbism (also Kotebism, Qutbiyya, or Qutbiyyah) is the radical strain of Islamic ideology and activism, based on the thought and writings of Sayyid Qutb, a celebrated Islamist and former leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed in 1966. ... This article is about Islamic religious law. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This is a sub-article of fiqh and Law and economics. ... Islamic banking refers to a system of banking or banking activity that is consistent with Islamic law (Sharia) principles and guided by Islamic economics. ... Riba is the (Arabic: ربا ) term for intrest, the charging of which is forbidden by the Quran here, among other places: And that which you give in gift (loan) (to others), in order that it may increase (your wealth by expecting to get a better one in return) from other... Murabaha is defined as a particular kind of sale, compliant with shariah, where the seller expressly mentions the cost he has incurred on the commodities to be sold and sells it to another person by adding some profit or mark-up thereon which is known to the buyer. ... Takaful - Islamic Insurance ==]] “The basic fundamentals underlying the Takaful concept are very similar to cooperative and mutual principles, to the extent that the cooperative and mutual model is one that is accepted under Islamic Law. ... Sukuk is the Arabic name for a financial certificate but can be seen as an Islamic equivalent of bond. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic economical jurisprudence and inheritance. ... Islamic politics is the profession of Muslim politicians. ... Islamic leadership is what a Muslim leader is supposed to show, in order to lead in accordance to Islamic principles. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Marriage. ... When a couple decides to marry, they draw up a Marriage contract. ... A dowry is a gift of money or valuables given by the brides family to that of the groom to permit their marriage. ... Nikah or nikkah (Arabic: النكاح ), is the contract between a bride and bridegroom and part of an Islamic marriage, a strong covenant (mithaqun Ghalithun) as expressed in Quran 4:21). ... NikāhÌ£u’l-Mut‘ah, Nikah el Muta (Arabic: , also Nikah Mut‘ah literally, marriage[1] for pleasure[2]), or sigheh, is a fixed-time marriage which, according to the Usuli Shia schools of Shari‘a (Islamic law), is a marriage with a preset duration, after which the... Sexuality in Islam is largely described by the Quran, Islamic tradition, and religious leaders both past and present as being confined to marital relationships between men and women. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Istimna (استمناء) is the Arabic term for masturbation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Islamic criminal jurisprudence is the Islamic criminal law. ... This article is about dhimmi in the context of Islamic law. ... In states ruled by Islamic law, jizya or jizyah (Arabic: جزْية; Ottoman Turkish cizye) is a per capita tax imposed on able bodied non-Muslim men of military age. ... Zina (Arabic: الزناء) is extramarital sex in Islam. ... Hudud ( Arabic , also transliterated hadud, hudood; plural for hadd, , limit, or restriction) is the word often used in Islamic social and legal literature for the bounds of acceptable behaviour and the punishments for serious crimes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and etiquette. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic jurisprudence and Sex segregation Islam discourages social interaction between men and women when they are alone but not all interaction between men and women. ... In Islamic sharia legal terminology, a mahram (Arabic محرم, also transcribed mahrim or maharem) is an unmarriageable kin with whom sexual intercourse would be considered incestuous, a punishable taboo. ... Many muslims when praying their daily prayers have to say the The Salat Ibrahimiya goes like this This translates to Oh God exalt Mohammad and his progeny as you have exalted Ibrahim and his progeny in these worlds as You are All Praiseworthy All Glorious. ... Islamic theological jurisprudence is the filed of Islamic jurisprudence specialized in theological issues. ... In Islamic legal terminology, Baligh or Bulugh refers to a person who has reached maturity or puberty and has full responsibility under Islamic law. ... This is a sub-article to fiqh and Hygiene Hygiene in Islam is a prominent topic but one which non-Muslims are not very familiar with. ... This is a sub-article to Islamic hygienical jurisprudence and cleanliness. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... Ghusl (غسل) is an Arabic term referring to the full Ablution in Islam. ... This article is about Hygiene in Islam. ... The miswak (miswaak, siwak) is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica tree. ... This is a sub-article to Hygiene in Islam, Healthy diet and Food and cooking hygiene. ... DhabiÄ¥a (ذَبِيْحَة, dhabiha, zabiha) is the prescribed method of slaughtering all animals excluding fish and most sea-life as per Islam. ... In Islam, Alcohol is forbiden to drink, but is allowed to be used for medical and other purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Haraam. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The rules and regulations concerning prisoners of war in Islam are covered in manuals of Islamic jurisprudence, based upon Islamic teachings, in both the Quran and hadith. ... Islamic Studies is the academic discipline which focuses on Islamic issues. ... The historiography of early Islam is the study of how various historians have treated the events of the first two centuries of Islamic history. ... Islamic philosophy (الفلسفة الإسلامية) is a branch of Islamic studies, and is a longstanding attempt to create harmony between philosophy (reason) and the religious teachings of Islam (faith). ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... There are many new trends in Islamic Philosophy and meanwhile some traditional schools are still very alive and active. ... Islamization of knowledge is a term which describes a variety of attempts and approaches to synthesize the ethics of Islam with various fields of modern thought. ... Islamic eschatology is concerned with the Qiyamah (end of the world; Last Judgement) and the final judgement of humanity. ... Theology is reasoned discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, word or reason). It can also refer to the study of other religious topics. ... This article is about the relationship between Islam and science. ... Islamic mathematics is the profession of Muslim Mathematicians. ... Umar Naeem SUCKS. In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine or Arabic medicine refers to medicine developed in the medieval Islamic civilisation. ... Main articles: Islamic science and astrology Islamic astrology, in Arabic ilm al-nujum or ilm al-falak is the study of the heavens by early Muslims. ... This is a sub-article of Islamic science and astronomy. ... A significant number of inventions were produced in the Muslim world, many of them with direct implications for Fiqh related issues. ... Islamic pottery era started around 622. ... Islamic creationism is the belief that the universe (including humanity) was directly created by God as explained in the Quran or Genesis. ... The stylized signature (tughra) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire was written in an expressive calligraphy. ... Islamic music is Muslim religious music, as sung or played in public services or private devotions. ... Islamic poetry is poetry written by Muslims on the topic of Islam. ... Islamic literature is a field that includes the study of modern and classical Arabic and the litarature written in those languages. ... Hagia Sophia, an Eastern Orthodox church converted into a mosque on the day of the Fall of Constantinople Conversion of non-Muslim houses of worship into mosques began during the life of Muhammad and continued during subsequent Islamic conquests and under the Muslim rule. ... Islamic sociology is a discipline of Islamic studies. ... Early Muslim sociology responded to the challenges of social organization of diverse peoples all under common religious organization in the Islamic caliphate, the Abbasid and later Mamluk period in Egypt. ... It has been suggested that Shuubiya be merged into this article or section. ... The interior of the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne. ... Kalam (علم الكلم)is one of the religious sciences of Islam. ...


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Hadith - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3113 words)
Hadith (Arabic: الحديث‎ translit: al-ḥadīth) are traditions relating to the words and deeds of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Hadith collections are regarded as important tools for determining the Sunnah, or Muslim way of life, by all traditional schools of jurisprudence.
Hadith Qudsi form a partial exception; these (few) hadith are said to be recount divine revelations given to Muhammad but not included in the Qur'an.
USC-MSA Compendium of Muslim Texts (379 words)
Thus hadith literature means the literature which consists of the narrations of the life of the Prophet and the things approved by him.
The explosion of Islam in the 7th and 8th centuries confronted Islamic scholars with a daunting task: to preserve the knowledge of the Sunnah of the Prophet (saas).
Hence the science of hadith evaluation was born.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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