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Encyclopedia > Habsburg Spain

Tiepolo's The Glory of Spain
History of Spain series
Prehistoric Iberia
Roman Hispania
Medieval Spain
- Visigoths & Suevi & Byzantine Spania
- Al-Andalus
- Age of Reconquest
Kingdom of Spain
Age of Expansion
Age of Enlightenment
Reaction and Revolution
First Spanish Republic
The Restoration
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Spanish Civil War
Spain under Franco
Transition to Democracy
Modern Spain
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Economic History
Military History
Social History

During the reign of Emperor Charles V (Carlos I of Spain), who ascended the thrones of the kingdoms of Spain after the death of his grandfather Ferdinand, Habsburg Spain controlled territory ranging from Philippines to the Netherlands, and was, for a time, Europe's greatest power. For this reason, this period of Spanish history has also been referred to as the "Age of Expansion". Although usually associated with its role in the history of Central Europe, the Habsburg family extended its realm into Spain from 1516 to 1700, where the Habsburg senior line reigned for that period. Under Habsburg rule, Spain reached the zenith of its influence and power, but also began its slow decline. Download high resolution version (807x1194, 164 KB)The Glory of Spain, by Tiepolo. ... Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Alhambra-petit. ... This article describes the prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula from the appearance of the first human populations until the arrival of the Phoenicians and the first recorded contacts with other European cultures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... After the disorders of the passage of the Vandals and Alans down the Mediterranean coast of Hispania from 409, the history of Medieval Spain begins with the Iberian kingdom of the Arian Visigoths (507 – 711), who were converted to Catholicism with their king Reccared in 587. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... This article is about the European country. ... Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim conquerors; it refers to both the Caliphate proper and the general period of Muslim rule (711–1492). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Age of Enlightenment came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the accession of King Philip V, the first Spanish king of the French Bourbon dynasty. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the... Flag of the Spanish First Republic The First Spanish Republic lasted only two years, between 1873 and 1874. ... The Restoration was the name given to the period that began in December 29, 1874 after the First Spanish Republic ended with the restoration of Alfonso XII to the throne after a coup detat by Martinez Campos, and ended on April 14, 1931 with the proclamation of the Second... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President¹  - 1931 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1937-1939 Juan Negrín Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936-1939  - Surrender to Franco April 1, 1939 Currency Spanish peseta ¹ Formal... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Economic history of Spain covers the development of the Spanish economy over the course of its history. ... The military history of Spain includes the history of battles fought in the territory of modern Spain, as well as her former and current overseas possessions and territories, and the military history of the Spanish people regardless of geography. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ...


Spain's 16th century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571 (which was symbolically important to the Spanish), and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. However during the middle decades of the 17th century Habsburg Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the United Provinces and then England; that by the 1660s it was struggling grimly to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers. On land Habsburg Spain became embroiled in the vast Thirty Years' War, and in the second half of the 17th century the Spanish were defeated by the French, led by King Louis XIV. Habsburg rule came to an end in Spain with the death in 1700 of Charles II which resulted in the War of the Spanish Succession. Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588-08-08 by Philippe-Jacques de Loutherbourg, painted 1796, depicts the battle of Gravelines. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... Pirates may refer to: A group of people committing any of these activities: Piracy at sea or on a river/lake. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... Charles II of Spain. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke...


The Habsburg years were also a Spanish Golden Age of cultural efflorescence. Some of the outstanding figures of the period were Diego Velázquez, El Greco, Miguel de Cervantes, and Pedro Calderón de la Barca. The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... Spain is a mountainous country in the southwest of Europe, consisting of various geographically diverse regions and known for its culturally diverse heritage, having been influenced by many nations and peoples throughout its history. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (IPA: in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. ... Pedro Calderón de la Barca. ...

Contents

The beginnings of the empire (1504–1521)

Spain as we know it today did not come into being until the death of Charles II and with him the extinction of the Habsburg Dynasty, and the ascension of Philip V and the inauguration of the Bourbon Dynasty and its reforms. The political area referred to as Spain was, in fact, a confederacy comprised of several ancient, individual kingdoms— Catalano-Aragonese Kingdom,Castile, Leon, Galicia, Asturias, and Navarre Kingdom. The marriage of Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469 united two of the greatest of these kingdoms, which led to their largely successful campaign against the Moors, peaking at the conquest of Granada in 1492. Joanna the Mad, Queen of Castile. ... Joanna the Mad, Queen of Castile. ... Joanna of Aragon and Castile (Spanish: Juana de Aragón y de Castilla) (November 6, 1479 – April 12, 1555), called Joanna the Mad (Juana La Loca), Queen regnant of Castile and mother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was the second daughter of Ferdinand, king of Aragon, and Isabella... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ... Also see:  Early Modern France The House of Bourbon is an important European royal house. ... Isabella of Castile Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous community Andalusia Settled since 7th century BC Area  - City 88 km²  (34 sq mi) Elevation 738 m (2,421. ...


In 1504, Queen Isabella died, and although Ferdinand tried to maintain his position over Castile in the wake of her death, the Castilian Cortes Generales (the royal court of Spain) chose to crown Isabella's daughter Joanna queen. Her husband Philip was the Habsburg son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy and simultaneously became king-consort Philip I of Castile. Shortly thereafter Joanna began to lapse into insanity, though exactly how mentally ill she actually was has been the topic of some debate. In 1506, Philip assumed the regency on her behalf, but he died later that year under mysterious circumstances, possibly poisoned by his father-in-law [1]. Since their oldest son Charles was only six, the Cortes reluctantly allowed Joanna's father Ferdinand to rule the country as the regent of Joanna and Charles. Isabella of Castile Isabella I (April 22, 1451 – November 26, 1504) was Queen regnant of Castile and Leon. ... The Cortes Generales (Spanish for General Courts) is the legislature of Spain. ... A royal or noble court, as an instrument of government broader than a court of justice, comprises an extended household centered on a patron whose rule may govern law or be governed by it. ... Joanna of Aragon and Castile (Spanish: Juana de Aragón y de Castilla) (November 6, 1479 – April 12, 1555), called Joanna the Mad (Juana La Loca), Queen regnant of Castile and mother of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, was the second daughter of Ferdinand, king of Aragon, and Isabella... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... Mary of Burgundy. ... Philip the Handsome (July 22, 1478 – September 25, 1506; Spanish: ; German: ; French: ) was the son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. Through his mother Mary of Burgundy he inherited the greater part of the Burgundian state the Burgundian Netherlands and through his wife Joanna the Mad he briefly succeeded...


Spain was now united under a single ruler, Ferdinand II of Aragon. As sole monarch, Ferdinand adopted a more aggressive policy than he had as Isabella's husband, enlarging Spain's sphere of influence in Italy, strengthening it against France. As ruler of Aragon, Ferdinand had been involved in the struggle against France and Venice for control of Italy; these conflicts became the center of Ferdinand's foreign policy as king. Ferdinand's first investment of Spanish forces came in the War of the League of Cambrai against Venice, where the Spanish soldiers distinguished themselves on the field alongside their French allies at the Battle of Agnadello (1509). Only a year later, Ferdinand joined the Holy League against France, seeing a chance at taking both Naples - to which he held a dynastic claim - and Navarra, which was claimed through his marriage to Germaine de Foix. The war was less of a success than that against Venice, and in 1516, France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre. Unfortunately Ferdinand died later that year. Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venezsia, Latin: Venetia) is a city in northern Italy, the capital of region Veneto, and has a population of 271,251 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ... The War of the League of Cambrai, sometimes known as the War of the Holy League and by several other names,[1] was a major conflict in the Italian Wars. ... The Battle of Agnadello was the one of the more significant battles of the War of the League of Cambrai, and one of the major battles of the Italian Wars. ... The Catholic League (or Holy League) was a coalition of various European powers that was formed by Pope Julius II in 1511, at the height of the War of the League of Cambrai, to defend the states of Italy against Louis XII of France and thus to strengthen Papal power. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... Capital Pamplona Official language(s) Spanish and Basque Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 11th  10,391 km²  2. ...


Ferdinand's death led to the ascension of young Charles to the throne as Charles I of Castile and Aragon, effectively founding the monarchy of Spain. His Spanish inheritance included all the Spanish possessions in the New World and around the Mediterranean. Upon the death of his Habsburg father in 1506, Charles had inherited the Netherlands and Franche-Comté, growing up in Flanders. In 1519, with the death of his paternal grandfather Maximilian I, Charles inherited the Habsburg territories in Germany, and was duly elected Emperor Charles V that year. His mother remained as titular queen of Castile until her death 1555, but due to her health, Charles (titled there as king also) exercised all true power. At that point, Emperor and King Charles was the most powerful man in Christendom. Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... (Region flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Besançon Regional President Raymond Forni (PS) (since 2004) Departments Doubs Haute-Saône Jura Territoire de Belfort Arrondissements 8 Cantons 116 Communes 1,786 Statistics Land area1 16,202 km² Population (Ranked 20th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ...


The accumulation of so much power to one man and one dynasty greatly concerned the king of France, Francis I, who found himself surrounded by Habsburg territories. In 1521, Francis invaded the Spanish possessions in Italy and inaugurated a second round of Franco-Spanish conflict. The war was a disaster for France, which suffered defeats at Biccoca (1522), Pavia (1525, at which Francis was captured), and Landriano (1529) before Francis relented and abandoned Milan to Spain once more. Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Odet de Lautrec Fernando de Avalos Strength 15. ... Combatants France Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Duchy of Milan[1] Commanders Francis I of France Charles de Lannoy, Antonio de Leyva, Georg Frundsberg Strength 17,000 infantry 6,500 cavalry 53 guns 19,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 17 guns Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 500 dead or wounded...


An emperor and a king (1521–1556)

A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green.
A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547) as depicted in The Cambridge Modern History Atlas (1912); Habsburg lands are shaded green.

Charles’s victory at the Battle of Pavia, 1525, surprised many Italians and Germans and elicited concerns that Charles would endeavor to gain ever greater power. Pope Clement VII switched sides and now joined forces with France and prominent Italian states against the Habsburg Emperor, in the War of the League of Cognac. In 1527, due to Charles' inability to pay them sufficiently his armies in Northern Italy mutineed and sacked Rome itself for loot, forcing Clement, and succeeding popes, to be considerably more prudent in their dealings with secular authorities: in 1533, Clement’s refusal to annul Henry VIII of England’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon (Charles' aunt) was a direct consequence of his unwillingness to offend the emperor and have his capital perhaps sacked a second time. The Peace of Barcelona, signed between Charles and the pope in 1529, established a more cordial relationship between the two leaders that effectively named Spain as the protector of the Catholic cause and recognized Charles as king of Lombardy in return for Spanish intervention in overthrowing the rebellious Florentine Republic. Download high resolution version (1654x1029, 391 KB)A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547). ... Download high resolution version (1654x1029, 391 KB)A map of the dominion of the Habsburgs following the Battle of Mühlberg (1547). ... The Battle of Mühlberg was a large battle in which the Holy Roman Empire decisively dismantled the Schmalkaldic League. ... Combatants France Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Duchy of Milan[1] Commanders Francis I of France Charles de Lannoy, Antonio de Leyva, Georg Frundsberg Strength 17,000 infantry 6,500 cavalry 53 guns 19,000 infantry 4,000 cavalry 17 guns Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 500 dead or wounded... For the antipope (1378–1394) see antipope Clement VII and other Popes named Clement see Pope Clement. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Spain, Genoa France, Papal States, Republic of Venice, Florence, England, Duchy of Milan Commanders Charles de Bourbon â€ , Georg Frundsberg, Philibert of Châlon â€  Vicomte de Lautrec *, Francesco Ferruccio â€ , Giovanni de Medici â€ , Comte de St. ... The city of Rome has been sacked on several occasions. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Spain Florence, France, Papal States, Republic of Venice Commanders Charles de Bourbon Francesco Guicciardini The War of the League of Cognac (1526–30 was fought between the Habsburg dominions of Charles V—primarily Spain and the Holy Roman Empire—and the League of Cambrai, an alliance... Lombardy (Italian: Lombardia, Lombard: Lumbardìa) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...


In 1543, Francis I, king of France, announced his unprecedented alliance with the Ottoman sultan, Suleiman the Magnificent, by occupying the Spanish-controlled city of Nice in cooperation with Turkish forces. Henry VIII of England, who bore a greater grudge against France than he held against the Emperor for standing in the way of his divorce, joined Charles in his invasion of France. Although the Spanish army was soundly defeated at the Battle of Ceresole, in Savoy, Henry fared better, and France was forced to accept terms. The Austrians, led by Charles’s younger brother Ferdinand, continued to fight the Ottomans in the east. With France defeated, Charles went to take care of an older problem: the Schmalkaldic League. Francis I (François Ier in French) (September 12, 1494 – March 31, 1547), called the Father and Restorer of Letters (le Père et Restaurateur des Lettres), was crowned King of France in 1515 in the cathedral at Reims and reigned until 1547. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants France Holy Roman Empire, Spain Commanders Count of Enghien Alfonso dAvalos Strength ~11,000–13,000 infantry, ~1,500–1,850 cavalry, ~20 guns ~12,500–18,000 infantry, ~800–1,000 cavalry, ~20 guns Casualties ~7,500–2,000+ dead or wounded ~2,000–6,000+ dead... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... The Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league of Protestant princes in the Holy Roman Empire in the mid-16th century. ...

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor at his victory over the Protestants at the Battle of Mühlberg (1547), painted by Titian

The Protestant Reformation had begun in Germany in 1517. Charles, through his position as Holy Roman Emperor, his important holdings along Germany's frontiers, and his close relationship with his Habsburg relatives in Austria, had a vested interest in maintaining the stability of the Holy Roman Empire. The Peasants' War had broken out in Germany in 1524 and ravaged the country until it was brutally put down in 1526. Charles, even as far away from Germany as he was, was committed to keeping order. Since the Peasants' War, the Protestants had organized themselves into a defensive league to protect themselves from Emperor Charles. Under the protection of the Schmalkaldic League, the Protestant states had committed a number of outrages in the eyes of the Catholic Church— the confiscation of some ecclesiastical territories, among other things— and had defied the authority of the Emperor. Image File history File links Charles V at the Battle of Muhlberg. ... Image File history File links Charles V at the Battle of Muhlberg. ... Charles V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of the Burgundian Netherlands (1506-1555), King of Spain (1516-1556), King of Naples and Sicily (1516-1554), Archduke of Austria (1519-1521), King of the Romans (or German King), (1519-1556 but did not formally abdicate until 1558) and... The Battle of Mühlberg was a large battle in which the Holy Roman Empire decisively dismantled the Schmalkaldic League. ... Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio (c. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Peasants War map. ...


Perhaps more importantly to the strategy of the Spanish king, the League had allied itself with the French, and efforts in Germany to undermine the League had been rebuffed. Francis’ defeat in 1544 led to the annulment of the alliance with the Protestants, and Charles took advantage of the opportunity. He first tried the path of negotiation at the Council of Trent in 1545, but the Protestant leadership, feeling betrayed by the stance taken by the Catholics at the council, went to war, led by the Saxon elector Maurice. In response, Charles invaded Germany at the head of a mixed Dutch-Spanish army, hoping to restore the Imperial authority. The emperor personally inflicted a decisive defeat on the Protestants at the historic Battle of Mühlberg in 1547. In 1555, Charles signed the Peace of Augsburg with the Protestant states and restored stability in Germany on his principle of cuius regio, eius religio, a position unpopular with the Spanish and Italian clergy. Charles' involvement in Germany would establish a role for Spain as protector of the Catholic Habsburg cause in the Holy Roman Empire; the precedent would seven decades later lead to involvement in the war that would decisively end Spain's status as Europe's leading power. The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... Maurice of Saxony, born March 21, 1521, Freiberg, Saxony, died July 9, 1553, Sievershausen, Saxony Moritz von Sachsen Duke (1541–53) and later elector (1547–53) of Saxony, whose clever manipulation of alliances and disputes gained the Albertine branch of the Wettin dynasty extensive lands and the electoral... The Battle of Mühlberg was a large battle in which the Holy Roman Empire decisively dismantled the Schmalkaldic League. ... The front page of the document. ... Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ...


In 1526, Charles married Infanta Isabella, the sister of John III of Portugal. In 1556, Charles abdicated from his positions, giving his Spanish empire to his only surviving son, Philip II of Spain, and the Holy Roman Empire to his brother, Ferdinand. Charles retired to the monastery of Yuste (Extremadura, Spain), where he is thought to have had a nervous breakdown, and died in 1558. John III, King of Portugal KGF (Portuguese: João III pron. ... Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... Yuste (or Cuacos de Yuste) is a small village in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ... Capital Mérida Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 5th  41 634 km²  8,2% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 12th  1 083 879  2,5%  26,03/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  extremeño/a, castúo Statute of Autonomy February 26, 1983 ISO 3166-2 EX Parliamentary representation... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


St. Quentin to Lepanto (1556–1571)

The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) by Pieter Brueghel the Elder reflects the increasingly harsh treatment the Seventeen Provinces received in the 16th century

Spain was not yet at peace, as the aggressive Henry II of France came to the throne in 1547 and immediately renewed the conflict with Spain. Charles' successor, Philip II, aggressively conducted the war against France, crushing a French army at the Battle of St. Quentin in Picardy in 1557 and defeating Henry again at the Battle of Gravelines the following year. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis, signed in 1559, permanently recognized Spanish claims in Italy. In the celebrations that followed the treaty, Henry was killed by a stray splinter from a lance. France was stricken for the next thirty years by civil war and unrest (see French Wars of Religion) and was unable to effectively compete with Spain and the Habsburgs in the European power struggle. Freed from any serious French opposition, Spain saw the apogee of its might and territorial reach in the period 1559–1643. Download high resolution version (1089x776, 216 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: The Triumph of Death User:Blankfaze/imagelist Habsburg Spain Categories: Public domain art ... Download high resolution version (1089x776, 216 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: The Triumph of Death User:Blankfaze/imagelist Habsburg Spain Categories: Public domain art ... The Triumph of Death The Triumph of Death is an oil on panel, approximately 117 by 162 centimeters, painted c. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... Flag of the Seventeen Provinces The Seventeen Provinces were a personal union of states in the Low Countries in the 15th century and 16th century, roughly covering the current Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, a good part of the North of France (Artois, Nord) and a small part of the West of... Henry II (French: Henri II) (March 31, 1519 – July 10, 1559), a member of the Valois Dynasty, was King of France from March 31, 1547, until his death. ... The Spanish won a significant victory over the French in the Battle of San Quentin (1557) during the Franco-Habsburg War (1551-1559), which Philip II of Spain resumed having gained English support with Queen Mary as an ally. ... wazzup Categories: | ... The Battle of Gravelines was fought on July 13, 1558 at Gravelines, near Calais. ... The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis is an agreement reached between Elizabeth I of England and Henry II of France on April 2 and between Henry II and Philip II of Spain on April 3, 1559, at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, around twenty kilometres south-east of Cambrai, that ended... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ...


Charles and his successors, while they may have been most comfortable with and fond of Spain, regarded it as just another part of their empire, rather than nurturing and developing it, as France, England, and the Netherlands might have in their countries. Achieving the political goals of the Habsburg dynasty – which primarily meant undermining the power of France, maintaining Catholic Habsburg hegemony in Germany, and suppressing the Ottoman Empire – was more important to the Habsburg rulers than the welfare of Spain. This emphasis would contribute to the decline of Spanish imperial power.


The Spanish Empire had grown substantially since the days of Ferdinand and Isabella. The Aztec and Inca Empires were conquered during Charles' reign, from 1519 to 1521 and 1540 to 1558, respectively. Spanish settlements were established in the New World: Florida was colonized in the 1560s, Buenos Aires was established in 1536, and New Granada (modern Colombia) was colonized in the 1530s. Manila, in the Philippines, was established in 1572. The Spanish Empire abroad became the source of Spanish wealth and power in Europe, but contributed also to inflation. Instead of fueling the Spanish economy, American silver made Spain dependent on foreign sources of raw materials and manufactured goods. The economic and social revolutions taking place in France and England had no counterparts in Spain. Capital Toledo (1492-1561) Madrid (since 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1902 Maria Christina of Austria, Regent during the minority of king Alphonse XIII History  - Discovery of the Americas 1492  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the... The word Aztec is usually used as a historical term, although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers would consider themselves Aztecs. ... Capital Cusco 1197-1533 Vilcabamba 1533-1572 Language(s) Quechua, Aymara, Jaqi family, Mochic and scores of smaller languages. ... Official language(s) English Capital Tallahassee Largest city Jacksonville Largest metro area Miami Area  Ranked 22nd  - Total 65,795[1] sq mi (170,304[1] km²)  - Width 361 miles (582 km)  - Length 447 miles (721 km)  - % water 17. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... New Granada can mean: the English rendering of any Spanish geographical or administrative name Nueva Granada, always named after the deep southern Spanish port city Granada, as in: the Spanish American colonial Viceroyalty of New Granada the post-colonial Republic of New Granada (1831 to 1856), which included modern Colombia... Nickname: Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Philippines Region National Capital Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (Asenso Manilenyo/PDP-Laban) Area... Capital Toledo (1492-1561) Madrid (since 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1902 Maria Christina of Austria, Regent during the minority of king Alphonse XIII History  - Discovery of the Americas 1492  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the...

The Battle of Lepanto (1571), marking the end of the Ottoman Empire as the dominant naval power in the Mediterranean

After Spain's victory over France in 1559 and the beginning of France's religious wars, Philip's ambitions grew. The Ottoman Empire had long menaced the fringes of the Habsburg dominions in Austria and northwest Africa, and in response Ferdinand and Isabella had sent expeditions to North Africa, capturing Melilla in 1497 and Oran in 1509. Charles had preferred to combat the Ottomans through a considerably more maritime strategy, hampering Ottoman landings on the Venetian territories in the Eastern Mediterranean. Only in response to raids on the eastern coast of Spain did Charles personally lead attacks against holdings in North Africa (1545). In 1565, the Spanish defeated an Ottoman landing on the strategically vital island of Malta, defended by the Knights of St. John. The death of Suleiman the Magnificent the following year and his succession by the less capable Selim the Sot emboldened Philip, who resolved to carry the war to the Ottoman homelands. In 1571, a mixed naval expedition led by Charles' illegitimate son Don John of Austria annihilated the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto, in one of the most decisive battles in naval history. The battle ended the threat of Ottoman naval hegemony in the Mediterranean. The Battle of Lepanto. ... The Battle of Lepanto. ... Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy [[Category:Former monarchies}}|Ottoman Empire, 1299]] Sultans  - 1281–1326... Capital Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked  20 km²   Population  â€“ Total (2006)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked  66,871    3,343. ... View of Oran Oran (Arabic: , pronounced Wahran) is a city in northwestern Algeria, situated on the Mediterranean coast. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Suleyman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Selim II Selim II (May 28, 1524 – December 12, 1574) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1566 until his death. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... // Combatants Holy League: Spain  Republic of Venice Papal States Republic of Genoa Duchy of Savoy Knights of Malta Ottoman Empire Commanders Don John of Austria Ali Pasha † Strength 206 galleys, 6 galleasses 230 galleys, 56 galliots Casualties 8,000 dead or wounded, 12 galleys lost 20,000 dead or wounded...


The troubled king (1571–1598)

The time for rejoicing in Madrid was short-lived. In 1566, Calvinist-led riots in the Spanish Netherlands (roughly equal to modern-day Netherlands and Belgium, inherited by Philip from Charles and his Burgundian forebearers) prompted the Duke of Alva to conduct a military expedition to restore order. In 1568, William the Silent led a failed attempt to drive the tyrannical Alva from the Netherlands. This attempt is generally considered to signal the start of the Eighty Years' War that ended with the independence of the United Provinces. The Spanish, who derived a great deal of wealth from the Netherlands and particularly from the vital port of Antwerp, were committed to restoring order and maintaining their hold on the provinces. In 1572, a band of rebel Dutch privateers known as the watergeuzen ("Sea Beggars") seized a number of Dutch coastal towns, proclaimed their support for William and denounced the Spanish leadership. In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... région of Bourgogne, see Bourgogne. ... Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, Duke of Alva. ... William I (William the Silent). ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... The Watergeuzen (or simply Geuzen) were a fleet of privateers during the Eighty Years War, the Low Countries (or Netherlands) rebellion against the Spanish occupation, which began during the reign of Philip II of Spain (in the 1550s). ...

The defense of Cadiz, by Zurbarán
The defense of Cadiz, by Zurbarán

For Spain, the war was a creeping disaster. In 1574, the Spanish army under Luis de Requeséns was repulsed from the Siege of Leiden after the Dutch destroyed the dykes that held back the North Sea from the low-lying provinces. In 1576, faced with the costs of his 80,000-man army of occupation in the Netherlands and the massive fleet that had won at Lepanto, Philip was forced to accept bankruptcy. The army in the Netherlands mutinied not long after, seizing Antwerp and looting the southern Netherlands, prompting several cities in the previously peaceful southern provinces to join the rebellion. The Spanish chose the route of negotiation, and pacified most of the southern provinces again with the Union of Arras in 1579. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x710, 117 KB)Painting of the defense of Cadiz against Sir Francis Drake, painted by Zurbaran This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (751x710, 117 KB)Painting of the defense of Cadiz against Sir Francis Drake, painted by Zurbaran This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Francisco Zurbarán (November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664), was a Spanish painter, born at Fuente de Cantos in Extremadura. ... Luís de Zúñiga y Requesens (1528 - March 5, 1576), Spanish governor of the Netherlands, had the misfortune to succeed the duke of Alva and to govern amid hopeless difficulties under the direction of Philip II. During his rule, the Spanish troops mutinied and Spain went bankrupt. ... The siege of Leiden occured during the Eighty Years War in 1573 and 1574. ... Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration - see text) in the UK. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organizations to pay their... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Map of the Spanish Netherlands, the Union of Utrecht and the Union of Arras (1579) The Union of Atrecht (French: Arras) was an accord signed on January 6, 1579 in Atrecht (Arras), under which the southern states of the Spanish Netherlands, mostly today in Wallonia and the Nord region in...


The Arras agreement required all Spanish troops to leave these lands. In 1580, this gave king Philip the opportunity to strengthen his position when the last male member of the Portuguese royal family, Cardinal Henry of Portugal, died. Philip asserted a weak claim to the Portuguese throne and in June sent an army under the leadership of the Duke of Alba to Lisbon to assure his succession. Though the duke and the Spanish occupation, however, were little more popular in Lisbon than in Rotterdam, the combined Spanish and Portuguese empires placed into Philip’s hands most of the explored New World along with a vast trading empire in Africa and Asia. The House of Aviz is a dynasty of kings of Portugal. ... Henry, the cardinal or Henrique (in Portuguese) (January 31, 1512 - January 31, 1580), was the seventeenth King of Portugal between 1578 and 1580. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Location    - Country Portugal    - Region Lisboa  - Subregion Grande Lisboa  - District or A.R. Lisbon Mayor Carmona Rodrigues  - Party PSD Area 84. ... Nickname: Motto: Sterker door strijd (Stronger through Struggle) Location of Rotterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Government  - Mayor Ivo Opstelten  - Aldermen Jeannette Baljeu Hamit Karakus Orhan Kaya Lucas Bolsius Jantine Kriens Dominic Schrijer Roelf de Boer Leonard Geluk Area [1]  - City 319 km²  (123. ...

The Spanish Armada (1588)
The Spanish Armada (1588)

To keep Portugal under control required an extensive occupation force, and Spain was still reeling from the 1576 bankruptcy. In 1584, William the Silent was assassinated by a half-deranged Catholic, and the death of the popular Dutch resistance leader was expected to bring an end to the war; it did not. In 1586, Queen Elizabeth I of England, supported the Protestant cause in the Netherlands and France, and Sir Francis Drake launched attacks against Spanish merchants in the Caribbean and the Pacific Ocean, along with a particularly aggressive attack on the port of Cadiz. In 1588, hoping to put a stop to Elizabeth’s meddling, Philip sent the Spanish Armada to attack England. Of the 130 ships sent on the mission, only half returned safely to Spain, and some 20,000 troops perished. Some were victims of English ships, but most were victims of severe weather encountered on their return trip. The disastrous outcome, resulting from a combination of the unfavorable weather and a good deal of luck for the English under Lord Howard of Effingham, resulted in a complete overhaul of the Spanish navy's ships, weapons and tactics. It struck back at English attacks and with the help of a bungled English counter attack (English Armada) quickly recovered its preeminent position which it maintained for another half of a century. Spain also provided support to a gruelling Irish war which drained England of resources and also raided English coastal towns. However, now the Spanish Habsburgs had yet another powerful enemy with which to contend, forcing Spain to maintain an even stronger, more expensive navy, atop of massive expenditures for its armies in its many scattered territories. Image File history File linksMetadata Invincible_Armada. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Invincible_Armada. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Sir Francis Drake, c. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Combatants England Dutch Republic Spain Portugal Commanders Charles Howard Francis Drake Duke of Medina Sidonia Strength 34 warships 163 armed merchant vessels 22 galleons 108 armed merchant vessels Casualties 50–100 dead[1] ~400 wounded 600 dead, 800 wounded,[2] 397 captured, 4 merchant ships sunk or captured The Spanish... Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham (1536-December 14, 1624) was a British statesman and admiral. ... The English Armada (also known as the Counter Armada) was a fleet of warships sent to the Iberian coast by Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1589, during the Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) in an attempt to drive home the advantage won upon the defeat and dispersal of the...


Spain had invested itself in the religious warfare in France after Henry II’s death. In 1589, Henry III, the last of the Valois lineage, died at the walls of Paris. His successor, Henry IV of Navarre, the first Bourbon king of France, was a man of great ability, winning key victories against the Catholic League at Arques (1589) and Ivry (1590). Committed to stopping Henry from becoming King of France, the Spanish divided their army in the Netherlands and invaded France in 1590. Henry III (French: Henri III; September 19, 1551 – August 2, 1589), born Alexandre-Édouard, was a member of the Valois Dynasty, King of France from May 30, 1574 until his death. ... Main articles: France in the Middle Ages and Early Modern France The Valois Dynasty succeeded the Capetian Dynasty as rulers of France from 1328-1589. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ... Combatants French Royal Army Catholic League Commanders Henry IV of France Duke of Mayenne Strength 8,000 French, 5,250 British 35,000 Casualties massive massive The Battle of Arques occurred on 15-18 September, 1589 between the French royal forces of King Henry IV of France and troops of... The Battle of Ivry was fought on March 14, 1590, during the French Wars of Religion. ...


"God is Spanish" (1596–1626)

Faced with wars against England, France, and the Netherlands, each led by extraordinarily capable leaders, already-bankrupted Spain was outmatched. Struggling with continuing piracy against its shipping in the Atlantic and the disruption of its vital gold shipments from the New World, Spain was forced to admit bankruptcy again in 1596. The Spanish attempted to extricate themselves from the several conflicts they were involved in, first signing the Treaty of Vervins with France in 1598, recognizing Henry IV (since 1593 a Catholic) as king of France, and restoring many of the stipulations of the previous Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis. A treaty with England was agreed upon in 1604, following the accession of the more tractable Stuart King James I. The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Peace of Vervins was signed between Henry IV of France and Philip II of Spain on May 2, 1598. ... The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis is an agreement reached between Elizabeth I of England and Henry II of France on April 2 and between Henry II and Philip II of Spain on April 3, 1559, at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, around twenty kilometres south-east of Cambrai, that ended... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ...


Peace with England and France implied that Spain could focus her energies on restoring her rule to the Dutch provinces. The Dutch, led by Maurice of Nassau, the son of William the Silent and perhaps the greatest strategist of his time, had succeeded in taking a number of border cities since 1590, including the fortress of Breda. Following the peace with England, the new Spanish commander Ambrosio Spinola pressed hard against the Dutch. Spinola, a general of abilities to match Maurice, was prevented from conquering the Netherlands only by Spain’s renewed bankruptcy in 1607. Faced with ruined finances, in 1609, the Twelve Years' Truce was signed between Spain and the United Provinces. Maurice of Nassau (in Dutch Maurits van Nassau) (14 November 1567–23 April 1625), Prince of Orange (1618–1625), son of William the Silent and Princess Anna of Saxony, was born at the castle of Dillenburg. ... Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Ambrosio Spinola Doria, marqués de los Balbases (1569 - September 25, 1650), Spanish general, was born in Genoa in 1569. ... A cease fire made at the end of the Dutch revolt war that lasted for twelve years. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


Spain made a fair recovery during the truce, ordering her finances and doing much to restore her prestige and stability in the run-up to the last truly great war in which she would play as a leading power. In the Netherlands, the rule of Philip II's daughter, Isabella Clara Eugenia and her husband, Archduke Albert, restored stability to the southern Netherlands and pacified anti-Spanish sentiments in the area. Philip II’s successor, Philip III, was a man of limited ability uninterested in politics, preferring to allow others to take care of the details. His chief minister was the capable Duke of Lerma. Lerma, a financial wizard, succeeded in turning Spain’s account books around and made himself one of the richest men in Europe with a fortune of some 44 million thalers, Lerma’s personal success attracted enemies and well-founded allegations of corruption; in 1618, the king replaced him with Don Balthasar de Zúñiga. While the Duke of Lerma (and to a large extent Philip III) had been disinterested in the affairs of their ally, Austria, Zúñiga was a veteran ambassador to Vienna and believed that the key to restraining the resurgent French and eliminating the Dutch was a closer alliance with Habsburg Austria. Isabella Clara Eugenia, possibly around 1584 Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain (Segovia 12 August 1566 – 1 December 1633) was Infanta of Spain, Archduchess of Austria and the joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces. ... Albert and his wife Isabella Archduke Albert Ernst of Austria (15 November 1559 – 13 July 1621) was appointed for the Spanish monarchy as Governor of the Low Countries in 1595, and from 1598 became joint sovereign of the Seventeen Provinces with his wife, the Isabella Clara Eugenia, daughter of Philip... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ... Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma, Spanish statesman Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma (Seville,1552/3 — Valladolid, 1625), the Spanish favorite of Philip III of Spain and minister, was the first of the validos or strongmen through whom the later Spanish... Examples of German and Austrian Thalers compared to a US quarter piece (bottom center) The Thaler (or Taler) was a silver coin used throughout Europe for almost four hundred years. ...

The Surrender of Breda (1625) to Ambrosio Spinola, by Velázquez. Missing is the usual triumphalism of victory.

In 1618, beginning with the Defenestration of Prague, Austria and the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II of Germany, embarked on a campaign against the Protestant Union and Bohemia. Zúñiga encouraged Philip to join the Austrian Habsburgs in the war, and Ambrogio Spinola, the rising star of the Spanish army, was sent at the head of the Army of Flanders to intervene. Thus, Spain entered into the Thirty Years’ War. Download high resolution version (1023x851, 179 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1023x851, 179 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Breda is a municipality and a city in the southern part of the Netherlands. ... Ambrosio Spinola Doria, marqués de los Balbases (1569 - September 25, 1650), Spanish general, was born in Genoa in 1569. ... Velázquezs 1643 self-portrait This article pertains to the artist. ... A contemporary woodcut of the defenestration in 1618. ... Categories: People stubs | Holy Roman emperors | Rulers of Austria | Rulers of Styria | Hungarian monarchs | Bohemian monarchs | Dukes of Carinthia | 1578 births | 1637 deaths ... The Protestant Union or Evangelical Union or Union of Auhausen was a coalition of Protestant German states that was formed in 1608 to defend the rights, lands and person of each member. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ...


In 1621, the inoffensive and ineffective Philip III was replaced by the considerably more active and pious Philip IV. The following year, Zúñiga was replaced by Gaspar de Guzmán y Pimentel, Count-Duke of Olivares, an able man who believed that the center of all Spain’s woes rest in Holland. After certain initial setbacks, the Bohemians were defeated at White Mountain in 1621, and again at Stadtlohn in 1623. The war with the Netherlands was renewed in 1621 with Spinola taking the fortress of Breda in 1625. The intervention of the Danish king Christian IV in the war worried some (Christian was one of Europe’s few monarchs who had no worries over his finances) but the victory of the Imperial general Albert of Wallenstein over the Danes at Dessau Bridge and again at Lutter, both in 1626, eliminated the threat. There was hope in Madrid that the Netherlands might finally be reincorporated into the Empire, and after the defeat of Denmark the Protestants in Germany seemed subdued. France was once again involved in her own instabilities (the famous Siege of La Rochelle began in 1627), and Spain's eminence seemed irrefutable. The Count-Duke Olivares stridently affirmed “God is Spanish and fights for our nation these days,” (Brown and Elliott, 1980, p. 190) and many of Spain’s opponents may have grudgingly agreed. Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Equestrian portrait of the Count-Duke of Olivares by Diego Velázquez. ... The Battle of White Mountain, November 8, 1620 (Bílá hora is the name of White Mountain in Czech) was an early battle in the Thirty Years War in which an army of 20,000 Bohemians and mercenaries under Christian of Anhalt were routed by 25,000 men of the... Stadtlohn is a city in the north-west of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, part of the district Borken. ... Combatants United Provinces Spain Commanders Maurice of Nassau Ernst von Mansfeld Ambrosio Spinola Strength 14,000 Unknown Casualties 10,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown {{{notes}}} The Siege of Breda was a battle of the Eighty Years War and Thirty Years War. ... The coronation of King Christian IV, painted by Otto Bache, 1887. ... Categories: 1583 births | 1634 deaths | Assassinated people ... Combatants Protestants Catholic League Commanders Count Ernst von Mansfeld General Albrecht von Wallenstein Strength 12,000 20,000 Casualties 4,000 dead, wounded, or captured Unknown With the entrance of King Christian IV of Denmark into the Thirty Years War in 1625, Protestant forces that had been dealt one defeat... The Battle of Lutter (Lutter am Barenberge) took place during the Thirty Years War on 27th August 1626 between the forces of the Protestant Christian IV of Denmark and those of the Catholic League. ... Cardinal Richelieu at the Siege of La Rochelle, Henri Motte, 1881. ...


The road to Rocroi (1626–1643)

King Philip IV of Spain (r. 1621–1665) by Velázquez

Olivares was a man sadly out of time; he realized that Spain needed to reform, and to reform it needed peace. The destruction of the United Provinces of the Netherlands was added to his list of necessities because behind every anti-Habsburg coalition there was Dutch money: Dutch bankers stood behind the East India merchants of Seville, and everywhere in the world Dutch entrepreneurship and colonists undermined Spanish and Portuguese hegemony. Spinola and the Spanish army were focused on the Netherlands, and the war seemed to be going in Spain's favor. Download high resolution version (652x1313, 92 KB)Philip IV by Velazquez. ... Download high resolution version (652x1313, 92 KB)Philip IV by Velazquez. ... Philip IV (), (April 8, 1605 – September 17, 1665) was King of Spain from 1621 to 1665 and also King of Portugal until 1640. ... Velázquezs 1643 self-portrait This article pertains to the artist. ...


In 1627, the Castilian economy collapsed. The Spanish had been debasing their currency to pay for the war and prices exploded in Spain just as they had in previous years in Austria. Until 1631, parts of Castile operated on a barter economy as a result of the currency crisis, and the government was unable to collect any meaningful taxes from the peasantry, depending instead on its colonies (Spanish treasure fleet). The Spanish armies in Germany resorted to "paying themselves" on the land. Olivares, who had backed certain tax measures in Spain pending the completion of the war, was further blamed for an embarrassing and fruitless war in Italy (see War of the Mantuan Succession). The Dutch, who during the Twelve Years’ Truce had made their navy a priority, devastated Spanish and (especially) Portuguese maritime trade, on which Spain was wholly dependent after the economic collapse. The Spanish, with resources stretched thin, were increasingly unable to cope with the rapidly growing naval threats. Debasement is the practice of lowering the value of currency. ... Inflation rates around the world. ... Barter is a type of trade in which goods or services are exchanged for other goods and/or services; no money is involved in the transaction. ... A treasure fleet is being loaded with riches. ... The War of the Mantuan Succession (1627-1631) came as a result of the extinction of the main male line of Gonzaga Dukes of Mantua in 1627. ...


In 1630, Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, one of the most able commanders of the time, landed in Germany and relieved the port of Stralsund that was the last stronghold on the continent held by German forces belligerent to the Emperor. Gustav then marched south winning notable victories at Breitenfeld and Lutzen, attracting greater support for the Protestant cause the further he went. The situation for the Catholics improved with Gustav's death at Lutzen in 1632 and a shocking victory for Imperial forces under Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand and Ferdinand II of Hungary at Nordlingen in 1634. From a position of strength, the Emperor approached the war-weary German states with a peace in 1635; many accepted, including the two most powerful, Brandenburg and Saxony. Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... Stralsund is a city in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany. ... Combatants Saxony Saxony Holy Roman Empire Catholic Leauge Commanders Gustavus Adolphus John George I Johan Tzerclaes, Count of Tilly Strength 23,000 swedes, 17,000 saxons 33,000 Casualties 3500 Swedes and 2000 Saxons dead 7600 dead, 6000 captured and many recruited into the swedish army {{{notes}}} The Battle of... The Battle of Lützen was one of the most decisive battles of the Thirty Years War. ... Cardinale Infante Ferdinand of Austria Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand (1609/16101 in Escorial near Madrid, Spain - 9 November 1641 in Brussels) (also known as Fernando and as Ferdinand von Österreich), Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands, Cardinal, Infante of Spain, Archbishop of Toledo (1619-41), and commander during the Thirty Years War... Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor (July 13, 1608 – April 2, 1657), ruled February 15, 1637 – 1657. ... The Battle of Nördlingen refers to two battles during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km...


Cardinal Richelieu had been a strong supporter of the Dutch and Protestants since the beginning of the war, sending funds and equipment in an attempt to stem Habsburg strength in Europe. Richelieu decided that the recently-signed Peace of Prague was contrary to French interests and declared war on the Holy Roman Emperor and Spain within months of the peace being signed. The more experienced Spanish forces scored initial successes; Olivares ordered a lightning campaign into northern France from the Spanish Netherlands, hoping to shatter the resolve of King Louis XIII's ministers and topple Richelieu before the war exhausted Spanish finances and France's military resources could be fully deployed. In the "année de Corbie", 1636, Spanish forces advanced as far south as Amiens and Corbie, threatening Paris and quite nearly ending the war on their terms. Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... The Peace of Prague of 30 May 1635 was a treaty between the Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, and most of the Protestant states of the Empire. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Amiens is a city and commune in the north of France, 120 km north of Paris. ... Corbie is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...

The Battle of Rocroi (1643), the symbolic end of Spain as the dominant great power.
The Battle of Rocroi (1643), the symbolic end of Spain as the dominant great power.

After 1636, however, Olivares, fearful of provoking another disastrous bankruptcy, stopped the advance. The Spanish army would never again penetrate. The French thus gained time to properly mobilise. At the Battle of the Downs in 1639 a Spanish fleet was destroyed by the Dutch navy, and the Spanish found themselves unable to adequately reinforce and supply their forces in the Netherlands. The Spanish Army of Flanders, which represented the finest of Spanish soldiery and leadership, faced a French invasion led by Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé in the Spanish Netherlands at Rocroi in 1643. The Spanish, led by Francisco de Melo, were devastated, with most of the Spanish infantry slaughtered or captured by French cavalry. The high reputation of the Army of Flanders was broken at Rocroi, and with it, the grandeur of Spain. Battle of Rocroi. ... Battle of Rocroi. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Duc dEnghien Francisco de Melo Count of Fuentes † Strength 16,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 14 guns 15,000 infantry 5,000 cavalry 18 guns Casualties 2,000 dead 2,000 wounded[1] 7,500 dead, 7,000 captured and 6, 500 wounded[2] The... Combatants Spain United Provinces Commanders Antonio DOquendo Maarten Tromp Strength 77 ships 117 ships Casualties 15,200 dead 60 ships destroyed or captured 100 dead 1 ship burned The naval Battle of the Downs took place on 31 October 1639 (New style) during the Eighty Years War and was... Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé (September 8, 1621 – November 11, 1686) was the most celebrated representative of Princes de Condé and one of the most brilliant generals of the 17th century. ... Combatants France Spain Commanders Duc dEnghien Francisco de Melo Count of Fuentes † Strength 16,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry 14 guns 15,000 infantry 5,000 cavalry 18 guns Casualties 2,000 dead 2,000 wounded[1] 7,500 dead, 7,000 captured and 6, 500 wounded[2] The... Don Francisco de Melo (1597 – 1651), marquis of Tor de Laguna, count of Assumar, was from 1641 to 1644 (interim) governor of the Southern Netherlands. ...


The last Spanish Habsburgs (1643–1700)

Supported by the French, the Catalonians, Neapolitans, and Portuguese rose up in revolt against the Spanish in the 1640s. With the Spanish Netherlands effectively lost after the Battle of Lens in 1648, the Spanish made peace with the Dutch and recognized the independent United Provinces in the Peace of Westphalia that ended both the Eighty Years' War and the Thirty Years' War. Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... The Battle of Lens (August 20, 1648) was a French victory under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé against the Spanish army under Archduke Leopold in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648). ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


War with France continued for eleven more years. Although France suffered from a civil war from 1648–1652 (see Wars of the Fronde) the Spanish economy was so exhausted that they were unable to capitalize on French instability. Naples was retaken in 1648 and Catalonia in 1652, but the war came effectively to an end at the Battle of the Dunes where the French army under Vicomte de Turenne defeated the remnants of the Spanish army of the Netherlands. Spain agreed to the Peace of the Pyrenees in 1659 that ceded to France Roussillon, Foix, Artois, and much of Lorraine. The Fronde (1648–1653) was a civil war in France, followed by the Franco-Spanish War (1653). ... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Commanders Vicomte de Turenne Juan José de Austria Louis II de Condé Strength 26,000 and ships 15,000 Casualties 500 dead or wounded 2,000 dead or wounded 4,000 captured The Battle of the Dunes, fought on June 14 (Gregorian calendar), 1658... Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne, often referred to as Turenne (September 11, 1611 - July 27, 1675) was Marshal of France. ... The Treaty of the Pyrenees was signed in 1659 to end the war between France and Spain that had begun in 1635 during the Thirty Years War. ... Coat of arms of Roussillon - see also senyera Flag of Roussillon Mount Canigó (Canigou) (2785m), a Catalan landmark Roussillon (French: Roussillon, pronounced ; Catalan: Rosselló, pronounced ) is one of the historical counties of the former Principality of Catalonia, corresponding roughly to the present-day southern French département of Pyrén... Château des Comtes de Foix Foix river Foix is a small town and commune, the préfecture (capital) of the Ariège département in France. ... Artois is a former province of northern France. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ...


Portugal had rebelled in 1640 under the leadership of John IV, a Braganza pretender to the throne. He had received widespread support from the Portuguese people, and the Spanish Рwho had to deal with rebellions elsewhere and the war with France Рwere unable to respond, and the Spanish and Portuguese had existed in a de facto state of peace from 1644 to 1657. When John IV died in 1657, the Spanish attempted to wrest Portugal from his son Alfonso VI, but were defeated at Ameixial (1663) and Monte Claros (1665), leading to Spain's recognition of Portuguese independence in 1668. John IV of Portugal (Portuguese: Jọo IV de Portugal pron. ... Afonso VI (August 21, 1643 - September 12, 1675) was king of Portugal, the second king of the House of Braganza. ... Combatants Portugal and British auxiliaries Spain Commanders Sancho Manoel de Vilhena and Schomberg John of Austria the Younger Strength 20,000 22,000 Casualties 1000 4000 killed, 2500 wounded and 3500 prisoners The Battle of Ameixial, was fought on June 8, 1663, near the village of Santa Vitoria do Ameixial...

Charles II, the last Habsburg king of Spain (r. 1665–1700)

Philip IV, who had seen over the course of his life the devastation of Spain's empire, sank slowly into depression after he had to dismiss his favorite courtier, Olivares, in 1643. He was saddened further after the death of his son Baltasar Carlos in 1646 at the young age of seventeen. Philip became increasingly mystical near the end of his life, and ultimately attempted to undo some of the damage he had done to his country. He died in 1665 before anything could be changed, hoping his son might somehow be more fortunate. Charles, his only surviving son, was seriously deformed and mentally retarded, and remained under the influence of his mother all his life. Struggling with his deformities and the expectations and ridicule of his family and the court, Charles led a miserable existence. King Charles II of Spain. ... King Charles II of Spain. ... Charles II of Spain. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The Spanish monarchy, referred to as the Crown of Spain (Corona de España) in the Spanish Constitution of 1978, is the office of the King or Queen of Spain. ... Baltasar Carlos was the Prince of the Asturias, and the son of King Philip IV of Spain and Isabella of Bourbon. ... Charles II of Spain. ...


Charles and his regency were incompetent in dealing with the War of Devolution that Louis XIV of France prosecuted against the Spanish Netherlands in 1667–1668, losing considerable prestige and territory, including the cities of Lille and Charleroi. In the Nine Years' War Louis once again invaded the Spanish Netherlands. French forces led by the Duke of Luxembourg defeated the Spanish at Fleurus (1690), and subsequently defeated Dutch forces under William III, who fought on Spain's side. The war ended with most of the Spanish Netherlands under French occupation, including the important cities of Ghent and Luxembourg. The war revealed to the world how vulnerable and backward the Spanish defenses and bureaucracy were, though the ineffective Spanish government took no action to improve them. The War of Devolution (May 24, 1667 – May 2, 1668) was a war between Louis XIVs France and Habsburg Spain fought in the Spanish Netherlands. ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... New city flag Traditional coat of arms Motto: – Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Nord-Pas de Calais Department Nord (59) Intercommunality Urban Community of Lille Métropole Mayor Martine Aubry  (PS) (since 2001) City Statistics Land area¹ 39. ... Charleroi (Walloon: TchÃ¥lerwè) is the first city and municipality of Wallonia in population. ... The Nine Years War (also known as the War of the League of Augsburg, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Palatinian Succession, and the War of the English Succession) was a major war fought in Europe and America from 1688 to 1697, between France and the... François Henri de Montmorency-Bouteville, duc de Piney, called de Luxembourg (January 8, 1628 - January 4, 1695), marshal of France, the comrade and successor of the great Condé, was born at Paris, France. ... Combatants France England United Provinces Spain Holy Roman Empire Commanders Duc de Luxembourg Prince of Waldeck Strength 35,000 38,000 Casualties 3,000 dead 3,000 wounded 6,000 dead 5,000 wounded 8,000 captured The Battle of Fleurus took place on July 1, 1690. ... William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province East Flanders Arrondissement Ghent Coordinates , , Area 156. ...


The final decades of the 17th century saw utter decay and stagnation in Spain; while the rest of Europe went through exciting changes in government and society, the Dutch Golden Age, the Glorious Revolution in England and the reign of the "Sun King" Louis XIV in France - Spain remained adrift and inward looking. The Spanish bureaucracy that had been built up around the charismatic, industrious, and intelligent Charles I and Philip II demanded a strong monarch; the weakness of Philip III and IV led it to its becoming bloated and corrupt. As his final wishes, the childless king of Spain desired that the throne pass to the Bourbon prince Philip of Anjou, rather than to a member of the family that had tormented him throughout his life. Charles II died in 1700, ending the line of Spanish Habsburgs exactly two centuries after Charles I was born. Rembrandt The Nightwatch (1642) The Golden Age (1584-1702) was a period in Dutch history, roughly spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science, and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. ... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... “Sun King” redirects here. ... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ...


Spanish society and the Inquisition (1516–1700)

An auto de fe, painted by Francisco Ricci, 1683

The Spanish Inquisition was formally launched during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, continued by their Habsburg successors, and only ended in the 19th century. Under Charles I the inquisition became a formal department in the Spanish government, hurtling out of control as the 16th century progressed. Charles also passed the Limpieza, a law that excluded those not of pure Old Christian, non-Jewish blood from public office. Although torture was common in Europe, the way the Inquisition was practiced encouraged corruption and betrayal, and it became a driving factor in the decay of Spanish power. It became a method for enemies, jealous friends and even quarreling relations to usurp influence and property. An accusation, even if largely unfounded, led to a long and agonizing trial that might take years before coming to a verdict, during which time the accused's reputation and esteem was destroyed. The notorious auto de fe was a combination of public humiliation of the repentant and a gross spectacle of human torture for the "guilty". Auto-da-fe by Francisco Ricci. ... Auto-da-fe by Francisco Ricci. ... Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475). ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ... Ferdinand on the left with Isabella on the right Coffins of the Catholic Monarchs at the Granada Cathedral The Catholic Monarchs (Spanish: los Reyes Católicos) is the collective title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Charles (February 24, 1500 – September 21, 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor (as Charles V) from 1519-1558; he was also King of Spain from 1516_1556, officially as Charles I of Spain, although often referred to as Charles V (Carlos Quinto or Carlos V) in Spain and Latin America. ... Representation of an Auto de fe, (1475). ...


Although no one expected the Spanish Inquisition, Philip II greatly expanded it and made church orthodoxy a goal of public policy. In 1559, three years after Philip came to power, students in Spain were forbidden to travel abroad, the leaders of the Inquisition were placed in charge of censorship, and books could no longer be imported. Philip vigorously tried to excise Protestantism out of Spain, holding innumerable campaigns to eliminate Lutheran and Calvinist literature from the country, hoping to avoid the chaos taking place in France. Philip II (Spanish: Felipe II de Habsburgo; Portuguese: Filipe I) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was the first official King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, King consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ...


The church in Spain had been purged of many of its administrative excesses in the 15th century by Cardinal Ximenes, and the Inquisition served to expurgate many of the more radical reformers who sought to change church theology as the Protestant reformers wanted. Instead, Spain became the scion of the Counter-reformation as it emerged from the Reconquista. Spain bred two unique threads of counter-reformationary thought in the persons of Saint Theresa of Avila and the Basque Ignatius Loyola. Theresa advocated strict monasticism and a revival of more ancient traditions of penitence. She experienced a mystical ecstasy that became profoundly influential on Spanish culture and art. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Jesuit Order, was influential across the world in his stress on spiritual and mental excellence and contributed to a resurgence of learning across Europe. In 1625, a peak of Spanish prestige and power, the Count-Duke of Olivares established the Jesuit colegia imperial in Madrid to train Spanish nobles in the humanities and military arts. Cisneros visits the construction of the Hospital of the Charity. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saint Teresa of Avila (known in religion as Teresa de Jesús, baptised as Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada) was a Spanish Roman Catholic mystic and monastic reformer; born at Avila (53 miles north-west of Madrid), Old Castile, March 28, 1515; died at Alba de Tormes October 15, 1582. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[5] who inhabit parts of northwestern Spain and southwestern France. ... Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), baptized Íñigo López de Loyola, was the founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order commonly known as the Jesuits that was established to strengthen the Church, initially against Protestantism. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to devote ones life fully to spiritual work. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Gaspar de Guzman, conde de Olivares y duque de San Lucar (January 6, 1587 - July 22, 1645), was a Spanish royal favourite and minister. ...

The expulsion of the Moriscos from Valencia

The Moriscos of southern Spain had been forcibly converted to Christianity in 1502, but under the rule of Charles I they had been able to obtain a degree of tolerance from their Christian rulers. They were allowed to practice their former custom, dress, and language, and religious laws were laxly enforced. In 1568, however, under Philip, the Moriscos rebelled (see Morisco Revolt) after the old laws were enforced again. The revolt was only put down by Italian troops under Don John of Austria, and even then the Moriscos retreated to the highlands and were not defeated until 1570. The revolt was followed by a massive resettlement program in which 12,000 Christian peasants replaced the Moriscos. In 1609, on the advice of the Duke of Lerma, Philip III expelled the 300,000 Moriscos of Spain. Embarco moriscos en el Grao de Valencia by Pere Oromig. ... Embarco moriscos en el Grao de Valencia by Pere Oromig. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Valencian) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... The Morisco Revolt occurred in 1568. ... The tomb of Don Juan de Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial Don John of Austria (February 24, 1547 - October 1, 1578), also known as Juan de Austria and Don Juan de Austria, was an illegitimate son of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. ... Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma, Spanish statesman Francisco Goméz de Sandoval y Rojas, Duke of Lerma (Seville,1552/3 — Valladolid, 1625), the Spanish favorite of Philip III of Spain and minister, was the first of the validos or strongmen through whom the later Spanish... Philip III of Spain Philip III (Spanish: Felipe III) (April 14, 1578 – March 31, 1621) was the king of Spain and Portugal (as Philip II Portuguese: Filipe II), from 1598 until his death. ...


The Enlightenment chiefly critiqued the Spanish for excessive religious zeal and "laziness". Among the members of the aristocracy, who enjoyed increasing security in their positions of power (unlike their colleagues in France and England who were increasingly competitive) the argument of "Spanish sloth" might apply. The expulsion of the industrious Moriscos and Jews certainly did little to help the Spanish economy and society that had relied on their work and expertise far more than the Christians realized. The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; German: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...


The Spanish bureaucracy (1516–1700)

The Seville House of Trade, today the Archive of the Indies

The Spanish received a massive influx of gold from the colonies in the New World as plunder when they were conquered, much of which Charles used to prosecute his wars in Europe. It was not until the 1540s that large deposits of silver were found in Potosí and Guanajuato and a steady source of income was obtained. The Spanish left mining to private enterprise but instituted a tax known as the "quinto real" whereby a fifth of the metal was collected by the government. The Spanish were quite successful in enforcing the tax throughout their vast empire in the New World; all bullion had to pass through the House of Trade in Seville, under the direction of the Council of the Indies. The supply of Almadén mercury, vital to extracting silver from the ore, was controlled by the state and contributed to the rigor of Spanish tax policy. The Archives of the Indies, formerly the Seville House of Trade. ... The Archives of the Indies, formerly the Seville House of Trade. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... La Casa de Contratación (The House of Trade) was a government agency under the Spanish Empire of the 16th and 17th centuries, which attempted to control all Spanish exploration and colonization. ... The Mexican state of San Luis Potosí has an area of 62,848 km² (24,266 mi²). It is in the north-central part of the Mexican republic, bordered by the states of Jalisco, Guanajuato, Querétaro, Hidalgo, Veracruz, Tamaulipas, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Zacatecas. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... Frontispiece of Peter Martyr dAnghieras De orbe novo (On the New World). Carte dAmérique, Guillaume Delisle, 1722. ... A precious metal is a rare metallic element of high, durable economic value. ... La Casa de Contratación (The House of Trade) was a government agency under the Spanish Empire of the 16th and 17th centuries, which attempted to control all Spanish exploration and colonization. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ... The Consejo de Indias (Council of the Indies), in full the Real y Supremo Consejo de Indias (Royal and Supreme Council of the Indies) was the most important administrative organ of the Spanish Empire, both in administering the Americas and in the Philippines, combining legislative, executive and judicial functions. ... Almadén,Spain, is a town in the province of Ciudad Real, within the Autonomous Community of Castilla la Mancha. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... For other uses, see Amalgamation. ... Iron ore (Banded iron formation) Manganese ore Lead ore Gold ore An ore is a volume of rock containing components or minerals in a mode of occurrence which renders it valuable for mining. ...


Although the initial conquests in the Americas provided sharp spikes in gold imports from the colonies, it was not until the 1550s that they became a regular and vital source of Spain's income. Inflation - both in Spain and in the rest of Europe - was primarily caused by debt; Charles had conducted most of his wars on credit, and in 1557, a year after he abdicated, Spain was forced into its first bankruptcy. Notice of closure stuck on the door of a computer store the day after its parent company, Granville Technology Group Ltd, declared bankruptcy (strictly, put into administration - see text) in the UK. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organizations to pay their...

A Spanish galleon, the symbol of Spain's maritime empire.
A Spanish galleon, the symbol of Spain's maritime empire.

Faced with the growing threat of piracy, in 1564 the Spanish adopted a convoy system far ahead of its time, with treasure fleets leaving the Americas in April and August. The policy proved efficient, and was quite successful. Only two convoys were captured; one in 1628 when it was captured by the Dutch, and another in 1656, captured by the English, but by then the convoys were a shadow of what they had been at their peak at the end of the previous century. Nevertheless even without being completely captured they frequently came under attack, which inevitably took its toll. Not all shipping of the dispersed empire could be protected by large convoys, allowing the Dutch, English and French privateers and pirates the opportunity to devastate trade along the American and Spanish coastlines and raid isolated settlements. This became particularly savage from the 1650s, with all sides falling to extraordinary levels of barbarity, even by contemporary standards. Spain also had to deal with Barbary piracy in the Mediterranean and Oriental and Dutch piracy in the waters in and around the Philippines. A Spanish Galleon. ... A Spanish Galleon. ... A Spanish galleon A galleon was a large, multi-decked sailing ship used primarily by the nations of Europe from the 16th to 18th centuries. ... The flag of 18th-century pirate Calico Jack Piracy is a robbery committed at sea, or sometimes on the shore, by an agent without a commission from a sovereign nation. ... Between the 16th and 18th centuries, the Spanish treasure fleets brought the wealth of the Spanish colonies in Central and South America to Spain, in the form of silver, gold, gems, spices, cocoa and other exotic goods. ... This article is about the concept in naval history. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The growth of Spain's empire in the New World was accomplished from Seville, without the close direction of the leadership in Madrid. Charles I and Philip II were primarily concerned with their duties in Europe, and thus control of the Americas was handled by viceroys and colonial administrators who operated with virtual autonomy. The Habsburg kings regarded their colonies as feudal associations rather than integral parts of Spain. The Habsburgs, whose family had traditionally ruled over diverse, noncontiguous domains and had been forced to devolve autonomy to local administrators, replicated those feudal policies in Spain, particularly in the Basque country and Aragon. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... The Ikurriña, Basque flag Location of Territory of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ...


This meant that taxes, infrastructure improvement, and internal trade policy were defined independently by each region, leading to many internal customs barriers and tolls, and conflicting policies even within the Habsburg domains. Charles I and Philip II had been able to master the various courts through their impressive political energy, but Philip III and IV allowed it to decay, and Charles II was wholly incapable of controlling them. The development of Spain itself was hampered by the fact that Charles I and Philip II spent most of their time abroad; for most of the 16th century, Spain was administrated from Brussels and Antwerp, and it was only during the Dutch Revolt that Philip returned to Spain, where he spent most of his time in the seclusion of the monastic palace of El Escorial. The patchy empire, held together by a determined king keeping the bloated bureaucracy together, unraveled when a weak ruler came to the throne. Nickname: Map showing the location of Brussels in Belgium Coordinates: , Country Belgium Region Brussels-Capital Region Founded 979 Founded (Region) June 18, 1989 Government  - Mayor (Municipality) Freddy Thielemans Area  - Region 162 km²  (62. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Combatants Dutch rebels Spanish Empire The Eighty Years War, or Dutch Revolt (1568[1]–1648), was the revolt of the Seventeen Provinces in the Netherlands against the Spanish (Habsburg) Empire. ... // El Escorial, the Royal Monastery of San Lorenzo El Real (also known as the Monasterio de El Escorial or simply El Escorial) is located about 45 kilometres (28 miles) northwest of the Spanish capital, Madrid. ...


There were attempts to reform the antiquated Spanish bureaucracy. Charles, on becoming king, clashed with his nobles during the Castilian War of the Communities when he attempted to fill government positions with effective Dutch and Flemish officials. Philip II encountered major resistance when he tried to enforce his authority over the Netherlands, contributing to the rebellion in that country. The Count-Duke of Olivares, Philip IV's chief minister, always regarded it as essential to Spain's survival that the bureaucracy be centralized; Olivares even backed the full union of Portugal with Spain, though he never had an opportunity to realize his ideas. Without the firm hand and diligence of Charles I and Philip II, the bureaucracy became increasingly bloated and corrupt until, by Olivares's dismissal in 1643, its poor condition rendered it obsolete. The Castilian War of the Communities is also known as the Revolt of the Comuneros, and in Spanish as la Guerra de los Comunidades de Castilla. ... Gaspar de Guzman, conde de Olivares y duque de San Lucar (January 6, 1587 - July 22, 1645), was a Spanish royal favourite and minister. ...


The Spanish economy (1516–1700)

The city of Zaragoza, by Velázquez

Like most of Europe, Spain had suffered from famine and plague during the 14th and 15th centuries. By 1500, Europe was beginning to emerge from these demographic disasters, and populations began to explode - Seville, which was home to 60,000 people in 1500 burgeoned to 150,000 by the end of the century. There was a substantial movement to the cities of Spain to capitalize on new opportunities as shipbuilders and merchants to service Spain's impressive and growing empire. Download high resolution version (1039x548, 145 KB)The city of Zaragoza, by Velazquez. ... Download high resolution version (1039x548, 145 KB)The city of Zaragoza, by Velazquez. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Zaragoza (Spanish) Spanish name Zaragoza Founded 24 Postal code 50001 - 50018 Website http://www. ... Velázquezs 1643 self-portrait This article pertains to the artist. ... NO8DO (I was not abandoned) Location Coordinates : ( ) Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Sevilla (Spanish) Spanish name Sevilla Founded 8th-9th century BC Postal code 41001-41080 Website http://www. ...


Inflation in Spain, as a result of state debt and the importation of silver and gold from the New World, triggered hardship for the peasantry. The average cost of goods quintupled in the 16th century in Spain, led by wool and grain. While reasonable when compared to the 20th century, prices in the 15th century changed very little, and the European economy was shaken by the so-called price revolution. Spain, along with England was Europe's only producer of wool, initially benefited from the rapid growth. However, like in England, there began in Spain an inclosure movement that stifled the growth of food and depopulated whole villages whose residents were forced to move to cities. But unlike England, the higher inflation, the burden of the Habsburg's wars and the many customs duties dividing the country and restricting trade with the Americas, stifled the growth of industry that may have provided an alternative source of income in the towns. Used generally to describe a series of economic events from the second half of the 15th century to the first half of the 17th, the price revolution refers most specifically to the high rate of inflation that characterized the period across Western Europe, with prices on average rising perhaps sixfold... Inclosure (also commonly enclosure), refers to the process of subdivision of common lands for individual ownership. ...


Sheep-farming was practiced extensively in Castile, and grew rapidly with rising wool prices with the backing of the king. Merino sheep were annually moved from the mountains of the north to the warmer south every winter, ignoring state-mandated trails that were intended to prevent the sheep from trampling the farmland. Complaints lodged against the shepherds' guild, the Mesta, were ignored by Philip II who received a great deal of revenue from wool. Eventually, Castile became barren, and Spain was wholly dependent on imported food that, given the cost of transportation and the risk of piracy, was far more expensive in Spain than elsewhere. As a result, Spain's population grew much slower than France's; by Louis XIV's time, France had a population greater than that of Spain and England combined. Species See text. ... Unshorn merino sheep. ... Species See text. ... Mesta is a river in Bulgaria and Greece, see Mesta (river). ...

The Harvesters by Pieter Brueghel the Elder

Credit emerged as a widespread tool of Spanish business in the 17th century. The city of Antwerp, in the Spanish Netherlands, lay at the heart of European commerce and its bankers financed most of Charles V's and Philip II's wars on credit. The use of "notes of exchange" became common as Antwerp banks became increasingly powerful and led to extensive speculation that helped to exaggerate price shifts. Although these trends laid the foundation for the development of capitalism in Spain and Europe as a whole, the total lack of regulation and pervasive corruption meant that small landowners often lost everything with a single stroke of misfortune. Estates in Spain grew progressively larger and the economy became increasingly uncompetitive, particularly during the reigns of Philip III and IV when repeated speculative crises shook Spain. The Harvesters by Pieter Brueghel the Elder. ... The Harvesters by Pieter Brueghel the Elder. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Latifundia are pieces of landed property covering tremendous areas. ...


The Roman Catholic Church had always been important to the Spanish economy, and particularly in the reigns of Philip III and IV, who had bouts of intense personal piety and church philanthropy, large areas of the country were donated to the church. The later Habsburgs did nothing to promote redistribution of land, and by the end of Charles II's reign, most of Castile was in the hands of a select few landowners, the largest of which by far was the Church.


Spanish art and culture (1516–1700)

Main article: Spanish Golden Age The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ...


The Spanish Golden Age was a flourishing period of arts and letters in Spain which spanned roughly from 1550–1650. Some of the outstanding figures of the period were El Greco, Diego Velázquez, Miguel de Cervantes, and Pedro Calderón de la Barca. El Greco (The Greek, 1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. ... Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660), commonly referred to as Diego Velázquez, was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV. He was an individualistic artist of the contemporary baroque period, important as a portrait artist. ... Don Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (IPA: in modern Spanish; September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616) was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. ... Pedro Calderón de la Barca. ...


El Greco and Velázquez were both painters, the former most notably recognized for his religious depictions and the latter—now regarded as one of the most important figures in all of Spanish art—for his precise, realistic portraiture of the contemporary court of Philip IV. Cervantes and de la Barca were both writers; Don Quixote de la Mancha, by Cervantes, is one of the most famous works of the period and probably the best-known piece of Spanish literature of all time. It is a parody of the romantic, chivalric aspects of knighthood and a criticism of contemporary social structures and societal norms. Juana Inés de la Cruz, the last great writer of this golden age, died in New Spain in 1695. (IPA: , but see spelling and pronunciation below), fully titled (The Ingenious Hidalgo Don Quixote of La Mancha) is an early novel written by Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. ... Sor Juana (12 November 1651 (or 1648, according to some biographers) – 17 April 1695), also known as Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz or, in full, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz de Asbaje y Ramírez, was a self taught Mexican scholar, nun, and writer of the... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


This period also saw a flourishing in intellectual activity, now known as the School of Salamanca, producing thinkers that were studied throughout Europe. The School of Salamanca is the renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria. ...


See also

Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Capital Toledo (1492-1561) Madrid (since 1561) Language(s) Spanish Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy Monarch  - 1516-1556 Charles I  - 1886-1902 Maria Christina of Austria, Regent during the minority of king Alphonse XIII History  - Discovery of the Americas 1492  - Conquest of the Aztec Empire 1519-1521  - Conquest of the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Combatants Habsburg Dynasty including: Habsburg Spain Holy Roman Empire Kingdom of Hungary Austrian Empire Non-Habsburg Allies: Tsardom of Russia Holy League Allies: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Republic of Venice Ottoman Turks Barbary States (Under Ottoman Protection) Crimean Khanate The Ottoman-Habsburg wars refers to the conflicts between the Ottoman Empire... The Great Plague (1649) was a massive outbreak of disease in Spain that killed 60,000 people, up to a 46% of Sevillas population. ...

References

  • Armstrong, Edward (1902). The emperor Charles V. New York: The Macmillan Company
  • Black, Jeremy (1996). The Cambridge illustrated atlas of warfare: Renaissance to revolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-47033-1
  • Braudel, Fernand (1972). The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II, trans. Siân Reynolds. New York: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-090566-2
  • Brown, J. and Elliott, J. H. (1980). A palace for a king. The Buen Retiro and the Court of Philip IV. New Haven: Yale University Press
  • Brown, Jonathan (1998). Painting in Spain : 1500–1700. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-06472-1
  • Dominguez Ortiz, Antonio (1971). The golden age of Spain, 1516–1659. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-297-00405-0
  • Edwards, John (2000). The Spain of the Catholic Monarchs, 1474–1520. New York: Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-16165-1
  • Harman, Alec (1969). Late Renaissance and Baroque music. New York: Schocken Books.
  • Kamen, Henry (1998). Philip of Spain. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07800-5
  • Kamen, Henry (2003). Empire: How Spain Became a World Power, 1492–1763. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-093264-3
  • Kamen, Henry (2005). Spain 1469–1714. A Society of Conflict (3rd ed.) London and New York: Pearson Longman. ISBN 0-582-78464-6
  • Parker, Geoffrey (1997). The Thirty Years' War (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-12883-8
  • Parker, Geoffrey (1972). The Army of flanders and the Spanish road, 1567–1659; the logistics of Spanish victory and defeat in the Low Countries' Wars.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-08462-8
  • Parker, Geoffrey (1977). The Dutch revolt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-8014-1136-X
  • Parker, Geoffrey (1978). Philip II. Boston: Little, Brown. ISBN 0-316-69080-5
  • Parker, Geoffrey (1997). The general crisis of the seventeenth century. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16518-0
  • Stradling, R. A. (1988). Philip IV and the government of Spain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-32333-9
  • Various (1983). Historia de la literatura espanola. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel
  • Wright, Esmond, ed. (1984). History of the World, Part II: The last five hundred years (3rd ed.). New York: Hamlyn Publishing. ISBN 0-517-43644-2.
  • Gallardo, Alexander (2002), "Spanish Economics in the 16th Century; Theory, Policy, and Preactice," Lincoln, NE:Writiers Club Press,2002. ISBN 0-595-26036-5.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Habsburg Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6982 words)
Spain's 16th century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto in 1571 (which was symbolically important to the Spanish), and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada in 1588, in a series of victories against England in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585-1604.
Her husband Philip was the Habsburg son of the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy and simultaneously became king-consort Philip I of Castile.
Spain was not yet at peace, as the aggressive Henry II of France came to the throne in 1547 and immediately renewed the conflict with Spain.
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