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Encyclopedia > Habituation

In psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition of a stimulus. It is another form of integration. An animal first responds to a stimulus, but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal reduces subsequent responses. One example of this can be seen in small song birds - if a stuffed owl (or similar predator) is put into the cage, the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator. Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced (or the same one removed and re-introduced), the birds react to it as though it were a predator, showing that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to (namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place). Habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal, including the large protozoan Stentor coeruleus. [1] Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Stimulation is the irritating action of various agents (stimuli) on muscles, nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which activity is evoked; especially, the nervous impulse produced by various agents on nerves, or a sensory end organ, by which the part connected with the nerve is thrown into a state... Look up integration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Families Strigidae Tytonidae Ogygoptyngidae (fossil) Palaeoglaucidae (fossil) Protostrigidae (fossil) Sophiornithidae (fossil) Synonyms Strigidae sensu Sibley & Ahlquist Owls are a group of birds of prey. ... This snapping turtle is trying to make a meal of a Canada goose, but the goose is too wary. ...


Habituation need not be conscious - for example, a short time after we get dressed, the stimulus clothing creates disappears from our nervous systems and we become unaware of it. In this way, habituation is used to ignore any continual stimulus, presumably because changes in stimulus level are normally far more important than absolute levels of stimulation. This sort of habituation can occur through neural adaptation in sensory nerves themselves and through negative feedback from the brain to peripheral sensory organs. Clothing protects the vulnerable nude human body from the extremes of weather, other features of our environment, and for safety reasons. ... Neural adaptation or sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The learning underlying habituation is a fundamental or basic process of biological systems and does not require conscious motivation or awareness to occur. Indeed, without habituation we would be unable to distinguish meaningful information from the background, unchanging information.


Habituation is stimulus specific. It does not cause a general decline in responsiveness. It functions like an average weighted history wavelet interference filter reducing the responsiveness of the organism to a particular stimulus. Frequently one can see opponent processes after the stimulus is removed. A wavelet is a kind of mathematical function used to divide a given function into different frequency components and study each component with a resolution that matches its scale. ... Opponent processes are observable in neuro impulses (Garbor wavelets), simmilar to qualia in philosophy. ...


Habituation is connected to associational reciprocal inhibition phenomena, opponent processes, motion aftereffects, color constancy, size constancy, and negative afterimages. Reciprocal Inhibition This describes muscles on one side of a joint relaxing to accommodate contraction on the other side of that joint. ... The motion aftereffect (MAE) -is a visual illusion perceived after watching a moving visual stimulus for about a minute and then looking at stationary stimulus. ... Color constancy is an example of subjective constancy and a feature of the human color-perception system which ensures that the perceived color of objects remains relatively constant under varying illumination conditions. ... An afterimage is an optical illusion that occurs after looking away from a direct gaze at an image. ...


Habituation is frequently used in testing psychological phenomena. Both infants and adults look less and less at a particular stimulus the longer it is presented. The amount of time spent looking at a new stimulus after habituation to the initial stimulus indicates the effective similarity of the two stimuli. It is also used to discover the resolution of perceptual systems. For example, by habituating someone to one stimulus, and then observing responses to similar ones, one can detect the smallest degree of difference that is detectable.


Habituation is also commonly found in the case of odors. For example, one may not be able to smell one's own bad breath while being able to smell another's.


Dishabituation is when a second stimulus is used, which briefly increases habituated response, it has been shown that this is a different mechanism from sensitization. Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al. ...


See also

Banner blindness is a usability phenomenon in which visitors on a website ignore banner-like information. ... Neural adaptation or sensory adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the sensory system to a constant stimulus. ... This is a list of topics in human-computer interaction. ... Usability testing is a means for measuring how well people can use some human-made object (such as a web page, a computer interface, a document, or a device) for its intended purpose, i. ... Educational technology is the use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching. ...

External links

Look up Habituation in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Definition at UsabilityFirst

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

References

  1. ^ Wood, D. C. (1988). Habituation in Stentor produced by mechanoreceptor channel modification. Journal of Neuroscience, 2254 (8).

  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Habitus (809 words)
Habitus is a complex concept referring primarily to the non-discursive aspects of culture that bind individuals to larger groups.
Loic Wacquant wrote that habitus is an old philosophical notion, originating in the thought of Aristotle and of the medieval Scholastics, that was retrieved and reworked after the 1960s by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu to forge a dispositional theory of action suited to reintroducing the inventive capacity of agents within structuralist anthropology.
The concept of habitus is foundational to Bourdieu’s theory of social research.
Habitus - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (679 words)
Habitus is a complex concept referring primarily to the non-discursive aspects of culture that bind individuals to larger groups.
Loic Wacquant wrote that habitus is an old philosophical notion, originating in the thought of Aristotle and of the medieval Scholastics, that was retrieved and reworked after the 1960s by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu to forge a dispositional theory of action suited to reintroducing the inventive capacity of agents within structuralist anthropology.
The concept of habitus is foundational to Bourdieu’s theory of social research.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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