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Encyclopedia > Haakon IV of Norway
Håkon Håkonsson
King of Norway
An illustration of Hákon, King of Norway, and his son Magnus, from Flateyjarbók
An illustration of Hákon, King of Norway, and his son Magnus, from Flateyjarbók
Reign 1217December 16, 1263
Coronation July 29, 1247, old cathedral of Bergen
Born 1204
Varteig
Died December 16, 1263
Kirkwall, Orkney Islands
Buried Old cathedral of Bergen
Consort Margrét Skúladóttir
Issue Olav (Óláfr) (1226-?)

Håkon (Hákon) (Håkon the Young) (1232-1257)
Christina (Kristín) (1234-?)
Magnus (Magnús) (1238-1280)
By his mistress, Kanga the young:
Sigurd (Sigurðr) (<1225-1254)
Cecilia (<1225-1248) Image File history File links HakonTheOldAndSon-Flateyjarbok. ... Image File history File links HakonTheOldAndSon-Flateyjarbok. ... The Flatey Book, (in Icelandic the Flateyjarbók Flat-island book) is one of the most important medieval Icelandic manuscripts. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Shams ad-Din disappears resulting in Jalal Uddin Rumi writing 30,000 verses of poetry about his disappearance. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2006) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2006) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Haakon Haakonsson the Young (10 November 1232 - 5 May 1257), Norwegian HÃ¥kon HÃ¥konsson Unge, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson hinn ungi, was the son of king Haakon Haakonsson of Norway, and held the title of king, subordinate to his father, from 1 April 1240 to his death. ... Kristina of Norway (born in 1234 in Bergen – circa 1262), sometimes spelled Christina or Kristín, was a daughter of King HÃ¥kon IV of Norway and his wife, Margrete Skuledotter. ... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ...

Father Håkon III Sverreson
Mother Inga of Varteig (died 1234)

Haakon Haakonsson (1204December 15, 1263) (Norwegian Håkon Håkonsson, Old Norse Hákon Hákonarson), also called Haakon the Old, was king of Norway from 1217 to 1263. Under his rule, medieval Norway reached its peak. Haakon III (HÃ¥kon Sverreson) was a king of Norway from 1202-1204. ... // Events February - Byzantine emperor Alexius IV is overthrown in a revolution, and Alexius V is proclaimed emperor. ... is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The...

Contents

Background and childhood

Håkon's mother was Inga of Varteig. She claimed he was the illegitimate son of Håkon III of Norway, the leader of the birkebeiner faction in the ongoing civil war against the bagler. Håkon III had visited Varteig, in what is now Østfold county, the previous year. He was dead by the time Håkon was born, but Inga's claim was supported by several of Håkon III's followers, and the birkebeiner recognized Håkon as a king's son. Haakon III (HÃ¥kon Sverreson) was a king of Norway from 1202-1204. ... The Birkebein Party or Birkebeinar was the name for a rebellious party in Norway, formed in 1174 around the pretender Eystein Meyla. ... The Bagler faction which was made up of aristocracy, clergy and merchants contested with the Birkebeiners, essentially a faction of peasants, led by the pretender King Sverre, for control in a Norwegian civil war during the late 12th century. ... Østfold is a county in southeastern Norway, bordering Akershus and southwestern Sweden (Västra Götaland County and Värmland), while Vestfold is on the other side of the bay. ...


The civil war era in Norwegian history lasted from 1130 to 1240. During this period there were several interlocked conflicts of varying scale and intensity. The background for these conflicts were the unclear Norwegian succession laws, social conditions and the struggle between different aristocratic parties and between Church and King. There were opposing factions, firstly known by varying names or no names at all, but finally condensed into the two parties birkebeiner and bagler. The rallying point regularly was a royal son, who was set up as the figurehead of the party in question, to oppose the rule of king from the contesting party. Håkon's putative father Håkon III had already sought some reconciliation with the Bagler party and with exiled bishops. His death was early and poisoning was suspected. He was not married. After his death, the bagler started another rising leading to the de facto division of the country into a bagler kingdom in the south-east, and a birkebeiner kingdom in the west and north. Norwegian longship The Civil war era of Norwegian history (Norwegian borgerkrigstida) is a term used for the period between 1130 and 1240 in the history of Norway. ... // [edit] Etymology Modern etymologists believe the countrys name means the northward route (the way north), which in Old Norse would be nor veg or *norð vegr. ... Events February 13 - Innocent II is elected pope An antipope schism occurs when Roger II of Sicily supports Anacletus II as pope instead of Innocent II. Innocent flees to France and Anacletus crowns Roger King. ... Events Batu Khan and the Golden Horde sack the Ruthenian city of Kyiv Births Pope Benedict XI Deaths April 11 - Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, also known as Llywelyn The Great Prince of Gwynedd Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile... Introduction Succession laws are used for determining who will be the next heir to the throne of a kingdom, principality, etc. ... The Birkebein Party or Birkebeinar was the name for a rebellious party in Norway, formed in 1174 around the pretender Eystein Meyla. ... The Bagler faction which was made up of aristocracy, clergy and merchants contested with the Birkebeiners, essentially a faction of peasants, led by the pretender King Sverre, for control in a Norwegian civil war during the late 12th century. ...


Håkon was born in territory which was controlled by the Bagler faction, and his mother's claim that he was a birkebeiner royal son placed them both in a very dangerous position. When in 1206 the Bagler tried to take advantage of the situation and started hunting Håkon, a group of Birkebeiner warriors fled with the child, heading for King Inge II of Norway, the birkebeiner king in Nidaros (now Trondheim). On their way they came into a blizzard, and only the two mightiest warriors, Torstein Skevla and Skjervald Skrukka, continued on skis, carrying the child in their arms. They managed to bring the heir to safety. This event still is commemorated in Norway's most important annual skiing event, the Birkebeiner ski race. The Bagler faction which was made up of aristocracy, clergy and merchants contested with the Birkebeiners, essentially a faction of peasants, led by the pretender King Sverre, for control in a Norwegian civil war during the late 12th century. ... Events Temujin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire Qutb ud-Din proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. ... Inge Baardson (1185 - 1217) was a king of Norway between 1205 and 1217. ... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... A shaped, twin-tip alpine ski. ... Birkebeinerrennet (lit. ...

19th century artist's impression of the birkebeiner bringing the infant Håkon to safety.
19th century artist's impression of the birkebeiner bringing the infant Håkon to safety.

Image File history File links Birkebeinerne_ski. ... Image File history File links Birkebeinerne_ski. ...

Early reign

So the rescued child was placed under the protection of King Inge Bårdsson. After King Inge's death in 1217 he, at the age of 13, was chosen king. Håkon was chosen against the candidacy of Inge's half-brother, earl Skule Bårdsson. Skule, however, as earl, retained the real royal power. In connection with the dispute over the royal election, Håkon's mother Inga had to prove his parentage through a trial by ordeal in Bergen in 1218. The church at first refused to recognize him, partly on the ground of illegitimacy. Inge Baardson (1185 - 1217) was a king of Norway between 1205 and 1217. ... April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... Skule Baardsson or Duke Skule allowed his supporters to proclaim him king of Norway at the traditional Øyrating in 1239. ... Trial by ordeal is a judicial practice by which the guilt or innocence of the accused is determined by subjecting them to a painful task. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ...


In 1223 a great meeting of all the bishops, earls, lendmenn and other prominent men was held in Bergen to finally decide on Håkon's right to the throne. The other candidates to the throne were Guttorm Ingesson, the 11-year-old illegitimate son of King Inge Bårdsson, Knut Haakonson, legitimate son of earl Haakon the Crazy, who resided in Västergötland, Sweden, with his mother Kristin, earl Skule, who based his claim on being the closest living relative - a legitimate brother - of king Inge, and Sigurd Ribbung, who was at the time a captive of earl Skule. Haakon was confirmed as king of Norway, as a direct heir of King Håkon Sverresson, king Inge's predeccor. A most important factor in his victory was the fact that the church now took Håkon's side, despite his illegitimate birth. However, the Pope's dispensation for his coronation was not gained until 1247. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about a title... For other uses, see Earl (disambiguation). ... Lendmann (old norse lendir maðr), was a title in medieval Norway. ... Knut Haakonsson (Old Norse Knútr Hákonarson, modern Norwegian Knut HÃ¥konsson), born c. ... HÃ¥kon the Crazy (Hákon galinn) was a Norwegian earl, and birkebeiner chieftain during the civil war era in Norway. ... Sigurd Ribbung, old Norse Sigurðr ribbungr, (died 1226) was a pretender to the throne of Norway from 1218 until his death, during the final phases of the civil war era in Norway. ... Haakon III (HÃ¥kon Sverreson) was a king of Norway from 1202-1204. ...


In 1217, Philip Simonsson, the last Bagler king, died. Speedy political and military manoeuvering by Skule Bårdsson led to reconciliation between the birkebeiner and bagler, and the reunification of the kingdom. However, some discontented elements among the bagler found a new royal pretender, Sigurd Ribbung and launched a new rising in the eastern parts of the country. This was finally quashed in 1227, leaving Håkon more or less uncontested monarch. Philip Simonsson (old Norse Filippus Símonsson), d. ... Sigurd Ribbung, old Norse Sigurðr ribbungr, (died 1226) was a pretender to the throne of Norway from 1218 until his death, during the final phases of the civil war era in Norway. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ...


In the earlier part of Håkon's reign much of the royal power was in the hands of Skule Bårdsson. From the start of his reign, it was decided that Skule should rule one third of the kingdom, as earl, and Skule helped put down the rising of Sigurd Ribbung. But the relationship between Skule and Håkon became more and more strained as Håkon came of age, and asserted his power. As an attempt to reconcile the two, in 1225 Håkon married Skule's daughter Margrét Skúladóttir. In 1239 the conflict between the two erupted into open warfare, when Skule had himself proclaimed king in Nidaros. The rebellion ended in 1240 when Skule was put to death. The rebellion also led to the death of Snorri Sturluson. Skule's other son-in-law, the one-time claimant Knut Haakonsson, did not join the revolt, but remained loyal to king Haakon. This rebellion is generally taken to mark the end of Norway's age of civil wars. Skule Baardsson or Duke Skule allowed his supporters to proclaim him king of Norway at the traditional Øyrating in 1239. ... Nidaros was the old name of Trondheim, Norway, in the middle ages. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ... Knut Haakonsson (Old Norse Knútr Hákonarson, modern Norwegian Knut HÃ¥konsson), born c. ...


Later reign

From this time onward Håkon’s reign was marked by internal peace and more prosperity than Norway had known for many years. This was the start of what has traditionally been known as the golden age of the Norwegian medieval kingdom. In 1247 Håkon finally achieved recognition by the pope, who sent Cardinal William of Sabina to Bergen to crown him. Abroad, Håkon mounted a campaign against the Danish province of Halland in 1256. In 1261 the Norse community in Greenland agreed to submit to the Norwegian king, and in 1262, Håkon achieved one of his long-standing ambitions when Iceland, racked by internal conflict and prompted by Håkon's Icelandic clients, did the same. The kingdom of Norway was now the largest it has ever been. In 1263 a dispute with the Scottish king concerning the Hebrides, a Norwegian possession, induced Haakon to undertake an expedition to the west of Scotland. Alexander III of Scotland had conquered the Hebrides the previous year. Håkon retook the islands with his formidable leidang fleet, and launched some forays onto the Scottish mainland as well. A division of his army seems to have repulsed a large Scottish force at Largs (though the later Scottish accounts claim this battle as a victory). Negotiations between the Scots and the Norwegians took place, which were purposely prolonged by the Scots, as Håkon's position would grow more difficult the longer he had to keep his fleet together so far away from home. An Irish delegation approached Håkon with an offer to provide for his fleet through the winter, if Håkon would help them against the English. Håkon seems to have been favourable to this proposition, but his men refused. Eventually the fleet retreated to the Orkney Islands for the winter. William of Modena, also known as William of Sabina, Guglielmo de Chartreaux, Guglielmo de Savoy, Guillelmus (c. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... is a historical province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... The Battle of Largs took place in Largs, North Ayrshire in 1263 between Scotland and the forces of King Magnus III of Man and the Isles as well as the manxmens ally, King Haakon IV of Norway. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ...


While Håkon was wintering in the Orkney Islands and staying in the Bishop's Palace, Kirkwall, he fell ill, and died on December 16, 1263. A great part of his fleet had been scattered and destroyed by storms. Håkon was buried for the winter in St Magnus' Cathedral in Kirkwall. When spring came he was exhumed and his body taken back to Norway, where he was buried in the old cathedral in his capital, Bergen. This cathedral was demolished in 1531, the site is today marked by a memorial. The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Bishops Palace, Kirkwall was built at the same time as the adjacent St Magnus Cathedral in the centre of Kirkwall, Orkney was being constructed, and housed the cathedrals first bishop, William the Old of the Norwegian Catholic church who took his authority from the Archbishop of Trondheim. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... St Magnus Cathedral, Kirkwall is the cathedral in the capital of Orkney in Scotland. ... Kirkwall is the largest town and capital of the Orkney Islands, off the coast of northern mainland Scotland. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ...


On his deathbed Håkon declared that he only knew of one son who was still alive, Magnus, who subsequently succeeded him as king. Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ...


In 1240, a group of Bjarmians told Håkon that they were refugees from the Mongols. He gave them land in Malangen. Biarmland (or Bjarmaland) was a territory in Northern Europe, Northern Russia, mentioned by early European literature, where Finnic Biarmians lived or rather ruled. ... Malangen is a fjord, landscape and former municipality in the county of Troms, Norway. ...


Views on Håkon's reign

Norwegian historians have held strongly differing views on Håkon Håkonsson's reign. In the 19th century, the dominant view was of Håkon as the mighty king, who ended the civil wars and ruled over the largest Norwegian empire ever. The historian P. A. Munch represents this view. In the 1920s came a reaction. Håkon was now seen by many as an insignificant and average man, who happened to be king at a time of greatness for the Norwegian kingdom. This has often been stated by Marxist historians. The historian Halvdan Koht is typical of this view. Håkon has often been compared with Skule Bårdsson, his last rival, with modern historians taking sides in this 700-year-old conflict. He is also inevitably compared with his grandfather, King Sverre, and most historians tend to conclude that he wasn't quite the dynamic and charismatic leader that Sverre was. Recently, the historian Sverre Bagge and others have emphasized the fact that much of what we know about both Håkon and Sverre comes from their respective official biographies. Therefore what we might know about their individual character and personality is only what the authors of these have chosen to reveal to us, and therefore depends heavily on these authors' motivation in writing a biography. A comparison between Håkon and Sverre on these grounds seems arbitrary and unfair. Historical materialism is the methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history which was first articulated by Karl Marx (1818-1883), although Marx himself never used the term (he referred it as philosophical materialism, a term he used to distinguish it from what he called popular materialism). Historical... Halvdan Koht (b. ... Skule Baardsson or Duke Skule allowed his supporters to proclaim him king of Norway at the traditional Øyrating in 1239. ... King Sverres trek across the Voss mountains is imagined in this 19th century painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. ...


What remains clear is that Håkon was born in a war-torn society plagued by armed gangs and warlords, and died the undisputed ruler of a large and internationally respected kingdom. Håkon received embassies and exchanged gifts with rulers as far afield as Tunis, Novgorod and Castile. At his court, chivalric romances and Biblical stories were translated into the old Norse language, and Håkon presided over several large-scale construction projects in stone, a novelty in Norway at that time. The great hall which he had built at his palace in Bergen (Håkonshallen) can still be seen today. Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Coat of arms Kingdom of Castile in the 15th century. ... As a literary genre, romance refers to a style of heroic prose and verse narrative current in Europe from the Middle Ages to the Renaissance. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ...


Our main source of information concerning Håkon is Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar (Håkon Håkonsson's saga) which was written in the 1260s, only a few years after his death. It was commissioned by his son Magnus, and written by the Icelandic writer and politician Sturla Þórðarson, nephew of the famous historian Snorri Sturluson. Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar (The Saga of Haakon Haakonsson) is an Old Norse kings saga, telling the story of the life and reign of king Haakon Haakonsson of Norway. ... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ... Sturla Þórðarson was an Icelandic politician/chieftain and writer of sagas during the 13th century. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ...


A literary treatment of Håkon's struggle with Skule can be found in Henrik Ibsen's play The Pretenders (1863). Ibsen redirects here. ...


Descendants

By his mistress, Kanga the young:

  • Sigurd (Sigurðr) (<1225-1254)
  • Cecilia (<1225-1248). She married Gregorius Andresson, a nephew of the last bagler king Filippus Simonsson. Widowed, she later married king Harald (Haraldr) of the Hebrides, a vassal of king Håkon, in Bergen. They both drowned on the voyage to the Hebrides.

By his wife Margrét Skúladóttir: Philip Simonsson the Bagler King was a son of queen Ingrid and Arne of Stodreim. ... This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  1. Olav (Óláfr) (1226-?). Died in infancy.
  2. Håkon (Hákon) (Håkon the Young) (1232-1257). Married Rikitsa Birgersdóttir, daughter of the Swedish earl Birger. Was appointed king and co-ruler by his father in 1239, he died before his father.
  3. Christina (Kristín) (1234-?). Married the Spanish prince, Felipe, brother of King Alfonso X of Castile in 1258. She died childless.
  4. Magnus (Magnús) (1238-1280). Was appointed king and co-ruler following the death of Håkon the Young. Crowned as king in 1261 on the occasion of his wedding to the Danish princess Ingibjörg.

The appointment of co-rulers was meant to ensure the peaceful succession in case the king should die - as long as Håkon was still alive he was still the undisputed ruler of the kingdom. Kristina of Norway (born in 1234 in Bergen – circa 1262), sometimes spelled Christina or Kristín, was a daughter of King HÃ¥kon IV of Norway and his wife, Margrete Skuledotter. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ...


References

  • Sturla Þórðarson; translation to English by G.W. Dasent (1894, repr. 1964). The Saga of Hakon and a Fragment of the Saga of Magnus with Appendices. London (Rerum Britannicarum Medii Ævi Scriptores, vol.88.4). 
  • Sverre Bagge (1996). From Gang Leader to the Lord's Anointed. Odense (Odense University Press). 

External links

  • The Norwegian account of Haco's expedition against Scotland, A.D. MCCLXIII, available at Project Gutenberg.
Preceded by
Inge II Bårdson
King of Norway
1217–1263
Succeeded by
Magnus VI Lagabøte

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... Inge Baardson (1185 - 1217) was a king of Norway between 1205 and 1217. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Haakon IV of Norway - definition of Haakon IV of Norway in Encyclopedia (471 words)
Håkon IV (1204—December 15, 1263), also called Haakon the Old, was declared to be the son of Håkon III of Norway, the leader of the Birkebeiner, who had seized control over large parts of Norway in 1202.
From this time onward Haakon’s reign was marked by more peace and prosperity than Norway had known for many years, until in 1263 a dispute with the Scottish king concerning the Hebrides, a Norwegian possession, induced Haakon to undertake an expedition to the west of Scotland.
Haakon was wintering in the Orkney Islands, when he was ill and died on December 15 1263.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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