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Encyclopedia > Hadhramaut
Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley
Region close to Sayun in the Hadhramaut Valley
An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut
An ancient sculpture of a griffon from the royal palace at shabwa, the capital city of Hadhramaut

Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: حضرموت‎ [Ḥaḍramawt]) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards from Yemen (proper) to the Dhofar region of Oman. The name of the region is currently retained in the smaller Hadhramaut Governorate of the Republic of Yemen. The people of Hadhramaut are called Hadhramis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1228x1818, 1753 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1228x1818, 1753 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Griffon_hadhramaut. ... Image File history File links Griffon_hadhramaut. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula (in Arabic: شبه الجزيرة العربية, or جزيرة العرب) is a peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia consisting mainly of desert. ... The Gulf of Aden is located in the Indian Ocean between Yemen on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula and Somaliland in Africa. ... Map of the Arabian Sea. ... The Dhofar (Arabic ظفار Ẓufār) region lies in Oman, east of Yemen. ... Hadhramaut or Hadramawt (Arabic: []) is a governorate of Yemen lying within the large historical region of Hadhramaut. ...


Narrowly, Hadhramaut refers to the historical Qu'aiti and Kathiri sultanates, which were British protectorates in the Aden Protectorate overseen by the British Resident at Aden until their abolition upon the independence of South Yemen in 1967. The current governorate of Hadhramaut roughly incorporates the former territory of the two sultanates. It consists of a narrow, arid coastal plain bounded by the steep escarpment of a broad plateau (averaging 1,370 m [4,500 feet]), with a very sparse network of deeply sunk wadis (seasonal watercourses). The undefined northern edge of Hadhramaut slopes down to the desert Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia. Quaiti (Arabic: قعيطي), officially the Quaiti State in Hadhramaut or the Quaiti State of Shihr and Mukalla (Arabic: سلطنة القعيطي في الشحر Ùˆ المكلا), was a sultanate in the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now Yemen. ... A postage stamp of 1942 depicts the sultan and the capital city. ... The Sultan in Disneys Aladdin A Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Aden Protectorate (Arabic: عدن حماية []) (ca. ... A British Resident or British Resident Minister was a British colonial official who lived and worked in smaller self-governing colonies or protectorates as a political advisor to the leader and as an ambassador of the British Government. ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... National motto: ??? Official language Arabic Capital Aden Area 287,680 km² Population  - Total (1973)  - Density 1,590,275 5. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... In geography, a coastal plain is an area of flat, low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ... Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country. ... A wadi is a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain. ... Location of the empty quarter in Arabia Sand dunes in the Empty Quarter The Empty Quarter (Arabic: Rub al Khali الربع الخالي), is one of the largest sand deserts in the world, encompassing the southern third of the Arabian Peninsula, including southern Saudi Arabia, and areas of Oman, the United Arab Emirates...


In a wider sense, Hadhramaut includes the territory of Mahra to the east all the way to the contemporary border with Oman. This encompasses the current governorates of Hadramaut and Mahra in their entirety as well as parts of the Shabwah Governorate. Al Mahrah or Mahra (Arabic: ‎) is a governorate (muhafazah) of Yemen in the southern Arabian Peninsula in the area of the former Mahra Sultanate. ... Shabwah (Arabic: شبوة) is a governorate of Yemen. ...


The Hadhramis live in densely-built towns centered on traditional watering stations along the wadis. Hadhramis harvest crops of wheat, millet, tend date palm and coconut groves, and grow some coffee. On the plateau Bedouins tend sheep and goats. Society is still highly tribal, with the old Seyyid aristocracy, only respected among themsleves, descended from Muhammad, traditionally educated and strict in their Islamic observance, highly respected in religious and secular affairs. Hadhramaut emigration on a large scale since the early 19th century has established large Hadhrami minorities in South and South East Asia, namely Hyderabad, Java, Sumatra, Malacca and Singapore, for example, former Timor Leste primer minister Marí Alkatiri is of Hadhrami descendant. Species T. boeoticum T. compactum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp. ... Pearl millet in the field Ripe head of proso millet For other uses, see Millet (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Phoenix dactylifera L. The Date Palm Phoenix dactylifera is a palm, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... Binomial name Cocos nucifera L. The Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the Family Arecaceae (palm family). ... A cup of coffee // Coffee is a popular beverage prepared from the roasted seeds – commonly referred to as beans – of the coffee plant. ... A Bedouin man resting on a hillside at Mount Sinai Bedouin, derived from the Arabic (), a generic name for a desert-dweller, is a term generally applied to Arab nomadic pastoralist groups, who are found throughout most of the desert belt extending from the Atlantic coast of the Sahara via... -1... Muhammad (Arabic ; also Mohammed, Mohamet, and other variants[1] [2] [3]), 570-632 C.E.,[4] [5] was an Arab religious and political leader who established Islam and the Muslim community (Ummah, Arabic: أمة) to whom he preached. ... For other uses, including people named Islam, see Islam (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Immigration. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hyderabad and Berar, 1903 Hyderābād was an autonomous princely state of south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam, and an Indian state from 1948 to 1956. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Sumatra (also spelled Sumatara and Sumatera) is the sixth largest island of the world (approximately 470,000 km²) and is the third largest island of Indonesia after Borneo (of which Kalimantan belongs to Indonesia) and New Guinea. ... State motto: Bersatu Teguh (Malay, United We Stand) Capital Malacca Town Governor Tun Datuk Seri Utama Mohd Khalil Yaakob Chief Minister Datuk Seri Haji Mohd Ali Mohd Rustam Area 1,650 km² Population  - Estimated 648,500 State anthem Melaka Maju Jaya This article is about a state in Malaysia. ... The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor, is an island nation in Southeast Asia, consisting of the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecussi-Ambeno, a political exclave of East Timor situated on the western side of... Mari Bin Amude Alkatiri Marí bin Amude Alkatiri (born 26 November 1949) is the first Prime Minister of an internationally recognized East Timor. ...


The original inhabitants of Hadhramaut are Yemenis with the surnames that starts with "BA" These are the among the Qahtan Original Arabs. The Sayyids are migrants from the Iraq about 400 years ago.


Though Bible dictionaries derive the name Hadhramaut from Hazarmaveth, a son of Joktan in the Book of Genesis 10:26-28, the name actually derives from Greek hydreumata or enclosed (and often fortified) 'watering stations' at wadis. A hydreuma is a manned and fortified watering hole or way station along a caravan route. Juris Zarins, rediscoverer of the city of Ubar, described that site in a Nova interview: The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ... Joktan or Yoktan (Arabic: قحطان Qahtan ) (יָקְטָן little, Standard Hebrew Yoqtan, Tiberian Hebrew Yoqṭān) was the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... Look up caravan and Caravan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Iram of the Pillars. ... Nova is a popular science television series produced by the Public Broadcasting Service. ...

'The site that we uncovered at Shisur was a kind of fortress/administration center set up to protect the water supply from raiding Bedouin tribes. Surrounding the site, as far as six miles away, were smaller villages, which served as small-scale encampments for the caravans. An interesting parallel to this are the fortified water holes in the Eastern Desert of Egypt from Roman times. There, they were called hydreumata.'

The frankincense trees that supplied the Incense Road grew to the east of Hadhramaut, in Dhofar. The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... 100g of frankincense resin. ... The Incense Road or Incense Route connected Egypt with Arabia and the Indies. ...


Modern history of the Wadi Hadhramaut

The Qu'aiti sultans ruled most of Hadramaut, under a loose British protectorate, the Aden Protectorate, from 1882 to 1967, when the Hadhramaut was annexed by South Yemen. Aden Protectorate (Arabic: عدن حماية []) (ca. ...


The Qu'aiti dynasty was founded by 'Umar bin Awadh al-Qu’aiti, a Yafa’i tribesman from Southern Arabia, whose wealth and influence as hereditary Jemadar of the Nizam of Hyderabad’s armed forces enabled him to establish the Qu’aiti dynasty in the latter half of the 19th century, winning British recognition of his paramount status in the region, in 1882. The British Government and the traditional and scholarly sultan Ali bin Salah signed a treaty in 1937 appointing the British government as "advisors" in Hadhramaut. The British exiled him to Aden in 1945, but the Protectorate lasted until 1967. Jemadar was a rank used in the British Indian Army, where it was the was the lowest rank for a Viceroys Commissioned Officer (VCO). ... Nizam-ul-Mulk was the title of the ruler of Hyderabad state from 1724 to 1949. ... Hyderabad and Berar, 1903 Hyderābād was an autonomous princely state of south-central India from 1724 until 1948, ruled by a hereditary Nizam, and an Indian state from 1948 to 1956. ...


In 1967, the former British Colony of Aden and the former Aden Protectorate including Hadramaut became an independent Communist state, the People's Republic of South Yemen, later the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. South Yemen along with Hadramaut was united with North Yemen in 1990 as the Republic of Yemen. See Yemen for recent history. 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Port of Aden (around 1910). ... Aden Protectorate (Arabic: عدن حماية []) (ca. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... North Yemen is a term currently used to designate both the Yemen Arab Republic (1962-1990) and its predecessor, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (1918-1962), that exercised sovereignty over the territory that is now the northern part of the state of Yemen in southern Arabia. ... This article is about the year. ...


The capital and largest city of Hadhramaut is the port Al Mukalla. The population of Yemen is crowding into its Hadramaut cities: Al Mukalla had a 1994 population of 122,400 and a 2003 population of 174,700, while the port city of ash-Shahir has grown from 48,600 to 69,400 in the same time. Al Mukalla is a city in the southern part of Yemen on the Gulf of Aden 480 km (300 mi) east of Aden. ...


See also

Hadhramaut or Hadramawt (Arabic: []) is a governorate of Yemen lying within the large historical region of Hadhramaut. ... History of Yemen. ... Tarim (Arabic: ‎) is a historic town in the Hadhramaut Valley of Yemen. ... Most Arab Singaporeans have came in the past from Hadhramaut region in Yemen and are Muslim. ...

External links

  • UN map of Yemen showing Hadhramaut (.pdf file)
  • Nova special on Ubar illustating a hydreuma.
  • Hadhramout Network (شبكة حضرموت).
  • Hadhramaut Official Governate website (موقع محافظة حضرموت ).
  • Book review of a biography of Qu'aiti sultan Alin din Salah.
  • Hadhrami migration in the 19th and 20th centuries
  • Article: The Linguistics of Loanwords in Hadrami Arabic [1]
  • The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility across the Indian Ocean, by Engseng Ho, a professor at Harvard. California World History series. A 500-year history of Hadramawt's diaspora, the most comprehensive account to date. Beautiful photos.
  • Book: Hadhrami Traders, Scholars and Statesmen in the Indian Ocean, 1750s-1960s Edited by Ulrike Freitag and William G. Clarence-Smith [2]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hadhramaut: Information from Answers.com (946 words)
On the plateau the Bedouins raise sheep and goats.
Hadhramaut, Hadhramout or Hadramawt (Arabic: حضرموت‎ [Ḥaḍramawt]) is a historical region of the south Arabian Peninsula along the Gulf of Aden in the Arabian Sea, extending eastwards from Yemen (proper) to the Dhofar region of Oman.
Hadhramaut emigration on a large scale since the early 19th century has established large Hadhrami minorities in South and South East Asia, namely Hyderabad, Java, Sumatra, Malacca and Singapore, for example, former Timor Leste primer minister Marí Alkatiri is of Hadhrami descendant.
History of Yemen - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (3475 words)
The Aden hinterland and Hadhramaut to the east formed the remainder of what would become South Yemen and was not administered directly by Aden but were tied to Britain by treaties of protection.
The eastern protectorate consisted of the three Hadhramaut states (Qu'aiti State of Shihr and Mukalla, Kathiri State of Seiyun, Mahra State of Qishn and Socotra) with the remaining states comprising the west.
Economic development was largely centred in Aden, and while the city flourished partly due to the discovery of crude oil on the Arabian Peninsula in the 1930s, the states of the Aden Protectorate stagnated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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