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Encyclopedia > Hacienda

Hacienda is a Spanish word describing a vast ranch, common in the Pampa. A Ranch is an area of land, including buildings and structures, given primarily to the grazing of livestock on rangeland. ... This article is about the lowland plains in South America. ...

The grand rural estates of the Pampa, dedicated to cattle (Central Argentina, Uruguay, southern-most Brazil) were called Estancia, though. The spanish term Estancia indicating a stationary form of lifestock operation, as opposed to the predesessing archaic, nomadic way of catching the cattle which roamed free in the plains.

Uruguay, Departamento Florida, traditionel Estancia
Uruguay, Departamento Florida, traditionel Estancia

The hacienda system of Argentina, parts of Brazil, Mexico and New Granada was a system of large land-holdings that were an end in themselves as the marks of status, which produced little for export beyond the hacienda itself, which aimed for self-sufficiency in everything but luxuries meant for display, which were destined for the handful of people in the circle of the patrón. Image File history File links Estanciauruguay. ... Image File history File links Estanciauruguay. ... New Granada was the name given to a group of colonial provinces in northern South America, corresponding mainly to modern Colombia. ...

Haciendas originated in land grants, mostly made to minor nobles, as the grandees of Spain were not motivated to leave, and the bourgeoisie had little access to royal dispensation. In Mexico, the hacienda system can be considered to have its origin in 1529, when the Spanish crown granted to Hernán Cortés, the title of Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca, which entailed a tract of land that included all of the present state of Morelos. Significantly, the grant included all the Indians then living on the land, and power of life and death over every soul on his domains. There was no court of appeals governing a hacienda. The unusually large and profitable Jesuit hacienda Santa Lucia near Mexico, established in 1576 and lasting to the expulsion in 1767, has been reconstructed by Herman W. Konrad (1980), from archival sources, revealing the nature and operation of the hacienda system in Mexico, its slaves, its systems of land tenure, the workings of its isolated, complete, interdependent society. A land grant is a gift of land made by the government for projects such as roads, railroads, or especially academic institutions. ... Spanish nobles are classified either as Grandees (also called Peers) or as Titled Nobles. ... Hernán Cortés Hernán(do) Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485–December 2, 1547) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Marquis has many different meanings: Don Marquis was a writer, poet, and journalist. ... Morelos is one of the constituent states of Mexico. ... It has been suggested that Chattel slavery be merged into this article or section. ... Land tenure is the name given, particularly in common law systems, to the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to hold the land. ...

In Mexico, the owner of a hacienda was generally called the hacendado. Aside from the small circle at the top of the hacienda society, the remainder were peons (fieldhands working on foot or mounted gauchos. The peons worked land that belonged to the patrón. The campesinos worked smallholdings, and owed a portion to the patrón. The economy of the 18th century was largely a barter system, for little specie circulated on the hacienda. The words peon and peonage are derived from the Spanish peón. ... Gauchos fight dramatization A gaucho is a South American cattle herder — the equivalent to the North American cowboy — on the pampas, chacos or Patagonian grasslands found in parts of Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern Chile and southern Brazil (spelt gaúcho in Portuguese). ...

Stock raising was central to the haciendas, which were not farms. Where the hacienda included working mines, as in Mexico, the patrón might be immensely wealthy. Mine can refer to a number of things: Mines are tunnels used in mining for extraction of resources. ...

The mestizo population on the great estates have always been and remain devoutly faithful and fatalistic followers of the Roman Catholic Church, which has used its political influence to retain the status quo. The Church, and separately its orders, especially the Jesuits, were granted vast hacienda holdings, which irrevocably linked the interests of the Church with the rest of the landholding class. Wealthy tourists now stay at Jesuit haciendas in the valley of Patate, Ecuador, or La Compañia in Pichincha; Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate the people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ...

In South America, the hacienda remained after the collapse of the colonial system in the early 19th century. In some places, such as Santo Domingo, the end of colonialism meant the fragmentation of the large plantation holdings into a myriad small subsistence farmers' holdings, an agrarian revolution. In Argentina and elsewhere, a second, international, money-based economy developed quite independent of the haciendas which sank into rural poverty.

In most of Latin America the old holdings remained. In Mexico the haciendas were abolished on paper in 1917, during the revolution, but powerful remnants of the system deeply affect Mexico today.

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  Results from FactBites:
Haciendas were created under a system established in the sixteenth century, which bestowed land to conquistadores and other Spanish notables in exchange for military and social services to the crown.
Haciendas played host to a variety of activities from baptisms, weddings, and celebrations of saints' days to fiestas, charro (cowboy) parties and contests, bullfights, and harvest festivals.
By the eighteenth century a typical hacienda was an elaborate institution.
Yucatan Hacienda Yaxcopoil - Maya Museum - Yucatan Guest House (775 words)
Hacienda Yaxcopoil was once considered one of the most important rural estates in the Yucatan due to its size and magnificence.
The hacienda's chapel holds an oil painting from the colonial period with the image of its patron saint, San Geronimo de Yaxcopoil, who is still venerated in the pueblo near the hacienda.
Hacienda Yaxcopoil also has a large machine house, or casa de maquina, where the henequen shredding machines (planta desfibradora) were used to render fibers from the henequen plant.
  More results at FactBites »



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