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Encyclopedia > HMS Scarborough

HMS Scarborough was a Royal Navy sloop of the Hastings class launched in 1930. She saw active service during World War Two, especially as a convoy escort in the North Atlantic. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... USS Constellation, a United States Navy sloop-of-war. ... German soldiers at the Battle of Stalingrad World War II was the most extensive and costly armed conflict in the history of the world, involving the great majority of the worlds nations, being fought simultaneously in several major theatres, and costing tens of millions of lives. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles or ships traveling together for mutual support. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ...

Contents


Particulars


Scarborough displaced 1,045 tons standard and was 266 ft 4 in (81 m) long, 34 ft 1 in (10.4 m) wide and drew 12 ft 6 in (3.8 m) of water. Her 2 shaft Parsons geared turbines developed 2,000 shp (1.5 MW) to give Scarborough a top speed of 16.5 knots (31 km/h). She carried 312 tons of oil when full. A knot is a non SI unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour. ...


She was built at the Swan Hunter shipyard in north east England. Scarborough was a fine looking ship, with a single funnel just behind the main mast. During her peacetime cruises she was painted white. Swan Hunter, formerly known as Swan Hunter & Wigham Richardson, is one of the best known shipbuilding companies in the United Kingdom. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Ethnicity...


Pre War


From 1931 onwards , Scarborough was part of the North America and West Indies Squadron stationed at Bermuda. The famous World War One hero, Augustus Agar V.C., was her captain in the early thirties. Peacetime duties included showing the flag, especially in smaller ports of the Empire, those unlikely to be visited by large warships. 1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Photo submitted by Simon Manchee Augustus Willington Shelton Agar VC DSO was an Irish recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... Victoria Cross, Source: Veterans Affairs Canada The Victoria Cross (official post-nominal letters VC) is the highest award for valour that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces of any rank in any service and civilians under military command. ...


In the summer of 1931 she was in Newfoundland, then a British colony, sometimes acting as a yacht to take the Governor around to visit smaller ports. She was on this duty again in 1933 and in 1934 took British Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald and his daughter up the west coast of Newfoundland to visit the Grenfell Mission at St. Anthony. Newfoundland (French: Terre-Neuve; Irish: Talamh an Éisc; Latin: Terra Nova) is a large island off the north-east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... A prime minister may be either: the chief or leading member of the cabinet of the top-level government in a country having a parliamentary system of government; or the official, in countries with a semi-presidential system of government, appointed to manage the civil service and execute the directives... James Ramsay MacDonald (October 12, 1866 – November 9, 1937), British politician, was twice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Saint Anthony may be: Saints Anthony the Great (251-356) Anthony of Padua (also of Lisbon) (1195-1231) Place names United Kingdom: St. ...


While a part of the North America and West Indies Squadron in 1933 she visited Prince Edward Island in Canada. There, her then captain, Commander Cornwallis, his officers and petty officers were entertained by Senator Creelman MacArthur at his summer home on Foxley River. Motto: Parva Sub Ingenti (The small under the protection of the great) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Charlottetown Largest city Charlottetown Lieutenant Governor J. Léonce Bernard Premier Pat Binns (PC) Area 5,660 km² (13th)  - Land 5,660 km²  - Water 0 km² (0%) Population (2004)  - Population 137,900... Commander is a military rank used in many navies but not generally in armies or air forces. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...


War time modifications

Scarborough was disarmed and used as a survey ship in 1938/39, but at the outbreak of the war in September, 1939, she was rearmed with 1 x 4 inch (102 mm) Quick Fire high angle gun, suitable against either surface or air targets. During late 1941 and 1942, she carried a 12 pounder (5 kg) high angle Quick Fire anti aircraft gun and gradually a number of 20 mm antiaircraft guns were added. 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article is about the year. ...


For anti submarine work, Scarborough was given 15 depth charges in 1939, later increased to 40 then 80. USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ...


She carried a crew of 100 men.


Convoy escort in World War Two

Scarborough was most suited in wartime as a convoy escort and was early assigned to this role. Britain was short of suitable ships, especially after Italy entered the war in June 1940 and destroyers had to be sent to the Mediterranean. 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The Massacre of Convoy SC 7

HMS Scarborough was sole naval escort for the first three quarters of the journey for the slow convoy SC7 which left Sydney, Nova Scotia on October 4, 1940 bound for Liverpool and other British ports. The convoy was supposed to make 8 knots, but a number of its 35 merchant ships were much slower than this. Tactics were rudimentary at this stage of the war, and in any event it is difficult to see what tactics would have helped a single rather slow and weak ship trying to protect 35 even slower targets from a pack of submarines. There was no aircraft protection in 1940 for Allied ships in the Atlantic Ocean after leaving coastal regions. Many of the merchant ship captains would have preferred to take their chances on their own rather than risk such a slow crossing with a weak escort. They were resentful and often uncooperative. At one point early in the voyage Scarborough's captain was shocked to find a Greek merchant ship in the convoy travelling at night with her lights on. Sydney, Nove Scotia, on Cape Breton Island Sydney is a former city in Nova Scotia, Canada located on its namesake harbour. ... Liverpools skyline, as seen from the River Mersey. ... In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ...


Scarborough would have had no chance against a surface attack by a German battlecruiser.


October, 1940 was a particularly desperate time in the war. Hitler had conquered Poland, Norway, Denmark, the Low Countries and France. The British army lost much of its equipment during the evacuation of Dunkirk just four months before. Italian armies had invaded Egypt and the Italian Navy and Air Force closed the Mediterranean to British shipping, forcing trade to go all the way around South Africa, tying up scarce merchant ships. The Battle of Britain was raging with nonstop bombing of England's cities. German troops were poised to invade Britain. Britain badly needed the contents of every cargo ship to bring munitions, weapons, ores, oil and food to keep the country in the war and repel an invasion. Churchill was personally tracking each convoy at this point in the war. Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, India and the colonies were Britain's only significant allies. The Low Countries are the countries on low-lying land around the delta of the Rhine and Meuse rivers— usually used in modern context to mean the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg (an alternate modern term, more often used today, is Benelux). ... Evacuation can have several meanings: In wilderness first aid, evacuation is the transport of a seriously injured person out of the wilderness to the nearest point an ambulance can reach to take them to the hospital, or to the nearest emergency room. ... Dunkirk is the English name for the city of Dunkerque in northern France: see Dunkirk, France. ... A major campaign of World War II, the Battle of Britain is the name for the attempt by Germanys Luftwaffe to gain air superiority of British airspace and destroy the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


Convoy SC7 consisted of older, smaller ships, mostly with essential cargoes of bulk goods. Much of the freight on these ships originated on Canada's east coast, especially from points to the north and east of Sydney. Typical cargoes included pit props from eastern New Brunswick for the British coal mines, lumber, pulpwood, grain from the Great Lakes ports, steel and steel ingots from the Sydney plant, and iron ore from Newfoundland bound for the huge steel plants of Wales. There was one 9,512 ton oil tanker, SS Languedoc, belonging to the British Admiralty, the largest ship in the convoy. She was bound for the Clyde with fuel for the Royal Navy. One ship, the British SS Empire Brigand, carried a very valuable cargo of trucks. Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope was restored) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Bernard Lord (PC) Area 72,908 km² (8th)  - Land 71,450 km²  - Water 1,458 km² (2. ... The Great Lakes from space The Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes on or near the United States-Canadian border. ... National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English(100%), Welsh(20. ... For the international law of the sea, see Admiralty law. ... Clyde may refer to the following: the River Clyde and Firth of Clyde in Scotland. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ...


Many of the ships were British, but the convoy also included Greek, Swedish, Norwegian and Dutch vessels. The convoy commodore, Vice Admiral L. D. I. Mackinnon, a retired officer who volunteered for this civilian duty, sailed in the SS Assyrian, a British ship of 2,962 tons. Commodore has several meanings: Commodore International is a computer company Commodore 64 and Amiga were home computers Commodore (rank) is a naval rank Commodore (yacht club) is the senior officer of a yacht club The Holden Commodore is a type of car The Opel Commodore is a type of car...


Against this backdrop convoy SC7 set sail.


For the first days all was quiet, but as the convoy entered the western appraoches on October 16th, 1940, seven U-boats launched a coordinated attack. They were U 38, U 46, U 48, U 99, U 100, U101 and U 123. U 99 was captained by the famous ace, Otto Kretschmer. The attack was coordinated from Germany by Admiral Karl Doenitz and his staff. October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz Karl Dönitz (September 16, 1891—December 24, 1980) was a naval leader in Nazi Germany during World War II. Despite never joining the Nazi Party, Dönitz attained the high rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) and served as Commander in Chief of Submarines (Oberbefehlshaber der Unterseeboote), and...


First to go down on the 16th was a straggler, the SS Trevisa, a small Canadian vessel of 1,813 tons with a cargo of lumber destined for Scotland. Then a nightmare developed. Scotland (Alba in Scottish Gaelic) is a country in northwest Europe, occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain. ...


SC7 was just the second convoy to be attacked by wolf packs, groups of German U-boats making coordinated attacks. There was little that Scarborough could do, even when reinforced from Britain the next day, October 17, by the sloop HMS Fowey and the new corvette, HMS Bluebell. The escort ships stayed behind from time to time to rescue drowning sailors, leaving the other ships unescorted. Later small specialized rescue ships were added to convoys so that the escorts could concentrate on defending the convoy. Perhaps it was a bad decision to stop for rescue work, but those saved were certainly grateful. This article describes the system of submarine warfare. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... October 17 is the 290th (in leap years the 291st) day of the year according to the Gregorian calendar. ... For the automobile, see Chevrolet Corvette. ... Two ships of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Bluebell, after the bluebell flower. ...


On the 17th the U-boats sank three more ships including the navy tanker SS Languedoc.


The 18th was worse with seven ships torpedoed and sunk including the iron ore ship, SS Creekirk, bound for Cardiff, Wales. With her heavy cargo, she sank like a stone, taking all 36 crew members with her. During the day the escort was augmented from Britain by the sloop, HMS Leith, and the corvette, HMS Heartsease. Cardiff (Welsh: Caerdydd, from caer, fort, and dydd, Aulus Didius) is the capital and largest city of Wales. ...


October 19, 1940 was the blackest day of all with the wolf packs sinking nine ships, including the SS Empire Brigand with her cargo of trucks. She went down with six of her crew. Also casualties were the commodore's ship, SS Assyrian, down with 17 crew (though Admiral Mackinnon was rescued), and the SS Fiscus with its cargo of steel ingots from Sydney. She sank like a stone as well, taking with her 38 of her 39 man crew. October 19 is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Commodore has several meanings: Commodore International is a computer company Commodore 64 and Amiga were home computers Commodore (rank) is a naval rank Commodore (yacht club) is the senior officer of a yacht club The Holden Commodore is a type of car The Opel Commodore is a type of car...


The convoy lost 20 ships out of 35, of which seven fell to Kretschmer's U-99. The total tonnage lost was 79,5932 tons.


The arrival in the vicinity of convoy HX 79 diverted the submarines and they went on to sink 14 ships here, making a total of 34 ships in 48 hours.


No U-boats were lost.


Later Convoy Work

As the war progressed British antisubmarine tactics and equipment improved and more ships and reconnaisance aircraft were deployed.


On April 5, 1941, Scarborough in company with the destroyer HMS Wolverine sank the German submarine, U 76 with depth charges south of Iceland. Only one of the submarine's crew was lost, the other 42 surviving. April 5 is the 95th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (96th in leap years). ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and manouverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... Two ships of the Royal Navy have been named HMS Wolverine after the wolverine: Wolverine, launched in 1910, was a Beagle-class destroyer. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ...


Also in the spring of 1941, Scarborough intercepted and sank two German-manned ex-Norwegian whalers. These were captured by the German auxiliary cruiser Pinguin in the South Atlantic and were being sent to German occupied Bordeaux with their valuable cargo of whale oil. The Star XIX was of 360 tons displacement and the Star XXIV was of 250 tons displacement. The crew of the oceanographic research vessel Princesse Alice, of Albert Grimaldi (later Prince Albert I of Monaco) pose while flensing a catch Whaling is the hunting and killing of whales. ... Auxiliary cruisers were merchant ships taken over for conversion into a vessel armed with cruiser-size guns, and employed either for convoy protection against true cruisers, or for commerce-raiding missions, where its appearance was used to trick merchant ships into approaching. ... For other uses, see Atlantic (disambiguation) The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of its surface. ... City motto: Lilia sola regunt lunam undas castra leonem. ...


On February 7th, 1943, The Scarborough was part of the escort of Convoy MJS-7 when three of its merchant ships hit mines west of Gibraltar that had been laid by a German submarine on February 1 and 2, 1943. The Emperor Mordred sank taking 12 crew and 3 gunners down with her, but HMS Scarborough rescued the master, 41 crew and 13 gunners. She landed them safely in Liverpool. Liverpools skyline, as seen from the River Mersey. ...


D Day

During the landings in Normandy on D Day in June 1944, Scarborough was assigned to follow closely behind British minesweepers making a path through the German minefields near the coast of Normandy. She dropped buoys to mark a clear path for the assault convoys. Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... Battle plans for the Normandy Invasion — the best-known D-Day In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... The computer game Minesweeper. ... Normandy is a geographical region in northern France. ... A seal on a buoy in San Diego Harbor A buoy is a stationary floating device that can have various purposes: sea mark - aids pilotage by marking a maritime channel, hazard and administrative area to allow boats and ships to navigate safely. ...


Finis

Scarborough was sold for break up in 1949. 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ...


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