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Encyclopedia > HTML
HTML (HyperText Markup Language)
File extension .html, .htm
MIME type text/html
Type code TEXT
Uniform Type Identifier public.html
Developed by World Wide Web Consortium
Type of format Markup language
Extended from SGML
Extended to XHTML

HTML, an initialism of HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to describe the structure of text-based information in a document — by denoting certain text as links, headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on — and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of tags, surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe, to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as JavaScript) which can affect the behavior of Web browsers and other HTML processors. Image File history File links HTML.svg‎ sample html file image from the dreftymac ImageNode series for more details, see (http://en. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate its type. ... For mime as an art form, see mime artist. ... A type code is a mechanism used in pre-Mac OS X versions of the Macintosh operating system to denote a files format, in a manner similar to file extensions in other operating systems. ... A Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) is a string that uniquely identifies the type of a class of items. ... WWWC redirects here. ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... Look up acronym, initialism, alphabetism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A specialized markup language using SGML is used to write the electronic version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... A screenshot of a web page. ... See parenthesis for an account of the rhetorical concept from which the name of the punctuation mark is derived. ... Semantics (Ancient σημαντικός semantikos significant, from semainein to signify, mean, from sema sign, token), is the study of meaning in communication. ... A scripting language, script language or extension language, is a programming language that controls software application. ... An example of a Web browser (Mozilla Firefox) A web browser is a software application that enables a user to display and interact with text, images, videos, music and other information typically located on a Web page at a website on the World Wide Web or a local area network. ...


HTML is also often used to refer to content of the MIME type text/html or even more broadly as a generic term for HTML whether in its XML-descended form (such as XHTML 1.0 and later) or its form descended directly from SGML (such as HTML 4.01 and earlier). Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard for the format of e-mail. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ...


By convention, html format data files use a file extension .html or .htm.

Contents

History of HTML

Origins

In 1980, physicist Tim Berners-Lee, who was an independent contractor at CERN, proposed and prototyped ENQUIRE, a system for CERN researchers to use and share documents. In 1989, Berners-Lee and CERN data systems engineer Robert Cailliau each submitted separate proposals for an Internet-based hypertext system providing similar functionality. The following year, they collaborated on a joint proposal, the WorldWideWeb (W3) project,[1] which was accepted by CERN. Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... ENQUIRE was an early project (in the second half of 1980) of Tim Berners-Lee, who went on to create the World Wide Web in 1989. ... Robert Cailliau. ... In computing, hypertext is a user interface paradigm for displaying documents which, according to an early definition (Nelson 1970), branch or perform on request. ...


First specifications

The first publicly available description of HTML was a document called HTML Tags, first mentioned on the Internet by Berners-Lee in late 1991.[2][3] It describes 22 elements comprising the initial, relatively simple design of HTML. Thirteen of these elements still exist in HTML 4.[4]


Berners-Lee considered HTML to be, at the time, an application of SGML, but it was not formally defined as such until the mid-1993 publication, by the IETF, of the first proposal for an HTML specification: Berners-Lee and Dan Connolly's "Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)" Internet-Draft, which included an SGML Document Type Definition to define the grammar.[5] The draft expired after six months, but was notable for its acknowledgment of the NCSA Mosaic browser's custom tag for embedding in-line images, reflecting the IETF's philosophy of basing standards on successful prototypes.[6] Similarly, Dave Raggett's competing Internet-Draft, "HTML+ (Hypertext Markup Format)", from late 1993, suggested standardizing already-implemented features like tables and fill-out forms.[7] The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) is a metalanguage in which one can define markup languages for documents. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. ... Dan Connolly received a B.S. in Computer Science from the University of Texas at Austin in 1990. ... Document Type Definition (DTD), defined slightly differently within the XML and SGML (the language XML was derived from) specifications, is one of several SGML and XML schema languages, and is also the term used to describe a document or portion thereof that is authored in the DTD language. ... This article is about the browser produced by NCSA. For the browser that was later renamed, see Netscape Navigator. ...


After the HTML and HTML+ drafts expired in early 1994, the IETF created an HTML Working Group, which in 1995 completed "HTML 2.0", the first HTML specification intended to be treated as a standard against which future implementations should be based.[6] Published as Request for Comments 1996, HTML 2.0 included ideas from the HTML and HTML+ drafts.[8] There was no "HTML 1.0"; the 2.0 designation was intended to distinguish the new edition from previous drafts.[9] In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ...


Further development under the auspices of the IETF was stalled by competing interests. Since 1996, the HTML specifications have been maintained, with input from commercial software vendors, by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).[7] However, in 2000, HTML also became an international standard (ISO/IEC 15445:2000). The last HTML specification published by the W3C is the HTML 4.01 Recommendation, published in late 1999. Its issues and errors were last acknowledged by errata published in 2001. WWWC redirects here. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ...


Version history of the standard

HTML
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HTML has been in use since 1991, but HTML 4. ... Dynamic HTML or DHTML is a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (Cascading Style Sheets, CSS), and the Document Object... In HTML and XHTML, a font face or font family is the typeface that is applied to some text. ... An HTML editor is a software application for creating web pages. ... In computing, an HTML element indicates structure in an HTML document and a way of hierarchically arranging content. ... The W3C HTML standard includes support for client-side scripting. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... Quirks mode refers to a technique used by some web browsers to maintain backwards compatibility with web pages designed for older browsers. ... Web style sheets are a form of separation of presentation and content for web design in which the markup (i. ... Web pages authored using hypertext markup language (HTML) may contain multilingual text represented with the Unicode universal character set. ... WWWC redirects here. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of web browsers. ... Web colors are colors used in designing web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... The following tables compare XHTML compatibility and support for a number of layout engines. ...

HTML versions

July, 1993: Hypertext Markup Language, was published at IETF working draft (that is, not yet a standard). The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. ...


November, 1995: HTML 2.0 published as IETF Request for Comments: In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ...

  • RFC 1866,
  • supplemented by RFC 1867 (form-based file upload) that same month,
  • RFC 1942 (tables) in May 1996,
  • RFC 1980 (client-side image maps) in August 1996, and
  • RFC 2070 (internationalization) in January 1997;

Ultimately, all were declared obsolete/historic by RFC 2854 in June 2000. Internationalization redirects here. ...


An HTML 3.0 standard was proposed to the IETF by Dave Raggett and the newly formed W3C in April 1995. It proposed many of the capabilities that were in Raggett's HTML+ proposal, such as support for tables, text flow around figures, and the display of complex mathematical elements.[10] Even though it was designed to be compatible with HTML 2.0, it was too complex at the time to be implemented. Browser vendors opted to support only parts of the proposal, but implemented other markup constructs that they wanted to be incorporated into the standard.[11] When the draft expired in September 1995, work in this direction was discontinued due to lack of browser support. HTML 3.1 was never officially proposed, and the next standard proposal was HTML 3.2 (code-named "Wilbur"), which dropped the majority of the new features in HTML 3.0 and instead adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes that had been created for the Netscape and Mosaic Web browsers.[12] The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is a consortium that produces standards—recommendations, as they call them—for the World Wide Web. ... Netscape Navigator, also known as Netscape, was a proprietary web browser that was popular during the 1990s. ... This article is about the browser produced by NCSA. For the browser that was later renamed, see Netscape Navigator. ...


January 14, 1997: HTML 3.2, published as a W3C Recommendation. is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... A W3C Recommendation is the final stage of a ratification process of the W3C working group concerning the standard. ...


HTML 3.2 was never submitted to the IETF, whose HTML Working Group closed in September 1996;[13] it was instead published as one of the W3C's first "Recommendations" in early 1997. Mathematical support as proposed by HTML 3.0 finally came about years later with a different standard, MathML. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. ...


December 18, 1997: HTML 4.0, published as a W3C Recommendation. It offers three "flavors": is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...

  • Strict, in which deprecated elements are forbidden,
  • Transitional, in which deprecated elements are allowed,
  • Frameset, in which mostly only frame related elements are allowed;

HTML 4.0 (initially code-named "Cougar")[12] likewise adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes, but at the same time began to try to "clean up" the standard by marking some of them as deprecated, and suggesting they not be used. Minor editorial revisions to the HTML 4.0 specification were published in 1998 without incrementing the version number and further minor revisions as HTML 4.01. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Deprecation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


April 24, 1998: HTML 4.0 was reissued with minor edits without incrementing the version number. is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


December 24, 1999: HTML 4.01, published as a W3C Recommendation. It offers the same three flavors as HTML 4.0, and its last errata were published May 12, 2001. is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


HTML 4.01 and ISO/IEC 15445:2000 are the most recent and final versions of HTML.


May 15, 2000: ISO/IEC 15445:2000 ("ISO HTML", based on HTML 4.01 Strict), published as an ISO/IEC international standard. is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... “ISO” redirects here. ...


January 22, 2008: HTML 5, published as a Working Draft by W3C. is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


XHTML versions

Main article: XHTML

XHTML is a separate language that began as a reformulation of HTML 4.01 using XML 1.0. It continues to be developed: The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ...

  • XHTML 1.0, published January 26, 2000 as a W3C Recommendation, later revised and republished August 1, 2002. It offers the same three flavors as HTML 4.0 and 4.01, reformulated in XML, with minor restrictions.
  • XHTML 1.1, published May 31, 2001 as a W3C Recommendation. It is based on XHTML 1.0 Strict, but includes minor changes, can be customized, and is reformulated using modules from Modularization of XHTML, which was published April 10, 2001 as a W3C Recommendation.
  • XHTML 2.0 is still a W3C Working Draft. XHTML 2.0 is incompatible with XHTML 1.x and, therefore, would be more accurate to characterize as an XHTML-inspired new language than an update to XHTML 1.x.
  • XHTML 5, which is an update to XHTML 1.x, is being defined alongside HTML 5 in the HTML 5 draft.

is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... HTML 5 is the fifth major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web, HTML. HTML 5 expressed in XML is called XHTML 5. ...

HTML markup

HTML markup consists of several key components, including elements (and their attributes), character-based data types, and character references and entity references. Another important component is the document type declaration.


Elements

See HTML elements for more detailed descriptions.

Elements are the basic structure for HTML markup. Elements have two basic properties: attributes and content. Each attribute and each element's content has certain restrictions that must be followed for an HTML document to be considered valid. An element usually has a start tag (e.g. <element-name>) and an end tag (e.g. </element-name>). The element's attributes are contained in the start tag and content is located between the tags (e.g. <element-name attribute="value">Content</element-name>). Some elements, such as <br>, do not have any content and must not have a closing tag. Listed below are several types of markup elements used in HTML. In computing, an HTML element indicates structure in an HTML document and a way of hierarchically arranging content. ...


Structural markup describes the purpose of text. For example, <h2>Golf</h2> establishes "Golf" as a second-level heading, which would be rendered in a browser in a manner similar to the "HTML markup" title at the start of this section. Structural markup does not denote any specific rendering, but most Web browsers have standardized on how elements should be formatted. Text may be further styled with Cascading Style Sheets (CSS). A heading is used to provide hierarchical information about other information. ... CSS redirects here. ...


Presentational markup describes the appearance of the text, regardless of its function. For example <b>boldface</b> indicates that visual output devices should render "boldface" in bold text, but gives no indication what devices which are unable to do this (such as aural devices that read the text aloud) should do. In the case of both <b>bold</b> and <i>italic</i>, there are elements which usually have an equivalent visual rendering but are more semantic in nature, namely <strong>strong emphasis</strong> and <em>emphasis</em> respectively. It is easier to see how an aural user agent should interpret the latter two elements. However, they are not equivalent to their presentational counterparts: it would be undesirable for a screen-reader to emphasize the name of a book, for instance, but on a screen such a name would be italicized. Most presentational markup elements have become deprecated under the HTML 4.0 specification, in favor of CSS based style design. Look up Deprecation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... CSS redirects here. ...


Hypertext markup links parts of the document to other documents. HTML up through version XHTML 1.1 requires the use of an anchor element to create a hyperlink in the flow of text: <a>Wikipedia</a>. However, the href attribute must also be set to a valid URL so for example the HTML code, <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/">Wikipedia</a>, will render the word "Wikipedia" as a hyperlink.To link on an image, the anchor tag use the following syntax: <a href="url"><img src="image.gif"></a> The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... // Uniform Resource Locator (URL) formerly known as Universal Resource Locator, is a technical, Web-related term used in two distinct meanings: In popular usage and many technical documents, it is a synonym for Uniform Resource Identifier (URI); Strictly, the idea of a uniform syntax for global identifiers of network-retrievable... // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ...


Attributes

Most of the attributes of an element are name-value pairs, separated by "=", and written within the start tag of an element, after the element's name. The value may be enclosed in single or double quotes, although values consisting of certain characters can be left unquoted in HTML (but not XHTML).[14][15] Leaving attribute values unquoted is considered unsafe.[16] In contrast with name-value pair attributes, there are some attributes that affect the element simply by their presence in the start tag of the element[17] (like the ismap attribute for the img element[18]).


Most elements can take any of several common attributes:

  • The id attribute provides a document-wide unique identifier for an element. This can be used by stylesheets to provide presentational properties, by browsers to focus attention on the specific element, or by scripts to alter the contents or presentation of an element.
  • The class attribute provides a way of classifying similar elements for presentation purposes. For example, an HTML document might use the designation class="notation" to indicate that all elements with this class value are subordinate to the main text of the document. Such elements might be gathered together and presented as footnotes on a page instead of appearing in the place where they occur in the HTML source.
  • An author may use the style non-attributal codes presentational properties to a particular element. It is considered better practice to use an element’s son- id page and select the element with a stylesheet, though sometimes this can be too cumbersome for a simple ad hoc application of styled properties.
  • The title attribute is used to attach subtextual explanation to an element. In most browsers this attribute is displayed as what is often referred to as a tooltip.

The generic inline element span can be used to demonstrate these various attributes: A web browser tooltip displayed for a hyperlink. ...

 <span id="anId" class="aClass" style="color:blue;" title="Hypertext Markup Language">HTML</span> 

This example displays as HTML; in most browsers, pointing the cursor at the abbreviation should display the title text "Hypertext Markup Language."


Most elements also take the language-related attributes lang and dir.


Character and entity references

As of version 4.0, HTML defines a set of 252 character entity references and a set of 1,114,050 numeric character references, both of which allow individual characters to be written via simple markup, rather than literally. A literal character and its markup counterpart are considered equivalent and are rendered identically. In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a... HTML has been in use since 1991 (note that the W3C international standard is now XHTML), but the first standardized version with a reasonably complete treatment of international characters was version 4. ... A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and other SGML-based markup languages such as HTML and XML. It consists of a short sequence of characters that, in turn, represent a single character from the Universal Character Set (UCS) of Unicode. ...


The ability to "escape" characters in this way allows for the characters < and & (when written as &lt; and &amp;, respectively) to be interpreted as character data, rather than markup. For example, a literal < normally indicates the start of a tag, and & normally indicates the start of a character entity reference or numeric character reference; writing it as &amp; or &#x26; or &#38; allows & to be included in the content of elements or the values of attributes. The double-quote character ("), when used to quote an attribute value, must also be escaped as &quot; or &#x22; or &#34; when it appears within the attribute value itself. The single-quote character ('), when used to quote an attribute value, must also be escaped as &#x27; or &#39; (should NOT be escaped as &apos; except in XHTML documents) when it appears within the attribute value itself. However, since document authors often overlook the need to escape these characters, browsers tend to be very forgiving, treating them as markup only when subsequent text appears to confirm that intent.


Escaping also allows for characters that are not easily typed or that aren't even available in the document's character encoding to be represented within the element and attribute content. For example, the acute-accented e (é), a character typically found only on Western European keyboards, can be written in any HTML document as the entity reference &eacute; or as the numeric references &#233; or &#xE9;. The characters comprising those references (that is, the &, the ;, the letters in eacute, and so on) are available on all keyboards and are supported in all character encodings, whereas the literal é is not. A character encoding consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given character set (sometimes referred to as code page) with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers and the...


Data types

HTML defines several data types for element content, such as script data and stylesheet data, and a plethora of types for attribute values, including IDs, names, URIs, numbers, units of length, languages, media descriptors, colors, character encodings, dates and times, and so on. All of these data types are specializations of character data. In programming languages a data type defines a set of values and the allowable operations on those values[1]. For example, in the Java programming language, the int type represents the set of 32-bit integers ranging in value from -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647, and...


The Document Type Declaration

In order to enable Document Type Definition (DTD)-based validation with SGML tools and in order to avoid the quirks mode in browsers, HTML documents can start with a Document Type Declaration (informally, a "DOCTYPE"). The DTD to which the DOCTYPE refers contains machine-readable grammar specifying the permitted and prohibited content for a document conforming to such a DTD. Browsers do not necessarily read the DTD, however. The most popular graphical browsers use DOCTYPE declarations (or the lack thereof) and other data at the beginning of sources to determine which rendering mode to use. Document Type Definition (DTD), defined slightly differently within the XML and SGML (the language XML was derived from) specifications, is one of several SGML and XML schema languages, and is also the term used to describe a document or portion thereof that is authored in the DTD language. ... Quirks mode refers to a technique used by some web browsers to maintain backwards compatibility with web pages designed for older browsers. ... A Document Type Declaration, or DOCTYPE, associates a particular SGML or XML document with a Document Type Definition (DTD). ...


For example:

<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/strict.dtd">

This declaration references the Strict DTD of HTML 4.01, which does not have presentational elements like <font>, leaving formatting to Cascading Style Sheets and the span and div tags. SGML-based validators read the DTD in order to properly parse the document and to perform validation. In modern browsers, the HTML 4.01 Strict doctype activates standards layout mode for CSS as opposed to quirks mode. CSS redirects here. ... Quirks mode refers to a technique used by some web browsers to maintain backwards compatibility with web pages designed for older browsers. ...


In addition, HTML 4.01 provides Transitional and Frameset DTDs. The Transitional DTD was intended to gradually phase in the changes made in the Strict DTD, while the Frameset DTD was intended for those documents which contained frames.


Semantic HTML

There is no official specification called "Semantic HTML", though the strict flavors of HTML discussed below are a push in that direction. Rather, semantic HTML refers to an objective and a practice to create documents with HTML that contain only the author's intended meaning, without any reference to how this meaning is presented or conveyed. A classic example is the distinction between the emphasis element (<em>) and the italics element (<i>). Often the emphasis element is displayed in italics, so the presentation is typically the same. However, emphasizing something is different from listing the title of a book, for example, which may also be displayed in italics. In purely semantic HTML, a book title would use a different element than emphasized text uses (for example a <span>), because they are meaningfully different things.


The goal of semantic HTML requires two things of authors:

  1. To avoid the use of presentational markup (elements, attributes, and other entities).
  2. To use available markup to differentiate the meanings of phrases and structure in the document. So for example, the book title from above would need to have its own element and class specified, such as <cite class="booktitle">The Grapes of Wrath</cite>. Here, the <cite> element is used because it most closely matches the meaning of this phrase in the text. However, the <cite> element is not specific enough to this task, since we mean to cite specifically a book title as opposed to a newspaper article or an academic journal.

Semantic HTML also requires complementary specifications and software compliance with these specifications. Primarily, the development and proliferation of CSS has led to increasing support for semantic HTML, because CSS provides designers with a rich language to alter the presentation of semantic-only documents. With the development of CSS, the need to include presentational properties in a document has virtually disappeared. With the advent and refinement of CSS and the increasing support for it in Web browsers, subsequent editions of HTML increasingly stress only using markup that suggests the semantic structure and phrasing of the document, like headings, paragraphs, quotes, and lists, instead of using markup which is written for visual purposes only, like <font>, <b> (bold), and <i> (italics). Some of these elements are not permitted in certain varieties of HTML, like HTML 4.01 Strict. CSS provides a way to separate document semantics from the content's presentation, by keeping everything relevant to presentation defined in a CSS file. See separation of style and content. CSS redirects here. ... Separation of style and content, also known as Separation of presentation and content, is a methodology of web design in which the markup (i. ...


Semantic HTML offers many advantages. First, it ensures consistency in style across elements that have the same meaning. Every heading, every quotation, every similar element receives the same presentation properties.


Second, semantic HTML frees authors from the need to concern themselves with presentation details. When writing the number two, for example, should it be written out in words ("two"), or should it be written as a numeral (2)? A semantic markup might enter something like <number>2</number> and leave presentation details to the stylesheet designers. Similarly, an author might wonder where to break out quotations into separate indented blocks of text: with purely semantic HTML, such details would be left up to stylesheet designers. Authors would simply indicate quotations when they occur in the text, and not concern themselves with presentation.


A third advantage is device independence and repurposing of documents. A semantic HTML document can be paired with any number of stylesheets to provide output to computer screens (through Web browsers), high-resolution printers, handheld devices, aural browsers or braille devices for those with visual impairments, and so on. To accomplish this, nothing needs to be changed in a well-coded semantic HTML document. Readily available stylesheets make this a simple matter of pairing a semantic HTML document with the appropriate stylesheets. (Of course, the stylesheet's selectors need to match the appropriate properties in the HTML document.)


Some aspects of authoring documents make separating semantics from style (in other words, meaning from presentation) difficult. Some elements are hybrids, using presentation in their very meaning. For example, a table displays content in a tabular form. Often such content conveys the meaning only when presented in this way. Repurposing a table for an aural device typically involves somehow presenting the table as an inherently visual element in an audible form. On the other hand, we frequently present lyrical songs—something inherently meant for audible presentation—and instead present them in textual form on a Web page. For these types of elements, the meaning is not so easily separated from their presentation. However, for a great many of the elements used and meanings conveyed in HTML, the translation is relatively smooth.


Delivery of HTML

HTML documents can be delivered by the same means as any other computer file; however, they are most often delivered in one of two forms: over HTTP servers and through e-mail. HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ...


Publishing HTML with HTTP

The World Wide Web is composed primarily of HTML documents transmitted from a Web server to a Web browser using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). However, HTTP can be used to serve images, sound, and other content in addition to HTML. To allow the Web browser to know how to handle the document it received, an indication of the file format of the document must be transmitted along with the document. This vital metadata includes the MIME type (text/html for HTML 4.01 and earlier, application/xhtml+xml for XHTML 1.0 and later) and the character encoding (see Character encodings in HTML). The World Wide Web and WWW redirect here. ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on intranets and the World Wide Web. ... A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. ... Metadata is data about data. ... For mime as an art form, see mime artist. ... HTML has been in use since 1991, but HTML 4. ...


In modern browsers, the MIME type that is sent with the HTML document affects how the document is interpreted. A document sent with an XHTML MIME type, or served as application/xhtml+xml, is expected to be well-formed XML, and a syntax error causes the browser to fail to render the document. The same document sent with an HTML MIME type, or served as text/html, might be displayed successfully, since Web browsers are more lenient with HTML. However, XHTML parsed in this way is not considered either proper XHTML or HTML, but so-called tag soup. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... Tag soup is HTML code written without regard for the rules of HTML structure and semantics (HTML is the markup language which composes Web pages). ...


If the MIME type is not recognized as HTML, the Web browser should not attempt to render the document as HTML, even if the document is prefaced with a correct Document Type Declaration. Nevertheless, some Web browsers do examine the contents or URL of the document and attempt to infer the file type, despite this being forbidden by the HTTP 1.1 specification.


HTML e-mail

Main article: HTML e-mail

Most graphical e-mail clients allow the use of a subset of HTML (often ill-defined) to provide formatting and semantic markup capabilities not available with plain text, like emphasized text, block quotations for replies, and diagrams or mathematical formulas that could not easily be described otherwise. Many of these clients include both a GUI editor for composing HTML e-mail messages and a rendering engine for displaying received HTML messages. Use of HTML in e-mail is controversial because of compatibility issues, because it can be used in phishing/privacy attacks, because it can confuse spam filters, and because the message size is larger than plain text. HTML email is the use of a subset of HTML (often ill-defined) to provide formatting and semantic markup capabilities in email that are not available with plain text. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... W3Cs Semantic Web logo The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and... Computer files can be divided into two broad categories: binary and text. ... GUI can refer to the following: GUI is short for graphical user interface, a term used to describe a type of interface in computing. ... An example of a phishing email, disguised as an official email from a (fictional) bank. ... E-mail spam, also known as bulk e-mail or junk e-mail is a subset of spam that involves sending nearly identical messages to numerous recipients by e-mail. ...


Naming conventions

The most common filename extension for files containing HTML is .html. A common abbreviation of this is .htm; it originates from older operating systems and file systems, such as the DOS versions from the 80s and early 90s and FAT, which limit file extensions to three letters. Both forms are widely supported by browsers. A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate its type. ... This article is about computer files and file systems in general terms. ... This article is about the family of closely related operating systems for the IBM PC compatible platform. ... File Allocation Table (FAT) is a partially patented file system developed by Microsoft for MS-DOS and was the primary file system for consumer versions of Microsoft Windows up to and including Windows Me. ...


Current flavors of HTML

Since its inception, HTML and its associated protocols gained acceptance relatively quickly. However, no clear standards existed in the early years of the language. Though its creators originally conceived of HTML as a semantic language devoid of presentation details, practical uses pushed many presentational elements and attributes into the language, driven largely by the various browser vendors. The latest standards surrounding HTML reflect efforts to overcome the sometimes chaotic development of the language and to create a rational foundation for building both meaningful and well-presented documents. To return HTML to its role as a semantic language, the W3C has developed style languages such as CSS and XSL to shoulder the burden of presentation. In conjunction, the HTML specification has slowly reined in the presentational elements. WWWC redirects here. ... CSS redirects here. ... The eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is a family of transformation languages which allows one to describe how files encoded in the XML standard are to be formatted or transformed. ...


There are two axes differentiating various flavors of HTML as currently specified: SGML-based HTML versus XML-based HTML (referred to as XHTML) on the one axis, and strict versus transitional (loose) versus frameset on the other axis.


Traditional versus XML-based HTML

One difference in the latest HTML specifications lies in the distinction between the SGML-based specification and the XML-based specification. The XML-based specification is usually called XHTML to distinguish it clearly from the more traditional definition; however, the root element name continues to be 'html' even in the XHTML-specified HTML. The W3C intended XHTML 1.0 to be identical to HTML 4.01 except where limitations of XML over the more complex SGML require workarounds. Because XHTML and HTML are closely related, they are sometimes documented in parallel. In such circumstances, some authors conflate the two names as (X)HTML or X(HTML).[19]


Like HTML 4.01, XHTML 1.0 has three sub-specifications: strict, loose, and frameset.


Aside from the different opening declarations for a document, the differences between an HTML 4.01 and XHTML 1.0 document—in each of the corresponding DTDs—are largely syntactic. The underlying syntax of HTML allows many shortcuts that XHTML does not, such as elements with optional opening or closing tags, and even EMPTY elements which must not have an end tag. By contrast, XHTML requires all elements to have an opening tag or a closing tag. XHTML, however, also introduces a new shortcut: an XHTML tag may be opened and closed within the same tag, by including a slash before the end of the tag like this: <br/>. The introduction of this shorthand, which is not used in the SGML declaration for HTML 4.01, may confuse earlier software unfamiliar with this new convention.


To understand the subtle differences between HTML and XHTML, consider the transformation of a valid and well-formed XHTML 1.0 document that adheres to Appendix C (see below) into a valid HTML 4.01 document. To make this translation requires the following steps:

  1. The language for an element should be specified with a lang attribute rather than the XHTML xml:lang attribute. XHTML uses XML's built in language-defining functionality attribute.
  2. Remove the XML namespace (xmlns=URI). HTML has no facilities for namespaces.
  3. Change the document type declaration from XHTML 1.0 to HTML 4.01. (see DTD section for further explanation).
  4. If present, remove the XML declaration. (Typically this is: <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>).
  5. Ensure that the document’s MIME type is set to text/html. For both HTML and XHTML, this comes from the HTTP Content-Type header sent by the server.
  6. Change the XML empty-element syntax to an HTML style empty element (<br/> to <br>).

Those are the main changes necessary to translate a document from XHTML 1.0 to HTML 4.01. To translate from HTML to XHTML would also require the addition of any omitted opening or closing tags. Whether coding in HTML or XHTML it may just be best to always include the optional tags within an HTML document rather than remembering which tags can be omitted.


A well-formed XHTML document adheres to all the syntax requirements of XML. A valid document adheres to the content specification for XHTML, which describes the document structure.


The W3C recommends several conventions to ensure an easy migration between HTML and XHTML (see HTML Compatibility Guidelines). The following steps can be applied to XHTML 1.0 documents only:

  • Include both xml:lang and lang attributes on any elements assigning language.
  • Use the empty-element syntax only for elements specified as empty in HTML.
  • Include an extra space in empty-element tags: for example <br /> instead of <br/>.
  • Include explicit close tags for elements that permit content but are left empty (for example, <div></div>, not <div />).
  • Omit the XML declaration.

By carefully following the W3C’s compatibility guidelines, a user agent should be able to interpret the document equally as HTML or XHTML. For documents that are XHTML 1.0 and have been made compatible in this way, the W3C permits them to be served either as HTML (with a text/html MIME type), or as XHTML (with an application/xhtml+xml or application/xml MIME type). When delivered as XHTML, browsers should use an XML parser, which adheres strictly to the XML specifications for parsing the document's contents. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard for the format of e-mail. ...


Transitional versus Strict

The latest SGML-based specification HTML 4.01 and the earliest XHTML version include three sub-specifications: Strict, Transitional (once called Loose), and Frameset. The Strict variant represents the standard proper, whereas the Transitional and Frameset variants were developed to assist in the transition from earlier versions of HTML (including HTML 3.2). The Transitional and Frameset variants allow for presentational markup whereas the Strict variant encourages the use of style sheets through its omission of most presentational markup.


The primary differences which make the Transitional variant more permissive than the Strict variant (the differences as the same in HTML 4 and XHTML 1.0) are:

  • A looser content model
    • Inline elements and plain text (#PCDATA) are allowed directly in: body, blockquote, form, noscript and noframes
  • Presentation related elements
    • underline (u)
    • strike-through (s and strike)
    • center
    • font
    • basefont
  • Presentation related attributes
    • background and bgcolor attributes for body element.
    • align attribute on div, form, paragraph (p), and heading (h1...h6) elements
    • align, noshade, size, and width attributes on hr element
    • align, border, vspace, and hspace attributes on img and object elements
    • align attribute on legend and caption elements
    • align and bgcolor on table element
    • nowrap, bgcolor, width, height on td and th elements
    • bgcolor attribute on tr element
    • clear attribute on br element
    • compact attribute on dl, dir and menu elements
    • type, compact, and start attributes on ol and ul elements
    • type and value attributes on li element
    • width attribute on pre element
  • Additional elements in Transitional specification
    • menu list (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended; may return in XHTML 2.0 specification)
    • dir list (no substitute, though unordered list is recommended)
    • isindex (element requires server-side support and is typically added to documents server-side)
    • applet (deprecated in favor of object element)
  • The pre element does not allow: applet, font, and basefont (elements not defined in strict DTD)
  • The language attribute on script element (presumably redundant with type attribute, though this is maintained for legacy reasons).
  • Frame related entities
    • frameset element (used in place of body for frameset DTD)
    • frame element
    • iframe
    • noframes
    • target attribute on anchor, client-side image-map (imagemap), link, form, and base elements

Frameset versus transitional

In addition to the above transitional differences, the frameset specifications (whether XHTML 1.0 or HTML 4.01) specifies a different content model:

 <html> <head> Any of the various head related elements. </head> <frameset> <frame></frame> <noframes></noframes> </frameset> </html> 

Summary of flavors

As this list demonstrates, the loose flavors of the specification are maintained for legacy support. However, contrary to popular misconceptions, the move to XHTML does not imply a removal of this legacy support. Rather the X in XML stands for extensible and the W3C is modularizing the entire specification and opening it up to independent extensions. The primary achievement in the move from XHTML 1.0 to XHTML 1.1 is the modularization of the entire specification. The strict version of HTML is deployed in XHTML 1.1 through a set of modular extensions to the base XHTML 1.1 specification. Likewise someone looking for the loose (transitional) or frameset specifications will find similar extended XHTML 1.1 support (much of it is contained in the legacy or frame modules). The modularization also allows for separate features to develop on their own timetable. So for example XHTML 1.1 will allow quicker migration to emerging XML standards such as MathML (a presentational and semantic math language based on XML) and XForms — a new highly advanced web-form technology to replace the existing HTML forms. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. ... XForms is two things: 1. ...


In summary, the HTML 4.01 specification primarily reined in all the various HTML implementations into a single clear written specification based on SGML. XHTML 1.0, ported this specification, as is, to the new XML defined specification. Next, XHTML 1.1 takes advantage of the extensible nature of XML and modularizes the whole specification. XHTML 2.0 will be the first step in adding new features to the specification in a standards-body-based approach.


Hypertext features not in HTML

HTML lacks some of the features found in earlier hypertext systems, such as typed links, transclusion, source tracking, fat links, and more.[20] Even some hypertext features that were in early versions of HTML have been ignored by most popular web browsers until recently, such as the link element and in-browser Web page editing. A typed link in a hypertext system is a link to another document or part of a document that includes information about the character of the link. ... In computer science, some hypertext systems, including Ted Nelsons Xanadu Project, have the capability for documents to include sections of other documents by reference, called transclusion. ... Source tracking pertains to the ability of some hypertext systems to rigorously track the exact source of every document or partial document included in the system; that is, they remember who entered the information, when it was entered, when it was updated and by whom, and so on. ... A fat link is a hyperlink that directs the user to more than one page at a time. ... // A hyperlink, is a reference or navigation element in a document to another section of the same document or to another document that may be on a (different) website. ...


Sometimes Web services or browser manufacturers remedy these shortcomings. For instance, wikis and content management systems allow surfers to edit the Web pages they visit. Wiki wiki redirects here. ... A content management system (CMS) is a program used to create a framework for the content of a Web site. ...


See also

Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... The alt attribute is used in HTML and XHTML documents to specify text that is to be rendered when the element to which it is applied cannot be rendered. ... Breadcrumbs or breadcrumb trails is a navigation technique used in user interfaces. ... Sir Tim Berners-Lee Sir Tim (Timothy John) Berners-Lee, KBE (TimBL or TBL) (b. ... HTML has been in use since 1991, but HTML 4. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of document markup languages. ... This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... The following tables compare support of HTML 5 differences from HTML 4 for a number of web browsers. ... CSS redirects here. ... Dynamic HTML or DHTML is a collection of technologies used together to create interactive and animated web sites by using a combination of a static markup language (such as HTML), a client-side scripting language (such as JavaScript), a presentation definition language (Cascading Style Sheets, CSS), and the Document Object... HTML 5 is the fifth major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web, HTML. HTML 5 expressed in XML is called XHTML 5. ... An HTML editor is a software application for creating web pages. ... In computing, an HTML element indicates structure in an HTML document and a way of hierarchically arranging content. ... The W3C HTML standard includes support for client-side scripting. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Comparison of document markup languages. ... In SGML, HTML and XML documents, the logical constructs known as character data and attribute values consist of sequences of characters, in which each character can manifest directly (representing itself), or can be represented by a series of characters called a character reference, of which there are two types: a... Microformats are mark-up that allow expression of semantics in an HTML (or XHTML) web page. ... An example of parsing a mathematical expression. ... Web pages authored using hypertext markup language (HTML) may contain multilingual text represented with the Unicode universal character set. ... Web colors are colors used in designing web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group, or WHATWG, is a working group for developing new technologies designed to allow authors to write and deploy web applications more easily by extending existing Web technologies. ...

References

  1. ^ Tim Berners-Lee, "Information Management: A Proposal." CERN (March 1989, May 1990). http://www.w3.org/History/1989/proposal.html
  2. ^ HTML Tags. World Wide Web Consortium. Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  3. ^ First mention of HTML Tags on the www-talk mailing list. World Wide Web Consortium (1991-10-29). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  4. ^ Index of elements in HTML 4. World Wide Web Consortium (1999-12-24). Retrieved on 2007-04-08.
  5. ^ Tim Berners-Lee (1991-12-09). Re: SGML/HTML docs, X Browser (archived www-talk mailing list post). Retrieved on 2007-06-16. “SGML is very general. HTML is a specific application of the SGML basic syntax applied to hypertext documents with simple structure.”
  6. ^ a b Raymond, Eric. "IETF and the RFC Standards Process", The Art of Unix Programming. “In IETF tradition, standards have to arise from experience with a working prototype implementation — but once they become standards, code that does not conform to them is considered broken and mercilessly scrapped. …Internet-Drafts are not specifications, and software implementers and vendors are specifically barred from claiming compliance with them as if they were specifications. Internet-Drafts are focal points for discussion, usually in a working group… Once an Internet-Draft has been published with an RFC number, it is a specification to which implementers may claim conformance. It is expected that the authors of the RFC and the community at large will begin correcting the specification with field experience.” 
  7. ^ a b HTML+ Internet-Draft - Abstract. “Browser writers are experimenting with extensions to HTML and it is now appropriate to draw these ideas together into a revised document format. The new format is designed to allow a gradual roll over from HTML, adding features like tables, captioned figures and fill-out forms for querying remote databases or mailing questionnaires.”
  8. ^ RFC 1866: Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 - Acknowledgments. Internet Engineering Task Force (2005-09-22). Retrieved on 2007-06-16. “Since 1993, a wide variety of Internet participants have contributed to the evolution of HTML, which has included the addition of in-line images introduced by the NCSA Mosaic software for WWW. Dave Raggett played an important role in deriving the forms material from the HTML+ specification. Dan Connolly and Karen Olson Muldrow rewrote the HTML Specification in 1994. The document was then edited by the HTML working group as a whole, with updates being made by Eric Schieler, Mike Knezovich, and Eric W. Sink at Spyglass, Inc. Finally, Roy Fielding restructured the entire draft into its current form.”
  9. ^ RFC 1866: Hypertext Markup Language - 2.0 - Introduction. Internet Engineering Task Force (2005-09-22). Retrieved on 2007-06-16. “This document thus defines an HTML 2.0 (to distinguish it from the previous informal specifications). Future (generally upwardly compatible) versions of HTML with new features will be released with higher version numbers.”
  10. ^ HyperText Markup Language Specification Version 3.0. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  11. ^ Extensions to HTML 3.0. Netscape. “Netscape remains committed to supporting HTML 3.0. To that end, we've gone ahead and implemented several of the more stable proposals, in expectation that they will be approved. …In addition, we've also added several new areas of HTML functionality to Netscape Navigator that are not currently in the HTML 3.0 specification. We think they belong there, and as part of the standards process, we are proposing them for inclusion.”
  12. ^ a b Arnoud Engelfriet. Introduction to Wilbur. Web Design Group. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  13. ^ IETF HTML WG. Retrieved on 2007-06-16. “NOTE: This working group is closed”
  14. ^ www.w3.org/TR/html401/intro/sgmltut.html#h-3.2.2.
  15. ^ www.w3.org/TR/xhtml1/diffs.html#h-4.4.
  16. ^ www.cs.tut.fi/~jkorpela/qattr.html.
  17. ^ www.w3.org/History/19921103-hypertext/hypertext/WWW/MarkUp/Tags.html.
  18. ^ www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-html401-19991224/struct/objects.html#adef-ismap.
  19. ^ See e.g., XHTML#Relationship to HTML
  20. ^ Jakob Nielsen (2005-01-03). Reviving Advanced Hypertext. Retrieved on 2007-06-16.

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar. ... is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... Jakob Nielsen useit. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ...

HTML Markup Validators

Tutorials

Standard HTML specifications

Other specifications

  • Web Applications 1.0 A specification generally referred to as "HTML 5". The Web Hypertext Application Technology working group are an independent initiative who cooperate with the W3C.
WWWC redirects here. ... A W3C Recommendation is the final stage of a ratification process of the W3C working group concerning the standard. ... Compound Document Format (CDF) is an electronic document format proposed to overcome perceived shortcomings in the Open Document Format. ... The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard protocol for interfacing external application software with an information server, commonly a web server. ... CSS redirects here. ... Hierarchy of objects in an example HTML DOM - Document Object Model The Document Object Model (DOM) is a platform- and language-independent standard object model for representing HTML or XML and related formats. ... Mathematical Markup Language (MathML) is an application of XML for describing mathematical notations and capturing both its structure and content. ... The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a language for defining and instantiating Web ontologies. ... Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata model but which has come to be used as a general method of modeling information, through a variety of syntax formats. ... RDF Schema is a language for describing vocabularies in RDF. RDF Schema is a semantic extension of RDF. It provides mechanisms for describing groups of related resources and the relationships between these resources. ... Semantic Interpretation for Speech Recognition (SISR) defines the syntax and semantics of annotations to grammar rules in the Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (SRGS). ... SMIL (pronounced smile), the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language, is a W3C recommended XML markup language for describing multimedia presentations. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... Speech Recognition Grammar Specification (SRGS) is an W3C recommendation that defines syntax for representing grammars for use in speech recognition so that developers can specify the words and patterns of words to be listened for by a speech recognizer. ... Speech Synthesis Markup Language (SSML) is an XML-based markup language for speech synthesis applications. ... SVG redirects here. ... Timed Text refers to the presentation of text media in synchrony with other media, such as audio and video. ... VoiceXML (VXML) is the W3Cs standard XML format for specifying interactive voice dialogues between a human and a computer. ... WSDL redirects here. ... XACML stands for eXtensible Access Control Markup Language. ... XForms is two things: 1. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but also conforms to XML syntax. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... www. ... XML Information Set (Infoset) is a W3C recommendation. ... This article is about the W3Cs XML Schema language. ... XML Signature (also called XMLDsig) is a W3C recommendation that defines an XML syntax for digital signatures. ... XPath (XML Path Language) is an expression language for addressing portions of an XML document, or for computing values (strings, numbers, or boolean values) based on the content of an XML document. ... XPointer is a system for addressing components of XML based internet media. ... XQuery is a query language (with some programming language features) that is designed to query collections of XML data. ... Diagram of the basic elements and process flow of Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations. ... XSL Formatting Objects, or XSL-FO, is an XML markup language for document formatting which is most often used to generate PDFs. ... The eXtensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is a family of transformation languages which allows one to describe how files encoded in the XML standard are to be formatted or transformed. ... The XML Linking Language, or XLink, is an XML markup language used for creating hyperlinks within XML documents. ... XHTML+SMIL is a W3C Note that describes an integration of SMIL semantics with XHTML and CSS. It is based generally upon the HTML+TIME submission. ... Call Control eXtensible Markup Language (CCXML) is an XML standard designed to provide telephony support to VXML. Where as VXML is designed to provide a VUI interface to a voice browser, CCXML is designed to inform the voice browser how to handle the telephony control of the voice channel. ... The curie (symbol Ci) is a former unit of radioactivity, defined as 3. ... InkML is a format to describe ink data input with an electronic pen or stylus. ... XFrames is an XML application being developed by the W3C for combining multiple documents together. ... Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL) is a class of the Extensible Markup Language (XML) specified in World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) NOTE-XFDL-19980902, Extensible Forms Description Language (XFDL) 4. ... Web Integration Compound Document (WICD) is a W3C standard, based on the idea of integrating existing markup language formats in preference to inventing new markup. ... XHTML+MathML+SVG is a W3C Working Draft that describes an integration of MathML and SVG semantics with XHTML and CSS. W3C Working Draft Category: ... XBL or eXtensible Bindings Language is used to declare the behavior and look of XUL widgets and XML elements. ... HTML 5 is the fifth major revision of the core language of the World Wide Web, HTML. HTML 5 expressed in XML is called XHTML 5. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
HTML - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5112 words)
HTML's successor, XHTML, is a separate language that began as a reformulation of HTML 4.01 using XML 1.0.
HTML 3.1 was never officially proposed, and the next standard proposal was HTML 3.2 (code-named "Wilbur"), which dropped the majority of the new features in HTML 3.0 and instead adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes which had been created for the Netscape and Mosaic web browsers.
HTML 4.0 likewise adopted many browser-specific element types and attributes, but at the same time began to try to "clean up" the standard by marking some of them as deprecated, and suggesting they not be used.
Composing Good HTML 3.0 (1 of 4) (3186 words)
HTML will let you describe this piece of information as a header, or that piece of information as an address.
HTML 2.0 is the closest thing to current practice that is available, and can be assumed to be "safe" for all browsers.
Also, one version of the HTML specification declares that "a heading element implies all the font changes, paragraph breaks before and after, and white space (for example) necessary to render the heading".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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